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Building on Irrigation Flow Meter Fundamentals
Spring 2018 Water Seminar Series, 'Williams Lecture'
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Can everybody hear me alright?
It's really an honor to be invited back here
to my alma mater, to speak on not only what I studied here,
what I've been doing in my career for the last 20+ years.
And Dean being introduced by
one of my favorite professors while I was here,
makes it even more special.
So, thank you.
Before I get started, I've got a confession to make.
If I'd been asked to do this probably 15 years ago,
I'm not sure what my topic would have been,
but it would have been much different.
Because back then I wasn't as much of a flow meter advocate,
and I have to tell you, the experiences that I had
in my previous job, at the Natural Resource District
as a Water Resource Manager, that shaped a lot
of the opinions and backup the facts
that I'm gonna go over today.
The few things I'm going to cover today:
I wanna talk a little bit in the beginning,
about using the flow meter as a management tool;
and then we'll go into talking about a new product,
a newer product from McCrometer called FlowConnect,
which generates remote flow data,
for irrigation and water resources management.
And finally, I'll end up with talking about a few projects
that I've worked with, some water districts
here in Nebraska.
Which start off, and ask you to indulge me a little bit
on a story, I have to tell you about.
About six years ago I had the opportunity
to travel down to New Orleans, for a groundwater conference.
A lot of you are probably familiar with GMDA,
Groundwater Management Districts Association.
The first day of the conference, was a tour
around New Orleans, of several flood control structures
that were being built by the Core of Engineers,
in the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina.
And this was one of our stops, and this was basically
a damn that was being built at the bottom,
or the mouth of the levee, between it and a lake.
And I can't remember which lake it was, forgive me.
But basically this was to prevent storm surge
from being pushed out of the lake back up the levee,
and flooding the town.
So it was a pretty important structure.
Now when I'm standing up on the observation deck,
I look down and I see water spilling out of this pipe.
And to just tell you what a water geek I am,
I'm looking at that thinking, what is that
about five or six hundred gallons a minute?
Then I looked a little closer, and I realized,
hey, that's a blue tube.
There's a McCrometer Meter down there,
and I gotta run down there and take a picture.
I went down the observation deck, and I started setting off
across the construction site.
And the foreman runs up to me,
and he's waving his hands saying, "Hey you can't be here.
"This is a hard hat area, you need steel-toed boots".
And I turn to him and I said, "Hey, it's alright,
"I work for the company that makes these meters.
"I just wanna take a picture".
His demeanor just changed 180 degrees instantly,
and he said, "Oh, I love these meters.
"I read 'em twice a day".
He said, "I can't do my work without these meters".
And he went on to explain to me
that, you know, they're basically working in a...
Their excavation is submerged,
because that water's constantly seeping in,
and they're constantly de-watering the excavation,
just so they can do their work.
And then he said those five words, that I'll never forget.
He said, "You gotta know the flow".
And you know, basically, he went on to explain that
if the pump isn't moving enough water,
then the excavation fills in with water,
they can't do their work.
So he's using the pump, or using the meter as an indication,
to let him know if something's wrong with his pump.
Because If they're not moving enough water,
then they can't do their work.
So you gotta know the flow.
That's five words, right?
There's probably not to many English majors here
to correct me.
That's when I realized, that it's the same,
whether it's a construction site down in New Orleans,
or a cornfield here in Nebraska, or an almond orchard
out in California, the same is true.
You gotta know the flow.
Now I wanna throw out, I little bit,
maybe a radical idea here.
That basically flow meters should be used for
irrigation water management, before we get to regulation.
And I'll tell you guys what I tell every NRD Water Manager,
every Groundwater District Manager,
every State DWR employee.
We don't make regulatory devices at McCrometer.
We make water measurement and water management devices.
And if there's one idea, that I want you to leave with today
is the fact that water conservation starts with the meter.
And I got a few ideas, a few thoughts of my own,
that I put together here, to back that up,
situations where you can use the flow meter
as a management tool.
First of all, evaluating irrigation efficiency.
QT = AD, one of the most useful equations I learned
from Dean's Irrigation Systems Management class.
Basically, the flow rate of the water source,
times the time, equals the depth of water that covers
a given area.
A very useful equation, very simple equation.
If you know any three, you can solve for the fourth.
And a lot of times, area's fixed,
depth is possibly something that is desired,
you can put in the application time of something,
that you can measure, or again, you can put in a desired,
But flow, a lot of times is elusive.
A lot of times it's estimated, or an assumption.
So again, I'd say if you're gonna go to the trouble
making this calculation, again, you gotta know the flow.
Improving irrigation system evaluations.
Set times, mostly with, in this case, it's mostly with
If you want to improve your irrigation efficiency,
a lot of times you improve that advance time, or
speed up that advance time, to get that
water across the field.
By reducing the time, you reduce the overall application,
you can improve irrigation efficiency.
It goes right along with that previous,
Nozzle packages, drip systems,
any of these types of matters need, or their designed
for a specific flow rate.
So again, if you don't have the flow rate,
these aren't gonna function as properly,
your uniformity across the field is going to suffer.
Again, you gotta know the flow.
Pump Plant Performance.
Just like that guy down in New Orleans, he's using the meter
to check his pump, to make sure that the pump
is functioning correctly.
If you don't have a meter, you don't know if your pump
is operating correctly.
The irrigation well itself.
Maybe you got an old steel,
an old steel well casing, that could be corroded,
possibly ready to cave in.
If it's plugged up, and the well isn't yielding the water
that it should, again, you may not know
unless you have a flow meter there.
So again, you gotta know the flow.
Water Use reporting, Power Coeifficients.
This reminds me of back when I was at the NRD,
I think it was about 2004.
We were just getting ready to implement
our mandatory meter regulations.
At the time, at a
public meeting, had a farmer say,
"I've already got a meter on my well.
"It's an electric meter, and it runs
"every time the pivot runs".
And that's a valid way of getting a good estimate
of how much water your applying, but it requires
a good pump plant efficiency test on that pump,
to derive a power coefficient.
Basically, you use a power coefficient
to convert kilowatt hours into hours of running time.
But if you don't have a good flow rate,
what do you take that running time?
You take that running time times something.
You need a good flow rate.
And if you don't have,
if you don't have a good efficiency test,
a good coefficient, you're just gonna overestimate.
And why would you wanna overestimate your water application?
And finally, economics.
Basically, every time the farmer pushes that button
to turn the system on, it's costing him money.
And why wouldn't you want a good idea, of how much money
that acreage of water costs you to go on the field?
So again, you gotta know the flow.
So I'd like to go into
an introduction on FlowConnect,
which is a newer product from McCrometer.
I did bring some literature, and a demo in back,
afterwards, in case you're interested.
But I wanna go through
a brief product overview,
talk about some of the water management objectives
that any water manager may go through,
the considerations that they may have.
And some of the uses that they need
good irrigation water,
irrigation water flow data, for their job.
And we'll talk a little bit about FlowConnect as a solution,
and then some of the features and benefits
of the product.
Basically, what McCrometer has done with FlowConnect
is integrate all of the equipment that you need
into the head of the meter.
So everything, with what you see right here,
in this enclosure at the head of the meter,
contains the telemetry equipment that's needed
to read that meter, either by cellular
or satellite communications,
and deliver that data reliably and frequently
to the water resources manager,
for irrigation water management.
Okay, I wanna go through...
I'd like to go through few of these
water management objectives, that again,
a water resource manager may encounter through their job.
Billing and Accounting.
There are a lot of Water Resource Districts
that are in existence
just to deliver water to their patrons.
Not real common in Nebraska, this is more
of a municipal style of water district.
We see a lot of these out in California.
But for billing and accounting, quantifying the water use,
ensuring billing accuracy, timely reports,
these are all important things for a district
that delvers water, and then has to bill off of that,
off of that volume that they deliver to a given water user.
And then integrating that water use data
back into the office, just so they can use it there.
Very important for that type of application.
Water conservation, of course, is a
very important use of
water flow data.
If you're going to affect water conservation,
you want to engage with your cooperators, your water users.
And the best way to do that,
is sharing information with them,
sharing information on their accurate water use data,
and providing the tools for water use efficiency.
Again, going back to that calculation, of how much water
did you actually apply.
And if you're gonna affect management,
what changes are you going to do,
to improve irrigation water use efficiency?
And of course, transfer of technology is the best way
to achieve a lot of those goals.
Regulations and Allocations.
Of course like, a lot of districts are in existence,
where they have an allocation for either groundwater
or surface water.
And that district has to meet those allocations,
either requirements put on the state,
or by that local district.
Maybe to balance upstream and downstream water rates.
Again, that allocation could be for
distributing surface water or groundwater equitably,
and keeping the water user up to date on
where they're at on their allocation.
I talk to a lot of districts, some here in Nebraska,
some of the NRD's that have allocations.
They talk about how they're constantly getting phone calls
from the farmer, to find out where he's at
on this allocation.
He says, "This is my meter reading, can you tell me
"how much water I've got left".
So there's a challenge there.
How do you get that data to the farmer, so that he can make
the management decisions, to use the water for the best,
the best possible way?
And finally, planning and development.
This is more on the district level for
basin-wide planning, or
regional planning sources.
The district needs to get,
needs to get good data on the quantity
and the timing of use.
And they may want to, they may need to optimize water use,
in times of shortage, or develop trends based on
factors like irrigation type, crop type, soils.
And also integrate this with other data,
like water level data, precipitation,
or other weather factors.
Again, how does that district pull all the data together,
for management on a basin-wide level?
And operations and metering.
This is your basic,
basic surface water district application,
where the surface water district diverts out of the river
into a canal or pipeline.
And they have to deliver to the farmer
where it's often metered at the end.
And they have to deliver a specific flow rate.
And maybe they even bill off of that,
that quantity that they have delivered.
So how do they minimize meter breakdowns?
How do they allocate back,
focus staff resources?
And how do they use what they,
the data where they deliver to this farmer,
to equitably deliver water to other users
within the district?
So again, some of the challenges that they face.
And some of the challenges
associated with typical data collection.
Volunteer reporting, this could be a post card.
I understand they do this down in Kansas.
At the end of the year, the DWR sends out a post card,
the farmer fills it out, sends it back in.
And that's how they, how they determine whether
he is within his allocation, or not.
It's typically annual, typically manual data entry,
so it's very labor intensive.
Manual reading by staff, of course the district staff
has to go out and physically read the meter.
Which again, is typically only annually, maybe monthly.
And again, manual data entry is required.
Some districts have drive-by systems.
I've heard of some districts out in California have these.
My house meter in Aurora,
is read by one of these.
Less labor intensive, but the staff still has to go out
and drive by that particular house.
And of course, at least this way,
you reduce some data entry effects, but
they still have to go out and physically drive by the site.
And then you have traditional telemetry,
excuse me, traditional telemetry systems,
where you can get good frequent data,
but it still requires a maintenance of several components.
And I'll show you some picture of some of these here,
in a little bit.
Going along with those challenges, a lot of times
it's time consuming with being manually read and data entry.
Of course, that's where human error gets introduced.
It could be irregular or inconsistent.
Maybe the district intends to get out and read the meters
every month, but it turns into every two months,
maybe it's every year.
And you can have inaccurate data, infrequent intervals,
and of course, it's expensive.
It's expensive to send a staff member out and
physically read the meter.
And then you also have vehicle wear-and-tear,
and fuel expense.
So some of the challenges that districts face,
with regular data collection.
The solution that McCrometer has come up with,
with FlowConnect, is essentially a,
water specialties or McCrometer meter can be equipped
with FlowConnect, which uses satellite
or cellular communications,
which collects the data from the meter,
and delivers it to a secure McCrometer webserver,
which serves that out to the water user,
by PC going to the web,
or going to their mobile device.
It can also use
a customer database.
We can also setup a computer link, for those
that are good with programming language,
can setup a database link to a
custom consumer database that already exists.
And this is something I'm talking to some districts
right here in Nebraska about, right now.
Some of the features and benefits of a system like this.
With a mechanical register, the nice thing
about FlowConnect is with a...
This is sort of a snapshot of a
part of a traditional telemetry system.
A lot of times you'll see a transmitter
installed on the meter, and a cable coming off
of that transmitter going to an external RTU,
mounted on the pole.
But we've eliminated that cable.
And in this case, if any of you have worked
with equipment like that, you know that cables
introduce noise to a system.
A lot of times, if it's near
a VFD or other type of electrical disturbance,
it can introduce noise, which can create false pulses, and
hinder your data.
So we've eliminated that cable,
to eliminate that external noise.
And the other thing with a pulse generator,
a lot of you may be familiar with this,
data loggers, pulse counters,
to a device like that, a pulse is a pulse.
So if you have forward flow, or backward flow
through a meter, a pulse is a pulse,
it can't tell the forward or reverse flow because from that.
But with FlowConnect, we've integrated the technology
so that it recognize, so that the telemetry itself
recognizes the forward flow, from the backward flow.
And it can subtract out the backward flow,
or at least not count it as a positive,
positive towards the totalization.
That's with the mechanical register.
One of the benefits with the digital register,
is what we call ExactRead technology.
You may be familiar, every McCrometer meter
or water specialties meter, you can build with
a digital register.
Which has some benefits, like the ability to do
a remote mount register.
In this case, the real advantage with FlowConnect is,
with the digital register, you're transmitting
the actual totalizer number.
You're not transmitting pulses,
a pulse that's correlated with a volume.
You're transmitting the exact totalizer number.
And what that ensures, is that the totalizer reading
that you see on the website, matches the meter exactly.
And you might think, that's not that big of a deal, but
I've seen some cases, Colorado for example,
they have that requirement for telemetry systems in meters,
that basically 100% accuracy,
what's on the meter has to match the website.
It's something that's been a challenge to me,
as long as I've been in this business.
And I'm excited now that we have that to offer, and it's,
it's something I'm looking forward to using there,
in the state of Colorado.
But other states have that, as well.
Streamlined design, again I mentioned,
basically, what you see here, is everything you need
to read that meter remotely.
No external cables,
no pole to mount an external RTU,
and a solar panel, and again, no cable to connect it all.
All of that external equipment is gone,
so it's a much more streamlined installation.
The enclosure on the meter is an IP67 rated
water-resistant rating, so it's a very durable enclosure,
and withstands a wide range of temperatures.
So any of those water management objectives
that you're faced with, whichever position you're in
as a water manager, FlowConnect enables regular
and reliable data to be delivered
to the water resource managers, and to the water users,
with far less, far less labor.
Reporting intervals can be down to 15 minutes.
typically with the standard installation,
it's usually once or twice a day,
but we can get down to every 15 minute data.
And it's easy to retrieve the data,
again from your, from a PC, or a mobile device.
And very simple installation.
Since it's a once piece design, it installs just like
a standard flow meter, again, with no external parts,
cables, poles, anything like that.
It can be preassembled, on a brand new meter,
from the factory, or it can be retrofitted
on existing meters in less than 30 minutes.
And just a little summary again, on those benefits.
ExactRead technology enables the meter to match
the website exactly.
Much more affordable design,
compared to traditional telemetry systems.
Frequent data, and again, available on
new meters, and you can retrofit existing meters.
I just wanna tell you a little bit about
some of the configurations that are available.
Like I mentioned, it can be,
FlowConnect is available on any of our
McCrometer or water specialties meters.
The register can be digital or mechanical.
And the communications are satellite or cellular.
And with cellular, we have options for AT&T,
T-Mobile, or Verizon.
So quite a few options there.
Power can be battery-only,
which is an internal lithium battery.
Or it can be a rechargeable battery, which in that case,
needs a solar panel.
So you would have external parts there.
And one thing I didn't mention yet, we can take inputs.
We can take a minimal amount of inputs,
from some other sensors, like a rain gauge,
or a pressure sensor, or both.
Pressure sensor, either you can tap the pipes,
so that you're reading pipeline pressure,
or we can even hook up a pressure transducer,
to measure water level down a well.
We did that with one of our beta sites, out in California.
We do have outputs, like a digital pulse,
or a four to 20 milliamp output.
Say the farmer wants to send a pulse into his pivot panel.
Even though he has FlowConnect, we can do that,
with a digital register, and a pulse output.
And we do have some other options, like a remote mount.
Say you have the meter in a pit, and you want to bring,
bring the register up to eye level.
You can do that with a digital register, and a remote mount.
Extension, antenna options, and solar, or even AC power,
if you have AC power at the meter.
Going on from that, I'd like to
tell you about a few applications that have been made with,
with some projects that I've done with a couple of districts
right here in Nebraska.
One being the Central Nebraska Public Power
and Irrigation District, over in Holdrege,
and the Upper Republican NRD, in Imperial.
With both of these projects, we had one telemetry platform.
And what I think is interesting here, is the district
was able to receive valuable information,
or valuable water use data on the district level,
and the farmer was also able to receive valuable information
for on-farm water management.
One telemetry platform, two different uses.
the project out in Central, a few years ago
I sat down with Marcia Tromkey, again another one
of Dean's alumni here, another Water Science alumni.
We sat down and we wrote a grant application
to the Nebraskan Environmental Trust, for a radio network,
where the plan was to install 86 sites,
at 86 meters, put telemetry on 86 meters over three years.
And we did this with long-range radios,
from a sister company, to McCrometer,
and we also put some weather stations out
to do what we called ET Indexing.
And I'll explain that in a little bit here.
I've got a picture of the project site.
This red dot up here at the North end,
is a radio tower, where the district has a,
has a structure already there, with a radio tower.
Which is nice, because with a radio system,
height is your friend, so it's looking down on this valley,
where we had radios installed at all of these blue dots,
throughout the watershed.
And these red arrows are a hypothetical path
for all of the radio transmissions.
This gives you an idea of what the density was
in that particular area, and
86 sites were reinstalled with the telemetry equipment.
And this structure up here at the North end,
is where there was an antenna, that collected
all this information.
It goes down to what we call a gateway, which is
basically, the bridge to transfer the data
from the field here, over to the internet,
and make it available to the district and the water users.
I just wanted to show you a picture of one of the sites,
where we did,
where we did installation.
You can see here, and this was what I call,
what I referred to earlier as
a typical telemetry installation.
You have a transmitter on the meter down here,
you have cables going up to a radio transmitter on the pole,
a solar panel, and a tipping gauge rain bucket.
That's one thing, we put tipping rain buckets
at just about every site.
So we had good local rainfall data.
This is another site.
What I think is neat here, is you can see two meters,
one on each side, with transmitters going up to one radio,
and a rain bucket there.
So we were able to piggyback one on each other,
and save 'em a little bit of telemetry equipment,
by running two radios into one,
or two meters into one radio.
And we also put weather stations out,
a couple weather stations in that little watershed,
where we had everything we needed for ET, temperature,
rain fall, relative humidity, solar radiation,
wind speed, and direction.
So we could calculate ET for that site.
And with that, I mentioned ET Indexing, we were able to
deliver to the farmers, not only their
accurate water application data, local rain fall data,
and local ET, so that they could do ET Indexing,
which as I described...
They're basically trying to apply water as close as possible
to crop water use.
Trying to match their application to local ET.
I believe last year was the third year,
we've got all the equipment installed, and as it happened,
just last week we had a training with the district staff,
and the farmers involved.
And that's just to help them get the data off of the website
and also take some feedback from them,
on what they wanna see with their data.
Again, not only did the farmers get good information
for on-farm water use efficiency, but the district
is also getting aggregate water use data,
in that specific watershed, at E67.
So they know the amount that's being delivered
in real-time, every day.
And if they don't need as much there,
then they can send it down the canal, to somebody else.
Good data for the district, good data for the farmer.
I'll move on to the Upper Republican NRD.
A couple of years ago, I was contacted by them.
They were interested in putting telemetry out on the meters,
their meters, in the Upper Republican NRD.
And just to give you a little feedback, a little background
on Upper Republican NRD.
They have about 3,300 irrigation wells in the district,
and all of their wells have been metered
since late 70's, early 80's.
Fortunately, a lot of them are McCrometer meters.
And this is possibly...
I know it's the oldest in Nebraska, but it's possibly
the oldest district with water allocations in the country.
They were the first ones to implement
a groundwater control area,
under the Groundwater Management and Protection Act.
So what their goal was, is to eventually
monitor all of their wells, all of their meters,
with telemetry, across the whole district, all 3,300.
And of course, that takes money.
I started working with, a little over a year ago,
I started working with Nate Jenkins, the Assistant Manager,
and we've been successful so far, with one
successful grant through the Bureau of Reclamation,
to fund $300,000 worth of telemetry in the district,
to basically get us started with meters,
and some other sensors.
We're not only looking at meters,
the NRD also has a system of
about, I think it's 1,400 dedicated
groundwater level monitoring wells.
We've already put...
We've already put the telemetry equipment in,
to monitor all of these, all of these observation wells
for groundwater levels in real-time.
last year we put out about
17 or 18, or as of the end of last year,
we had about 17 or 18 meters with FlowConnect,
or telemetry on them.
It's sort of a pilot phase.
We tried some different cell modems,
different cell companies.
I think we tried Viaero, Verizon, and we tried
some satellite units out there too,
just to get the best fit for that district,
for the mode of communications.
They also, with the timing of when they contacted us,
2016, we were able to get a few beta sites out with them.
As the product was just coming out of development,
and we used,
we used them to try a few beta units out in the field.
So we've got total of about 17 or 18 units,
FlowConnect units, out in the field,
and looking forward to adding more this year.
They're also looking at adding some weather stations too,
as part of this project.
with this project, we were able to,
we were able to provide valuable data,
valuable water use data, to the farmers,
and also give the district some valuable water use data,
for their allocation program.
Some closing thoughts.
I just wanna reiterate again, that water management
starts with the meter.
And I strongly encourage using meters as a management tool,
before we get to regulations.
And finally, I would assert that technology
including real-time flow meter readings
will improve water use management.
Thank you, do you have any questions?
Thank you, very interesting.
One question about adding another key technology,
is telemetry shutoff.
Have you considered adding that as a third component,
so when you have certain rain events,
you have the flow data, you know it rained an inch,
you can also shutoff in real-time.
Was sort of part of the portfolio?
And a second question, if you'll allow me,
is have you also made the connection to sort of
providing this data to consumers, at the downstream end?
If you know you wanna buy a certain crop type,
you wanna know the water and energy use of that crop,
and you might pay a little extra money
for that particular crop,
given those water and energy demands.
Ah, good question.
Answer your first question:
no, control is not part of FlowConnect.
I wish it were, but right now, McCrometer is focused on
monitoring for it's telemetry aspects.
I'm sure you're probably familiar with
a lot of the pivot companies, they've focused on control,
with speeding up, slowing down, stopping,
starting the systems.
And that's great, I think that's very valuable
in the pivot industry, and others.
But right now, control isn't a focus of FlowConnect,
it's more observation and management.
You're second question:
It sounds like you're asking about
water marketing, essentially.
(mumbled words from audience)
I think data like this, is gonna be critical
for systems like that.
I mentioned telemetry out in Colorado.
There is a group in Sterling, Colorado,
I can't remember the name of their group,
several water users that,
that are well owners up and down
the South Platte River in Colorado.
And several years ago, they were trying to put together
a cooperative for trading water,
up and down the Platte River,
similar to what you asked about.
And I don't believe the co-op ever got off the ground,
and at the time, we didn't have FlowConnect
as a technology for them.
But I really think that this technology
would be critical for
what I call water trading, a water trading system,
or a water market system, like that.
Okay, thank you, other questions?
Oh, can it Bob, 'cause I'm a--
It is Bob.
Is there a potential for interface
with all that data,
on a farm with the management of a center pivot system?
It's a definite possibility.
FlowConnect does have the ability for,
for certain digital and analog outputs.
So it can go into...
We can send a signal directly into the pivot panel,
so that it could go into a system,
whether it's Valley, T-L, Reinke, Zimmatic.
There's also the possibility, where
if we deliver data to,
to a web-based server,
and somebody already has a database setup,
where they're storing a lot of that data,
the computer link can be created
to deliver the data to that external database.
So, yes, the data can be joined up.
(mumbled words from audience)
with the other pivot systems, that I'm not sure,
I couldn't answer that.
But right now, we are working on,
we are working on
projects with districts, where we'll end up
creating a link to a district database.
One particular application we did up in North Dakota.
A few years ago, when the oil prices were really high,
and fracking was really prevalent up in North Dakota,
there were a lot of water users that
were, they were essentially selling water
to the oil companies, for fracking.
So there was the
enticement to go over your permit allocation.
The state put a requirement on
permits in the state of North Dakota, that they had to:
one, had to have telemetry; and two, they had to interface
with the North Dakota State Water Database.
So we wrote the programming language,
to communicate Advantage Pro, our software with
the North Dakota State Water Database, and consequently,
sold quite a few telemetry systems up there.
(mumbled words from audience)
It is, it is.
And honestly, yeah, regulation sells a lot of flow meters.
But, that's my,
my premise is, let's try to use the meters
as a management tool, before we ever get to regulation.
Okay, another question.
I had a question about your project in the Upper Republican.
As I recall, historically, they've had a staff read
kind of system of there.
And so, are you doing a comparison,
between their staff read, and your telemetry system?
Well, we're just getting started, in Upper Republican, and
that's something that we haven't done yet,
but it's something I can always bring up to them.
To see what the correlation is, between staff read,
staff readings and the telemetry readings.
Of course, as I see it, the real advantage in,
the real advantage in Upper Republican isn't necessarily
achieving the accuracy of the reading,
but it's the real-time data that's delivered to the farmer,
during the season, for management purposes.
And also, to the district,
for management on the district level.
But that's a good suggestion.
We'll talk to the district, about comparing the two.
Anybody else, questions?
If not, let's give Ken another hand for a nice presentation.
The screen size you are trying to search captions on is too small!
You can always
jump over to MediaHub
and check it out there.
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