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Chap 16 EE
Narrated Power Point for Chap 16 in Ember and Ember (14th edition)
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Good morning to you all.
Chapter 16 deals with
what's sometimes called practicing anthropology
or development and applied anthropology,
and it has to do with the kind of work anthropologists do
outside of academia.
And believe me, there are plenty of employment opportunities
for anthropologists outside of the university or college.
And so we're gonna deal
with the ethics of applied anthropology,
evaluating the effects of planned change,
difficulties in instituting planned change,
and also environmental anthropology.
The major areas that kind of encompass this field
are business and organizational anthropology.
That is the work that anthropologists do
when they're hired by businesses
to examine the culture of a particular organization.
And then we're gonna turn to cultural resource management,
or CRM, which is essentially a kind of archeology done
to recover valuable artifacts and/or human remains
before the development of major infrastructure,
such as road and dams and things of that nature.
This occurs all over the world.
and this is how anthropologists are typically hired
oftentimes in the third world
to initiate things like public health campaigns,
movement of when people when a dam is going to be developed
that'll flood the area.
Environmental anthropology, again,
dealing with source of major changes following disasters
and how anthropologists assist in resettlement
and kind of starting people on their way again
to their economic livelihoods.
You see a great example of museum anthropology
here on campus at the Nebraska State Museum
where there are archeological materials
and cultural materials housed.
And then forensic anthropology,
which has to do with how anthropologists work
with law enforcement agencies.
And anthropologists are really important in this area,
especially biological anthropologists
because, for example, when a county sheriff
finds some human remains, they typically come to us,
and our biological anthropologists
will try and help them out
in terms of identifying the age, the sex,
the potential ethnic background of the individual.
And it's a little bit different than what you see on TV,
which is fairly outlandish much of the time.
So the ethics of applied anthropology.
The anthropologist's first responsibility is
to ensure the welfare and dignity
of those being studied will be protected.
And this includes, as we'll learn a little bit later on,
even those who are deceased.
For example, the examination of Native American graves
are part of this process.
Research findings should be reported openly and truthfully.
That is, when an applied anthropologist
does his or her work, then it's kind of put forward
so the public can examine it, criticize it,
and figure out how it could be used.
And one of the questions you wanna ask is
will the change truly benefit the target population?
For example, when a public health campaign
is being developed, is it structured in a proper way?
So, for example, everybody will get vaccinations.
And what are their priorities
in terms of the needs they may have
in dealing with the kind of health problems
that confront people, especially in developing nations,
but also across the United States?
And then the evaluation of the project.
The project is put into place and begins working.
And then after a year or so,
you wanna do an evaluation of the project to make sure,
again, that the goals are being met
and that the people that are being targeted
are genuinely being helped
and no kind of unexpected consequences
that may be negative are occurring.
Again, the ethics when physical anthropologists
and archeologists work with skeletal
and even fossil materials,
the ethical considerations can become quite complex.
For example, some skeletal collections were illegally
obtained or obtained under kind of biased circumstances,
and so the goal here is to make sure
that the people who are being studied,
their relatives have some say in the research,
whether the research should go on.
And what we have is a law enacted in the United States,
the Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act,
which essentially alerts Native communities if, for example,
an archeologist would find a number of different things.
One is skeletal remains from a burial
or grave goods associated with a skeleton
or items of cultural patrimony.
Items of cultural patrimony are essentially those items
that are sacred to the people being investigated.
And so the goal of NAGPRA,
and the history is pretty complex.
I will say that the State of Nebraska
established a law prior to NAGPRA that became a model
that was used by NAGPRA at the federal level,
and so we have much to be proud of
in terms of what was done at UNL
and the State of Nebraska through the Unicameral
in ensuring that these unmarked graves were treated
with dignity, with all the ethical considerations.
Evaluating the effects of planned change.
Even if planned change will benefit its target population,
people might not accept it.
That is, it may be very difficult to
convince the people that what they're doing
is in their best interest.
For example, if you look at vaccination campaigns,
some information was spread saying
that the vaccinations were,
this is, for example, in India and Pakistan,
were designed to either infect the people
or to prevent them from being pregnant,
and so you have to understand that these changes operate
in a political and social environment,
and so you may find the target population
is not really accepting of this.
And also a lot of times the target population
is really not consulted.
And they should be consulted
if you're going to have an effective kind of health campaign
such as a vaccination campaign
or a campaign to give people clean drinking water,
things of that nature,
all under the kind of auspices of development anthropology.
Again, target population may reject
or resist a proposed innovation
because they're unaware of the need for change.
They don't understand the nature of disease transmission,
let's say through cholera
and the importance of a clean water supply.
So the customs may conflict with change,
especially kind of younger-older dynamics
and the power relationships.
A lot of times when change is instituted,
young people are the ones kind of at the head
of instituting the change
because they're more educated than the older population.
And it's not so much
that the older population is necessarily against it,
but they see their kind of rights
as power brokers being broken up by this change.
And some of the change has to do with loss of identity.
And take a look at page 375 on female farmers in Malawi.
The assumption that a lot of people in USAID made
when they were instituting agricultural change
was that the men were farmers.
In fact, women are the farmers in many places across Africa,
say in the majority of places,
and so the aim was a bit crooked
in that it focused on males being head of households
and running the farms, when in fact females did it,
so that little insight there on page 375 is useful to read.
Some more of the difficulties in instituting planned change,
discovering and utilizing local channels of influences.
This is very important.
For example, if you wanted
to do some kind of cropping changes,
you'd focus on what we model farmers
and these farmers who are highly regarded
in the community as being experts, these men and women.
Then you try to induce them to initiate the change.
They're smart and able.
The change in terms of let, let's say,
a new kind of seed is successful,
and then it can trickle down to the rest of the population.
And also, again, the need for collaboration
is really important in applied anthropology,
in that the people who are gonna be the subjects
or objects of change need to get onboard.
You need to kind of take their advice.
They may give you some hidden insights
in terms of what are effective ways of instituting change,
whatever kind of change that you might want to institute.
Applied anthropologists are increasingly asked
to work on behalf of indigenous grassroots organizations.
And that is a lot of indigenous peoples
are getting politically organized,
therefore they have a voice in government planning
and oftentimes with their own funds or sometimes...
In other means, they essentially bring anthropologists
into a project to evaluate it,
to look at the kind of policy that's being formulated
by a government for change.
And so we work essentially alongside the people
that previously we'd studied,
but now we're working hand-in-hand with them
to make sure that any type of planned change
will essentially benefit them
in terms of increasing their chances of survival,
reproduction, quality of life, health, income,
and all of those things that are really important.
Here's an example of on page 378,
a group of Native South Americans protest
against the construction of a dam,
and simply a demand that if they're gonna be displaced
by the dam or affected by the dam,
now wanting to have prior consultations
with the government to fully understand and appreciate
how their lands are going to be affected.
Will they be able to finish anymore?
Will they lose some river edge rich land
that will be flooded that they normally crop?
These sorts of things are really important.
And, again, anthropologists assist in this process
by doing prior studies
and beginning to collaborate with these Native peoples.
Environmental anthropology focuses on the interaction
of humans with the environment,
particularly focusing on how to understand
and alleviate the degradation of the environment.
As populations grow, then the need for conservation
becomes really more and more important
because, well, the population can grow
and use the environment
Over the long term, the environment will be degraded.
And there's a section in the book that talks
about timber use among the Maasai in government-owned land
versus Maasai-owned land.
And, again, this is a task for,
in this case applied anthropology
in the area of environmental anthropology.
So, importantly, when an environmental anthropologist
begins his or her work,
they wanna know how people interact with the environment
and their view of the environment, also to understand
what we call Traditional Ecological Knowledge, or TEK.
And this is really important
because these indigenous peoples have been living
on the land for a long period of time
and they've been engaged in a variety
of extractive activities,
whether it's hunting, gathering, fishing,
foraging, agriculture, et cetera, et cetera.
And they have understanding of resource depletion
and the kind of biotic interrelationships
that affect the whole ecological system,
and so understanding their Traditional Ecological Knowledge
is really important.
And, again, as I mentioned before,
example of conservation and ownership issues
in Kenya in relation to timber ownership
was one of the examples given in the text,
so take a look at it.
And also one of the things they wanna do is,
again, study the social impact from planned change.
If you are going to, for example,
open up government land for timber use, who's gonna benefit?
Will the community be able to benefit,
or will interlopers who maybe have better equipment
rush into the area and destroy the resources
that are essentially designed for native peoples to use?
These are just some of the complexities,
and a lot of these things are unexpected
when you're developing social policy.
You need to really cover the bases to make sure
that what you're allowing is very narrow and specific
and well-tailored for the people
who are likely to be affected.
Business and organizational anthropology looks
at the larger culture in which organizations are situated,
the culture and subcultures of the organization,
and the perspectives of different groups.
Again, on page 361,
a number of anthropologists have worked for General Motors
on their culture and found that there's more competition
than cooperation between different units,
even though there was this kind of stated position
that we're all cooperative and working together
for the betterment of General Motors.
You find out there's a lot of infighting going on.
And anthropologists tried to look
at this one dimension of the culture and kind of change it
so that the company overall is more profitable,
more effective, and the people who are working there
are essentially more satisfied with their roles.
Culture resource management,
this is a kind of actually archeology, CRM.
Recovering and preserving the archeological record
before programs of planned change disturb or destroy it.
That's what CRM is all about.
For example, if you look
at the Nebraska State Historic Society,
they have a Highway Commission,
and any time a new road is put in, a new bridge is put in,
there has to be an examination to see
if there are any important archeological remains
that should be preserved.
Most of the time there aren't any,
but when there are some,
then they try to figure out how important,
how rich the site is,
and whether it should be excavated and preserved
before the roadwork begins.
And much of the funding for CRM,
about $1 billion a year as of 2017,
comes from the National Historic Preservation Act,
which is a federal entity
that essentially helps fund the CRM work
at the state and local level.
And, again, the Nebraska State Historic Society
is the place where this is done.
Also in town here is the Midwest Archeological Center,
which is a federal agency that deals with CRM issues
for a seven state region, all housed here in Lincoln,
and we have very good relationships.
A lot of our graduate students
and some of our undergraduate students are trained
over there through internships and actually jobs
to kind of, again, do this kind of work.
Here's an example from the book on page 382,
commuters looking at the fourth century ruins uncovered
as part of a larger scale CRM project
associated with the construction of the Athens metro system.
So the point here too is that CRM work occurs
all over the world, just not in the United States,
even though I gave you United State examples
with the Nebraska State Historic Society,
the archeological division.
But people are interested in the past.
They want the past to be preserved.
They want it to be handed down to their children.
And here they kind of stuck this museum-like display
in the subway system because it ran through an area
that had archeological remains.
They excavated those remains
and put them in a subway display.
And, again, that makes us turn to museum anthropology.
Anthropologists typically hold one
of three positions in museums.
Either they're curators who are responsible
for the overall content and use of collections.
And these collections are housed in the museum,
for example in Morrill Hall,
and those collections are there for other people to examine
if they wanna know a bit about Nebraska prehistory.
Collection manager ensures
that the museum collections are preserved.
And, again, the collection managers are the people
who do the nitty-gritty job of intaking collections
and making sure that they're well-preserved,
they're accurately described, and things of that nature.
And then museum educators teach the public
about the peoples and cultures represented
in the museum's collections.
For example, if you look at the Nebraska State Museum,
about 2% of all of their collections,
whether they're animals, minerals,
or archeological materials, are displayed at any one time.
About 98% of those things that are held by the museum
are actually in the collections.
And then people can go into the basements and attics
that we have where these collections are housed
so they can look at the materials
so they can do research.
Forensic anthropology is a really interesting field,
is especially an anthropology that is devoted
to solving crimes and how they occur.
As I mentioned earlier, any time a body is discovered
by the state or local police, they come to us.
The state crime lab doesn't have the kind of expertise
that we have in the area of what we call skeletal biology
to try and identify the sex, the age,
and maybe the ethnicity of a skeleton they've found
that may be 100 years old, 200, 300, 400 years old.
Is it Native American, is it a pioneer,
or is it a recent burial of someone who just happened to die
and wasn't discovered until it was uncovered?
And so it's very much interested in crime enforcement.
Also, you can click on this link here,
the story Dozier's Boys Home featuring Erin Kimmerle.
She was one of my former students.
She works in the Florida State University system.
And essentially it was a cemetery and a boys' home.
The boys were treated really harshly.
This boys' home were essentially
for boys who lost their parents, they were abandoned,
they were put in this really kinda horrible place.
And then when they died,
they were just kind of buried secretly outside
as you read in the article.
And Erin's goal was to essentially identify these kids
and to let their nearest relatives know what became of them
and how they would like to give them the remains,
perhaps they wanna put them in a family burial plot,
things of that nature.
Erin and other of my students have also worked
all over the world looking at massacres in Iraq,
in Vukovar, in Serbia, and other places,
and their specialization happened to be
on the identification of war crimes.
And, again, the idea is to excavate the bodies,
identify them, and then let their closest kin know
where they are and what became of them
to kinda give them some kind of closure
for this sort of sad state of affairs.
And here is an example of
a skeleton being excavated at a massacre site in Argentina
that occurred between 1976 and 1983,
the desaparecidos, the disappeared ones in Argentina
that were essentially killed
by a dictatorial military kind of government organization
during the period when it ruled Argentina.
They began an attempt to document the extent,
perhaps establish who are the guilty parties,
but most of all to kinda give some kind of closure
to the closest kin.
Some terms and concepts.
They're pretty straightforward.
You should know all the different forms
of applied anthropology, forensic, CRM,
et cetera, et cetera.
Some of the ethical considerations,
no harm and honest and open reporting.
That is, when you do this kind of research,
you wanna make sure that you are not harming the population
that you're kinda working with.
Some of the difficulties in working for change
is illustrated in the book.
And also, again, NAGPRA, which specifically applies
to essentially archeological kind of research
and has to do with the ethical treatment
of human remains of unknown providence.
So understand those kinda basic areas
which applied anthropology covers.
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