2017 MATC Scholars Program: Dr. Terri Norton
Dr. Terri Norton, Associate Professor at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln, presents on "The Road to a New Tohoku: Rebuilding after the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami". For more information, please visit http://matc.unl.edu/education/scholars-program2017.php.
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[00:00:00.439](speaks in foreign language)
[00:00:15.635]Does anybody know what I said?
[00:00:25.494]So I said good afternoon, my name is Terri Norton.
[00:00:30.464]I am an associate professor
[00:00:32.077]at the University of Nebraska.
[00:00:34.289]It is very nice to meet you.
[00:00:40.052]A little bit about me.
[00:00:42.495]Dr. Jones has already given a preview,
[00:00:44.934]but just a little bit more about me.
[00:00:46.981]I am an associate professor within the Durham School
[00:00:49.506]of Architectural Engineering and Construction,
[00:00:52.734]also a Fulbright scholar for Japan,
[00:00:56.053]doing research and disaster recovery and reconstruction.
[00:00:59.305]I hold degrees in civil engineering
[00:01:01.100]from Florida State University
[00:01:03.217]and the Florida Agricultural Mechanical University.
[00:01:08.636]Before coming here to Nebraska,
[00:01:10.226]I worked for the Aerospace Corporation,
[00:01:13.193]doing structural dynamics research for space structures.
[00:01:17.610]And since being here, this year marks my
[00:01:20.509]10-year anniversary of being here
[00:01:21.982]at the University of Nebraska.
[00:01:28.188]In my time here, I have graduated both
[00:01:31.621]graduate and undergraduate students
[00:01:33.357]in civil engineering, architectural engineering,
[00:01:36.383]construction engineering, and construction management.
[00:01:40.233]I lead the constructional dynamics research group
[00:01:42.888]where our focus is to
[00:01:45.521]investigate how dynamic loads affect civil structures.
[00:01:49.565]So we look at earthquakes, we look at hurricanes,
[00:01:52.694]we look at tsunamis, tornadoes.
[00:01:55.654]My research interests
[00:01:56.487]are in structural dynamics and control,
[00:01:59.216]risk assessment and vulnerability.
[00:02:01.906]I do energy efficiency,
[00:02:04.407]which is kind of out of the box,
[00:02:06.757]but when get funding out of the box,
[00:02:09.059]you accept it,
[00:02:09.892]so I do some research in energy efficiency
[00:02:12.996]and sustainable construction,
[00:02:14.901]as well disaster debris management.
[00:02:19.788]I'm gonna start at the end of my presentation
[00:02:21.902]just in case.
[00:02:23.294]So these publications are relevant to this work.
[00:02:27.030]I'm going to give you an overview
[00:02:28.634]of what I'm currently doing
[00:02:29.502]for my Fulbright research in Japan.
[00:02:32.170]These are some beginning publications,
[00:02:33.993]but as I said, this is the beginning of this work.
[00:02:37.040]So there will be more implications of publications to come.
[00:02:40.576]And maybe if anyone is interest in this audience,
[00:02:43.682]you may be able to join me in that work.
[00:02:46.400]We could talk about that at the end.
[00:02:49.167]So outlining my presentation.
[00:02:51.727]I'm gonna talk a little bit about
[00:02:53.254]disaster debris management,
[00:02:54.905]what it means for the Tohoku disaster for 2011,
[00:02:59.897]how we managed the debris in terms of the debris processing,
[00:03:03.344]and then how it's being used now for reconstruction,
[00:03:06.367]and then I will summarize what I am talking about.
[00:03:10.967]So, these pictures here are pictures of me
[00:03:15.067]visiting Japan in 2011,
[00:03:17.401]90 days after the great East Japan earthquake and tsunami.
[00:03:23.197]The top picture is me in front of a hospital,
[00:03:26.504]and it was devastated by the tsunami flood waters.
[00:03:30.486]The steel structure, aluminum structure behind me
[00:03:33.079]is actually awning from a gas station
[00:03:35.376]that was across the street.
[00:03:37.733]This is the same city,
[00:03:39.267]but another part of the city.
[00:03:41.330]How many of you can see
[00:03:43.680]this little steel frame structure here?
[00:03:47.203]That is the Emergency Management Office in that city.
[00:03:51.475]This is Minamisanriku.
[00:03:54.514]Like many of the cities along the coastal
[00:03:56.383]in this disaster,
[00:03:57.895]many structures are washed away
[00:03:59.662]as long as individuals and people were washed away.
[00:04:03.383]Only one individual survived in that building,
[00:04:05.845]and he was on the top of the structure,
[00:04:07.875]hanging on to the antenna.
[00:04:11.703]During my time there in 2011,
[00:04:13.685]I joined a team of 30 researchers
[00:04:16.653]from the United States, from Japan,
[00:04:19.212]Korea and Taiwan.
[00:04:21.431]During that visit, we visited
[00:04:23.048]11 of the affected areas or cities.
[00:04:26.228]However, we were not able to go to Fukushima,
[00:04:28.813]because of the radiation and contamination.
[00:04:32.314]So this started my research in Japan
[00:04:35.365]in the great East Japan earthquake in 2011.
[00:04:39.378]The work I'm currently doing now
[00:04:41.135]is to do a retrospective look at
[00:04:44.313]what they've done since that disaster,
[00:04:46.067]how are they rebuilding,
[00:04:46.900]how are the redeveloping their communities,
[00:04:49.478]what type of management processes did they take
[00:04:52.350]to do those things.
[00:04:55.368]So a little bit more about the disaster,
[00:04:57.426]it happened in 2001.
[00:05:01.703]It was a magnitude nine earthquake.
[00:05:04.213]It was an underwater earthquake,
[00:05:05.769]so it's a megaquake being being that's a 9.0.
[00:05:09.038]We had over 19,000 individuals who lost their lives,
[00:05:14.361]over 450,000 people were evacuated from their homes,
[00:05:19.467]over 100,000 buildings were damaged,
[00:05:23.115]and that's not demolished structures.
[00:05:24.996]This was actually damaged from the direct impact
[00:05:27.299]of the tsunami of the earthquake.
[00:05:29.355]In this estimate, $210 billion worth of economic damage.
[00:05:34.638]For this particular research,
[00:05:35.972]my study had been on disaster debris management.
[00:05:39.711]Because of the overwhelming amounts of debris
[00:05:42.590]that was generated during this disaster,
[00:05:45.641]being so many structures that were damage,
[00:05:48.404]we need to figure out if we're gonna resettle
[00:05:51.477]a community or area,
[00:05:52.851]what do we do with that debris?
[00:05:54.582]What usually happens with debris, does anyone know?
[00:05:59.967]Set it on fire, okay.
[00:06:06.897]Those are all good answers.
[00:06:08.183]So, if you can't burn it,
[00:06:10.940]you can bury it,
[00:06:12.442]as long as it's not chemically contaminated,
[00:06:15.175]and then you can landfill it.
[00:06:17.519]Or if it has viable usefulness,
[00:06:20.316]then we can recycle it.
[00:06:22.372]So, for this research, I'm trying to determine
[00:06:24.902]if the recycle it, how are they using it.
[00:06:27.991]How are they recycling?
[00:06:28.887]Are they using it for reconstruction?
[00:06:30.586]In which ways are they reusing it?
[00:06:33.252]Just some general information.
[00:06:34.599]The total amount of debris from this disaster
[00:06:37.822]was 28 million tons.
[00:06:40.219]Does anyone know how much debris
[00:06:41.314]was generated from hurricane Katrina?
[00:06:45.591]Hurricane Katrina had 22 million tons of debris.
[00:06:49.524]So these two disasters are comparable.
[00:06:53.119]The second part of my research is being able to compare
[00:06:56.649]how we manage debris from different disasters,
[00:06:59.423]both internationally and nationally here in United States.
[00:07:02.976]So I would like to do some comparative analysis
[00:07:05.469]about disaster debris management,
[00:07:06.909]about reconstruction resettlement,
[00:07:09.145]and how communities, in terms of societal effects,
[00:07:17.533]policies that affect communities.
[00:07:20.249]It's an interdisciplinary problem
[00:07:23.265]that has many moving parts.
[00:07:25.244]I can't do it all by myself.
[00:07:28.372]hopefully, by the end of this presentation, again,
[00:07:31.599]some of you wanna do it with me.
[00:07:34.416]The are that was most affected during this disaster
[00:07:37.178]is Miyagi Prefecture.
[00:07:39.166]It had 18.77
[00:07:41.533]million tons of the total
[00:07:44.117]28 million tons of debris.
[00:07:45.576]So it was the most heavily affected area.
[00:07:49.582]Has anyone ever seen this picture?
[00:07:53.961]So this is the tsunami floodwaters
[00:07:55.033]coming into the coast of Sendai.
[00:07:58.778]When I spent my time in Japan,
[00:08:00.238]I was at Tohoku University,
[00:08:02.983]and they are located in Sendai, Japan,
[00:08:05.688]which is north of Tokyo.
[00:08:08.071]And so this is the coast of Sendai
[00:08:10.335]when the tsunami floodwater was coming in.
[00:08:13.127]Along the very top of the screen, this is the ocean.
[00:08:18.503]All of this area here
[00:08:20.089]is where the houses were along the coast.
[00:08:23.040]So you can imagine those houses were washed away.
[00:08:27.563]These are a couple of my pictures from different areas
[00:08:31.693]right after that hazard.
[00:08:33.599]Again, I'm focusing on disaster debris.
[00:08:36.458]As you can see, that disaster debris...
[00:08:41.204]This disaster debris is on farming areas.
[00:08:47.132]temporary soil at the disaster site.
[00:08:50.358]This was a fire that was indirect effect of the tsunami,
[00:08:55.413]because a lot of the areas that were damaged
[00:08:57.628]were port communities, fishery communities,
[00:09:02.224]so there were some petroleum damage and fires
[00:09:05.242]that happened along with this disaster.
[00:09:09.195]Actually, one of the cities,
[00:09:10.360]I recently talked to one of the northern cities,
[00:09:13.329]and they said their city burned for three days
[00:09:15.663]after the tsunami,
[00:09:17.763]because of the time that the event happened,
[00:09:20.728]it was in the evening,
[00:09:21.876]and most people were cooking,
[00:09:23.741]and so there was open fires,
[00:09:25.800]gas fires because of stoves.
[00:09:28.164]And so, that city basically burned for three days.
[00:09:34.295]This top picture here, Ishinomaki,
[00:09:37.069]you can see just compare it to
[00:09:38.444]these buildings that are standing, two story buildings,
[00:09:41.391]how high that debris pile is.
[00:09:44.196]So there were mountains of mountains of debris.
[00:09:47.361]So knowing that we have all this debris,
[00:09:49.286]again, what do we do with it?
[00:09:51.059]How can we recycle and reuse it
[00:09:53.297]to improve how we recover,
[00:09:55.405]and how the speed in which we recover?
[00:09:59.542]For this Fulbright, my objectives
[00:10:01.202]were to learn about what the Japanese has done,
[00:10:04.683]and is currently doing in their recovery process.
[00:10:07.715]So I'm learning about how they manage their debris,
[00:10:10.840]how they are recycling, reusing for reconstruction,
[00:10:14.024]what type technologies are they using it for,
[00:10:17.527]and then also to develop relationship
[00:10:19.709]so I can continue this conversation and engagement with
[00:10:23.522]researchers that are there in Japan and also globally,
[00:10:27.201]because while there in Japan,
[00:10:28.366]I was also able to meet researchers from Malaysia,
[00:10:32.384]from Singapore, from other Asian countries that
[00:10:36.028]deal with disasters like typhoons on a normal occurrence.
[00:10:40.321]And so, being able to be in that setting
[00:10:43.061]also allows me the opportunity
[00:10:44.963]to network and engage with other researchers
[00:10:47.540]that are also in this field.
[00:10:50.898]So what is disaster debris management?
[00:10:55.275]as it sounds, the management of debris,
[00:10:58.382]how you collect, how you sort,
[00:11:00.766]how you dispose of that debris.
[00:11:02.988]As I said earlier, disaster debris management
[00:11:05.192]is an interdisciplinary problem.
[00:11:07.763]So not only as engineer will I have to deal with it,
[00:11:10.421]but people in the community,
[00:11:11.933]when you see debris after disaster,
[00:11:14.365]it has a societal and sociological effect on you.
[00:11:19.000]Logistics in dealing with where to put it and when,
[00:11:21.884]and who transports it, and who pays for it.
[00:11:24.883]We have to deal with logistics.
[00:11:26.754]Recycling reuse can have some environmental
[00:11:29.479]and medical implications,
[00:11:31.873]and also material characterization
[00:11:34.002]in terms of civil engineers.
[00:11:35.352]If I wanna recycle and reuse this debris for reconstruction,
[00:11:39.336]I need to understand the material properties
[00:11:41.857]to know if I build something with these materials,
[00:11:44.068]whether it's gonna be structurally stable.
[00:11:50.029]There are guides out there now
[00:11:51.360]to do disaster debris management.
[00:11:53.841]Different countries have their own guides.
[00:11:55.860]Here in United States, we have the FEMA GUIde,
[00:11:58.213]which is 325.
[00:11:59.827]That's the most common guide that's used.
[00:12:02.722]However, even though we have this national guide,
[00:12:06.460]not every community has a disaster debris management plan.
[00:12:11.200]So some communities, when they think about
[00:12:13.753]recovering from disasters,
[00:12:15.211]the first thing they think about
[00:12:16.255]is that they wanna move the debris,
[00:12:18.580]but it's about how do you
[00:12:21.779]get the assistance funding for your community
[00:12:24.304]so they can do the work.
[00:12:25.906]But in terms of the city of the county,
[00:12:29.599]who determines when to send the money out,
[00:12:32.584]when do you determine when collection should happen,
[00:12:36.063]how long will it take for collection to happen,
[00:12:38.949]how long would that effect your rebuilding efforts.
[00:12:41.905]So there are general plans.
[00:12:43.756]But for specific plans,
[00:12:45.324]cities have to determine, as a policy,
[00:12:48.778]that they need too have that in place,
[00:12:51.236]and that will aid in their recovery process.
[00:12:54.971]For Japan, they decided that for this disaster,
[00:12:59.302]in order to manage
[00:13:01.558]the debris to
[00:13:05.754]and redevelop their communities,
[00:13:07.129]they decided that the whole process
[00:13:08.648]was gonna take 10 years.
[00:13:11.833]The first three years is gonna be restoration.
[00:13:15.967]The very first thing that needs to happen is response.
[00:13:18.496]That's the beginning stages of the recovery process.
[00:13:21.728]Response deals with debris management.
[00:13:23.594]We have to move debris out of the way,
[00:13:24.999]so that we can help individuals,
[00:13:29.552]There may be chances to recycle and reuse debris
[00:13:33.255]and then the last three years is redevelopment.
[00:13:37.020]To their credit, in Japan,
[00:13:38.807]they were able to manage debris in the first three years,
[00:13:42.043]and now they're currently under reconstruction.
[00:13:46.145]They had some ideas
[00:13:47.912]of what to do with this debris for reconstruction,
[00:13:51.034]and these pictures...
[00:13:53.468]And this was the first conceptual design
[00:13:55.963]right after the disaster in 2011.
[00:13:59.108]They decided they were gonna build
[00:14:02.157]that they were gonna fill in with debris.
[00:14:04.895]They were going to
[00:14:06.679]raise roads as embankments,
[00:14:10.310]and they filled those areas with debris.
[00:14:12.986]They were also going to improve their seawalls
[00:14:16.229]along the coastal edge,
[00:14:17.621]as well as redevelop their coastal forests.
[00:14:21.275]So that was the beginning stages of
[00:14:24.174]their plan for reconstruction,
[00:14:25.785]and how they recycle and reuse debris.
[00:14:29.619]But to do that, they have to understand the process.
[00:14:32.418]So they had an idea
[00:14:34.725]of what they plan to do in the long run with the debris.
[00:14:37.871]But to break down the steps,
[00:14:40.303]they had to understand
[00:14:42.407]where to get from A to B.
[00:14:44.128]How do you get the debris from your site,
[00:14:46.101]your disaster site,
[00:14:47.650]to either disposal or recycle and reuse?
[00:14:51.353]So this flow chart basically says
[00:14:53.900]this is debris management process that
[00:14:55.892]we are going to do as a country in Japan
[00:14:57.907]to manage our debris.
[00:14:59.456]It starts out with
[00:15:03.038]the waste is located at the disaster area.
[00:15:06.861]You're gonna do some beginning separation,
[00:15:09.030]take it to a temporary sorting site.
[00:15:11.183]From there, do some more separation,
[00:15:13.840]some cleaning, some washing, some sifting,
[00:15:16.388]depending on whether it is
[00:15:19.722]covered heavily in salt water.
[00:15:21.417]They had to do some rinsing.
[00:15:23.375]And then from there,
[00:15:24.308]they will take it to the first storage site.
[00:15:27.492]After going to that storage site,
[00:15:29.191]if it was viable for recycle and reuse,
[00:15:32.407]then they will send it to recycle and reuse.
[00:15:34.811]Otherwise, they would determine
[00:15:35.982]whether it was combustible or non-combustible.
[00:15:39.236]And depending on whether it's combustible,
[00:15:40.986]they would incinerate it.
[00:15:42.799]If it was non-combustible,
[00:15:43.820]then they would landfill it.
[00:15:48.390]If I look at Miyagi, which I said
[00:15:50.189]was the most affected area during this disaster,
[00:15:56.002]method, so they decided to use...
[00:15:58.170]They had 100 temporary sorting or storage sites.
[00:16:03.709]This top one is country storage.
[00:16:07.552]Right next to it is our white products,
[00:16:11.414]and then there's some mix waste
[00:16:12.826]that includes vegetative or trees,
[00:16:15.622]and then at the bottom are some temporary incinerators.
[00:16:18.962]So whatever they could burn,
[00:16:20.342]if it was combustible, they would burn it.
[00:16:23.024]If they couldn't burn it,
[00:16:24.349]they would shred it and sort it,
[00:16:26.474]and try to either recycle it,
[00:16:28.618]or landfill it.
[00:16:30.566]And these are the numbers for Miyagi Prefecture,
[00:16:33.676]and that was a prefecture that had 18.77 million tons
[00:16:41.745]For the recycle and reusing,
[00:16:43.441]in terms of us civil engineers,
[00:16:45.430]they decided that they want to recycle
[00:16:47.178]and reuse it for those public works project.
[00:16:49.744]As I said in that, that beginning schematic,
[00:16:52.809]they want to try to use
[00:16:54.679]recycle and reuse this debris for embankments
[00:16:58.341]and for elevating roads.
[00:17:00.428]And we can see here for the Miyagi prefecture,
[00:17:02.777]they're recycling and reusing concrete debris,
[00:17:06.196]as well as tsunami deposits.
[00:17:09.285]And that debris is being used for coastal embankments.
[00:17:12.169]It's being used for fishing ports projects,
[00:17:17.035]and then tsunami sediments they're using for
[00:17:19.137]temporary storage sites.
[00:17:21.661]They have some other projects,
[00:17:24.270]Some of those include our seawalls,
[00:17:28.416]renovating or rehabilitating some seawalls.
[00:17:32.423]The bottom pictures are just storage site.
[00:17:35.074]So after debris was sorted and processed,
[00:17:38.889]they had it sitting at a storage site
[00:17:41.065]until they could reuse it for reconstruction,
[00:17:43.555]and so that's what those bottom pictures are.
[00:17:46.871]If I compare Miyagi Prefecture with the other two
[00:17:51.627]Iwate and Fukushima,
[00:17:54.319]I'll see that they're also recycling and reusing
[00:17:57.253]their debris in terms of concrete and tsunami waste.
[00:18:01.002]But comparatively with Miyagi Prefecture,
[00:18:03.538]we'll see there's a lot more projects happening in Miyagi,
[00:18:06.564]because it was more heavily affected
[00:18:09.264]than Iwate and Fukushima.
[00:18:15.057]This plan for reconstruction talks about
[00:18:18.806]what they see new Tohoku being.
[00:18:21.825]They are renovating their port facilities.
[00:18:24.006]They are renovating the roadways,
[00:18:26.221]their public transportation systems,
[00:18:28.462]meaning their railways or subways.
[00:18:31.142]They're also redeveloping communities.
[00:18:34.418]So, the residential communities
[00:18:36.122]is no longer along the coast.
[00:18:38.509]It's being moved up to higher ground,
[00:18:41.104]and then they are using along the coast line
[00:18:43.042]either for port facilities or industrial facilities.
[00:18:46.875]So in that way, they protect lives
[00:18:49.310]because they have their population
[00:18:51.288]now living on higher ground for future tsunamis,
[00:18:54.936]but they are also coming up with
[00:18:57.769]tsunami mitigation measures
[00:18:59.525]to protect those individuals that may be working
[00:19:02.948]in these new industrial areas,
[00:19:04.906]or they're also building coastal parks.
[00:19:12.014]This talks a little bit about the timeline.
[00:19:14.902]The font may be a little small, but
[00:19:17.911]the important thing here
[00:19:20.710]is that on this (mumbles) talks about
[00:19:24.619]the areas in which they are trying
[00:19:26.250]to rebuild or reconstruct.
[00:19:28.543]For you guys in transportation,
[00:19:31.062]you might be interested in
[00:19:33.406]the reconstruction of infrastructure and roads,
[00:19:36.401]and is says that it is 99% completed by 2012.
[00:19:41.566]So a year after, they had most of their roadway
[00:19:47.066]or arterial roads reconstructed.
[00:19:50.013]Why is that important?
[00:19:53.337]People have to get around?
[00:19:55.693]In order for you to
[00:19:56.944]control where the debris go,
[00:19:58.330]you have to be able to have a way to move it.
[00:20:01.474]So you have to be able to get from point A to point B,
[00:20:03.486]whether you're transporting debris,
[00:20:05.575]whether you're transporting materials to rebuild
[00:20:08.626]whether you're transferring people.
[00:20:10.793]To be able to help individuals,
[00:20:12.450]you have to have that transportation networks in place,
[00:20:15.919]so that this can happen.
[00:20:18.091]So first, debris management has to happen.
[00:20:20.926]Part of that of that debris management is also
[00:20:23.514]reestablishing our transportation networks,
[00:20:26.112]so that we can continue on with the recovery process.
[00:20:31.638]Some of the measures that they're doing in Japan
[00:20:33.580]to re-establish their transportation networks.
[00:20:36.946]The have reconstruction of public transportation systems.
[00:20:41.685]A couple of the JR railways,
[00:20:46.489]and the Sanriku railways,
[00:20:48.386]those were damaged during tsunami and earthquake.
[00:20:51.510]They also had some damage to the arterial roadways.
[00:20:55.168]And then as a mitigation measures,
[00:20:57.546]they decided as part of their plan for reconstruction,
[00:21:01.000]they're gonna have elevated roadways.
[00:21:05.281]Let's talk a little bit about
[00:21:07.696]an example of how they recover
[00:21:10.379]some of their transport networks.
[00:21:12.814]If I look at the city of Sendai,
[00:21:15.115]again, I said Sendai is where I spent most of my time,
[00:21:17.396]where I was headquartered at Tohoku University.
[00:21:21.417]And Sendai, their airport was damaged.
[00:21:24.785]Their railway network was damaged,
[00:21:26.923]and also their port facilities was damaged.
[00:21:30.333]The picture on the left, at the top,
[00:21:33.561]is Sendai airport after the disaster.
[00:21:37.732]At the bottom is Sendai airport today,
[00:21:40.898]how it has been cleaned up.
[00:21:43.504]There were damage to the ceilings.
[00:21:46.270]And Sendai airport, the front entrance
[00:21:48.533]is all glass.
[00:21:49.759]So that whole glass entrance way was damaged,
[00:21:52.590]so they had to
[00:21:56.869]that glass ceiling and the window system.
[00:22:00.018]For the Shinkansen...
[00:22:01.825]Anybody every been on a bullet train?
[00:22:06.309]For the Shinkansen, some of the railways were damaged,
[00:22:10.302]so they had to renovate those railways.
[00:22:14.859]Then for port facilities,
[00:22:17.858]they had damage in along Sendai Port,
[00:22:20.945]which is one of the most heavily used port
[00:22:24.456]in Miyagi Prefecture,
[00:22:25.947]second to Ishinomaki Port.
[00:22:29.088]And so they have to do some work to clear up
[00:22:32.301]the damage that happen at the Sendai port area,
[00:22:35.127]as well as there are some damage to
[00:22:37.391]railways as I said earlier.
[00:22:39.400]This is damage to railway in Ishinomaki,
[00:22:42.529]where you can see the whole deck system of that
[00:22:45.164]railway bridge is gone.
[00:22:46.957]So they had to renovate that.
[00:22:53.500]In an effort to protect and prevent
[00:22:56.155]this type of disaster from happening again in those areas,
[00:23:00.436]they have come up with mitigation measures
[00:23:02.956]that they call tsunami dampening.
[00:23:05.876]And this is example similar to the
[00:23:07.875]picture I showed at the beginning of my presentation.
[00:23:11.830]This is the mitigation measures
[00:23:14.063]that Sendai City has decided that they're going to use
[00:23:17.855]to prevent their city from being affected
[00:23:20.559]from the next great tsunami,
[00:23:23.007]and they're planning for 100-year return
[00:23:25.459]period of a tsunami.
[00:23:27.546]So what they're doing,
[00:23:30.127]they have coastal embankments.
[00:23:33.229]So instead of a massive seawall,
[00:23:35.232]they decided to have coastal embankments.
[00:23:37.892]They have coastal forests,
[00:23:46.019]elevated evacuation facilities,
[00:23:49.171]and then more evaluated roads.
[00:23:52.130]These four areas that have yellow,
[00:23:54.883]those are areas that are being
[00:23:56.770]filled with disaster debris.
[00:23:58.773]So they're using recycle materials
[00:24:00.900]to do these mitigation measures.
[00:24:04.036]And their idea behind this tsunami dampening is that
[00:24:07.830]the more obstructions you have
[00:24:10.157]in the way of the floodwaters as it comes in,
[00:24:12.736]what do you think will happen?
[00:24:15.485]It's gonna slow down.
[00:24:17.085]So the more speed bumps you have,
[00:24:18.898]the slower the wave would get, right?
[00:24:21.589]And so that's what they're trying to do.
[00:24:24.586]This is me
[00:24:26.579]on this coastal embankment in Sendai.
[00:24:29.528]You can see here,
[00:24:30.851]actually, this was last summer.
[00:24:32.802]So this is the ocean here.
[00:24:35.775]That's an embankment,
[00:24:37.203]and this was the coastal forest
[00:24:40.592]that was there during the tsunami.
[00:24:43.472]It looks kinda sparse, doesn't it?
[00:24:45.972]You can see the trees are skill kinda leaning
[00:24:48.280]from when the water came in.
[00:24:50.135]So right now, this summer,
[00:24:52.562]they have begun replanting the trees
[00:24:54.659]for this coastal forest.
[00:24:56.945]So when I go back to Japan.
[00:24:59.663]I've done some tree planting.
[00:25:01.472]So when I go back to Japan,
[00:25:03.023]I can visit my babies,
[00:25:05.074]I have 20 trees in this areas that I planted.
[00:25:08.794]And then I have I think 30 trees
[00:25:11.269]in another city areas that I planted.
[00:25:13.985]So, not only did I learn about what's happening.
[00:25:16.996]I was able to be involved and give back.
[00:25:19.471]When I go back, I can say
[00:25:20.919]I help with the tsunami mitigation in Sendai
[00:25:24.544]because I planted those trees.
[00:25:29.331]This is the elevated roadway.
[00:25:31.231]This was the plan for the elevated roadway.
[00:25:33.973]They are elevating these roads six meters above sea level.
[00:25:38.738]How high is six meters?
[00:25:49.607]So they're elevating these roadways
[00:25:51.291]18 feet above what the existing roadway was.
[00:25:57.373]They have equation towers
[00:25:59.240]that they are also using as means of protection
[00:26:04.242]for individuals trying to scape flood waters.
[00:26:09.487]And then this is a Sendai-Tobu road.
[00:26:12.475]It's also been elevated.
[00:26:14.943]You can see on the side that this is the level
[00:26:18.803]which the original road was,
[00:26:21.297]and this is the new elevated road.
[00:26:25.485]Oddly enough, this roadway was still elevated
[00:26:28.119]from what the sea level was at the coast,
[00:26:31.996]and it said that this roadway
[00:26:33.617]served as sort of an embankment,
[00:26:36.127]and that's where the floodwater that came in Sendai,
[00:26:38.772]that big picture I showed at the beginning,
[00:26:40.820]that's where the water stop, at this road.
[00:26:45.317]To see it a little bit.
[00:26:48.278]So the green area is where the coastal forest is.
[00:26:52.928]This red area or red line
[00:26:55.641]is that first elevated road.
[00:26:58.251]Those black triangles
[00:26:59.750]are the elevated evacuation structures,
[00:27:03.122]and then this black line
[00:27:05.595]is that Sendai-Tobu road.
[00:27:08.195]So the floodwaters came from here from the ocean
[00:27:10.172]all the way into this area.
[00:27:13.118]So that's how far the tsunami runup was
[00:27:15.392]in that area in Sendai.
[00:27:21.767]So there's been many schools of thought.
[00:27:24.048]And each municipality or each city
[00:27:26.782]has their own method
[00:27:27.909]in which they're rebuilding.
[00:27:29.871]Some are doing like Sendai
[00:27:31.327]where they're doing multiple obstructions.
[00:27:33.851]They are doing elevated roads,
[00:27:35.845]they're doing coastal forests,
[00:27:41.583]Some are just doing really big seawalls,
[00:27:45.605]and moving the residential community
[00:27:47.415]up into the hillside.
[00:27:50.546]This is Kesennuma.
[00:27:52.345]It's in Miyagi Prefecture,
[00:27:54.168]which is, again, the most heavily affected prefecture.
[00:28:00.088]so this is me standing by a building
[00:28:03.042]that is right across
[00:28:05.549]the port side of Kesennuma.
[00:28:07.547]This wall is basically across the street from me.
[00:28:11.781]This building that I'm standing at,
[00:28:13.430]can you guys see that blue placard,
[00:28:16.055]that's where the floodwaters was in that area.
[00:28:21.370]So, this sea wall, which is right across the street
[00:28:23.975]from where I'm standing is 11 meters tall.
[00:28:28.686]So for Kesennuma, they decided
[00:28:31.902]because they're a fishery community,
[00:28:34.371]they decided to build a mass of seawall
[00:28:36.138]as oppose to elevating the ground surface.
[00:28:41.155]This is Ishinomaki.
[00:28:43.798]They also decide to do a mass of seawall.
[00:28:48.050]And these bags here are recycled concrete,
[00:28:51.505]and that's what they're using for the fill
[00:28:53.513]inside of that sea wall.
[00:28:57.044]The shape of the sea wall is different
[00:28:58.270]from the shape of the other sea wall.
[00:29:01.825]The design is depending on
[00:29:04.363]the engineers and contractors within the municipality.
[00:29:08.035]So, along the coast, the reconstruction...
[00:29:11.329]Let me back up.
[00:29:12.233]The reconstruction for this project or this disaster
[00:29:14.943]is 250 meters of coastline
[00:29:17.788]has to be reconstruct or rebuilt.
[00:29:23.265]decides on what their seawall
[00:29:26.060]or what their mitigation measure will look like.
[00:29:28.305]So you'll see when you go to different areas,
[00:29:30.035]as you go north along the coast,
[00:29:32.301]that you may see a different seawall
[00:29:34.102]as opposed to what you see in the previous city.
[00:29:36.635]You may see the ground level is being elevated
[00:29:39.678]as opposed to having a massive seawall,
[00:29:42.678]and that's what I saw while there.
[00:29:45.939]This is an embankment,
[00:29:47.378]and this embankment I believe is eight meters,
[00:29:50.667]and this is the one in Sendai.
[00:29:52.169]This is the one I was standing on.
[00:29:54.657]This is where that coastal forest is.
[00:29:58.083]And you can see some vegetative debris is still there.
[00:30:02.189]But the sea wall has been reconstructed and improved.
[00:30:05.930]I believe the sea wall on this area
[00:30:07.912]before the disaster was three meters,
[00:30:10.631]but now it's eight meters.
[00:30:14.212]This is another area.
[00:30:15.542]This is Onagawa in Miyagi Prefecture.
[00:30:19.075]You can see the beginning stages
[00:30:21.481]of their seawall,
[00:30:23.219]some recycled concrete here,
[00:30:25.467]and this black box is also recycled materials.
[00:30:28.781]In Onagawa, they have decided to do both
[00:30:31.773]seawall and then ground surface elevation.
[00:30:38.086]This is also Onagawa.
[00:30:39.097]When you see little closer
[00:30:40.049]that they have this concrete,
[00:30:42.213]recycled concrete bags,
[00:30:43.501]and that's what they're using in the fill
[00:30:45.599]of the seawall.
[00:30:50.868]is a little further north,
[00:30:52.943]but is still in Miyagi Prefecture.
[00:30:55.343]In Minamisanriku, they have decided to basically
[00:30:59.629]elevate the whole city.
[00:31:01.647]This whole city,
[00:31:02.480]the ground surface has been raised eight meters.
[00:31:06.082]So my tour guide and interpreter during this area
[00:31:09.739]when I was visiting this area,
[00:31:11.273]he was like, "My mother's house
[00:31:12.642]"is eight meters underground."
[00:31:17.664]And this is that Emergency Management Building
[00:31:20.332]I showed in the beginning of my PowerPoint presentation.
[00:31:23.745]This area, it's basically like
[00:31:25.291]they are still rebuilding the whole city,
[00:31:27.789]and this picture was taken this summer.
[00:31:29.936]How many years ago did the disaster happen?
[00:31:34.451]Six years ago.
[00:31:37.534]Have they gotten that far with reconstruction?
[00:31:41.646]Why do you think?
[00:31:44.267]Are we talking about this
[00:31:46.984]This specific place,
[00:31:47.817]but you'll see some other ones too.
[00:31:49.388]Because I was gonna say
[00:31:51.268]they're not just doing preventive method
[00:31:53.790]like an embankment or something like that.
[00:31:55.119]They're trying to elevate the whole city.
[00:31:58.514]So if they're raising the whole city by eight meters,
[00:32:01.086]they need to get that fill from somewhere.
[00:32:03.389]There wasn't enough recycled materials
[00:32:05.012]to get it just from the debris.
[00:32:07.421]So they're also quarrying mountains
[00:32:09.749]to get some of that fill material.
[00:32:13.315]So it's taken so long.
[00:32:14.425]But another reason why it's taken so long is because
[00:32:17.752]the Olympics is gonna be in Japan in 2020,
[00:32:22.757]and so they are rebuilding
[00:32:24.833]and building Olympic stadiums in Tokyo.
[00:32:28.654]And so, most of the manpower
[00:32:29.936]that will be rebuilding this area
[00:32:31.639]because this happened six years ago, right?
[00:32:34.642]So it's no longer in the news,
[00:32:36.873]but what's important, what's in the news is
[00:32:38.750]the Olympic is coming two years.
[00:32:41.311]So that's where a lot of the manpower is going.
[00:32:43.168]So, the reconstruction in many of these areas
[00:32:46.204]is kinda stagnant.
[00:32:49.633]This is more of that same city.
[00:32:53.194]One thing to note in this particular city,
[00:32:56.912]the ocean is here,
[00:32:59.059]or the bay.
[00:33:00.239]Sanriku bay is here.
[00:33:04.900]when the tsunami came in,
[00:33:06.729]the water came into that river,
[00:33:08.610]and it overflowed on both sides.
[00:33:11.565]So I mean that's why it damaged the whole city,
[00:33:13.830]because the river overflowed.
[00:33:16.620]And so, in areas like Minamisanriku
[00:33:19.732]and also Otsuchi,
[00:33:21.030]so you have a picture of Otsuchi,
[00:33:22.992]they had similar issues where they the rivers,
[00:33:25.613]the tsunami floodwaters came into a narrow waterway.
[00:33:30.623]And if you have something that is moving fast,
[00:33:33.531]and then confine it into narrow pathway, what happens?
[00:33:39.332]Does it speed up or does it slow down?
[00:33:41.630]It speeds up,
[00:33:42.463]so it become more destructive.
[00:33:44.702]So that's what happened here in the city.
[00:33:49.245]This is more disaster debris
[00:33:51.263]being used for seawalls.
[00:33:53.223]This is Kamaishi.
[00:33:55.906]This is another part of Kamaishi.
[00:33:58.476]You'll see that the shape of the seawall
[00:34:00.157]is a little bit different
[00:34:00.990]from the ones that we saw previously, right?
[00:34:04.622]Also in Kamaishi, part of their seawall reconstruction.
[00:34:08.870]They decided to do something different.
[00:34:11.146]They were thinking about the people in the area,
[00:34:13.533]because these are massive walls.
[00:34:14.956]I think this one is 11 meters tall,
[00:34:19.569]so for people that live along the waterway...
[00:34:22.147]This is the fishery communities.
[00:34:23.440]Their livelihood is the waterways, right?
[00:34:26.910]So, if you're used to seeing the water,
[00:34:28.623]and now they build massive seawalls,
[00:34:30.536]what do you do?
[00:34:38.616]there's opening for you to drive down,
[00:34:40.435]but it's not an open
[00:34:43.461]So, you can't live along the waterway.
[00:34:44.847]There's no beachfront communities now
[00:34:49.397]But what Kamaishi decide to do
[00:34:52.547]is they decide to put windows
[00:34:55.477]on parts of the wall.
[00:34:58.657]So, you can see it,
[00:35:02.111]and this is actually right
[00:35:03.789]across the street from my hotel,
[00:35:05.236]but you can see the port.
[00:35:08.694]Would you happen to know,
[00:35:10.804]were there anything special about those windows
[00:35:13.329]that keep it structurally sustainable?
[00:35:15.164]Yeah, so these are triple pane windows
[00:35:17.758]but they are impact resistant.
[00:35:22.003]Yeah, because with tsunami,
[00:35:23.346]you have to worry about water-borne debris,
[00:35:25.884]and then becoming projectiles,
[00:35:28.442]so that's what happened to
[00:35:30.165]a lot of the things that were destroyed because
[00:35:32.617]the flood waters were lifting houses and buildings,
[00:35:34.738]and then those become bombs to other structures
[00:35:37.449]that they run into.
[00:35:40.277]Who decided like on these
[00:35:42.420](mumbles) three different types of walls.
[00:35:44.823]So why the difference?
[00:35:46.661]The difference is
[00:35:47.631]they are different municipality governments.
[00:35:50.310]They have different resources in terms of contractors,
[00:35:53.691]and then also the University community,
[00:35:56.309]academic communities are also advising them.
[00:35:59.525]Basically, construction is a bid,
[00:36:01.855]a bid game, right?
[00:36:02.688]So whoever bids the best,
[00:36:04.418]and has the best solution,
[00:36:05.986]that's what the community will go with.
[00:36:07.927]So, it's a bid game.
[00:36:13.029]My name is (mumbles).
[00:36:17.896]And my question to you is how does that affect the economy
[00:36:20.462]with the construction and reconstruction that's going on?
[00:36:24.211]We have to elevated the city
[00:36:25.715]while everyone has jobs, working,
[00:36:29.517]have goods that are being transported.
[00:36:31.521]Does that affect the currency that's going on?
[00:36:35.059]Does that affect the infrastructure at all?
[00:36:39.237]Thank you for your question.
[00:36:40.557]It does affect,
[00:36:42.353]but for Japan, their governmental working
[00:36:45.214]is different from us.
[00:36:46.330]So the national government basically gave
[00:36:49.196]these cities money to do things with.
[00:36:51.890]So, it's different from here.
[00:36:53.554]We get federal assistantship
[00:36:55.453]as federal assistance as local residents.
[00:37:00.023]The national government gives money
[00:37:01.537]to the local government.
[00:37:03.123]And they say, "You're gonna use this money
[00:37:08.848]It's a grant basically.
[00:37:10.216]It's basically a grand, yes,
[00:37:12.141]but it's given to the governmental officials
[00:37:14.573]to do what they need to do for the city
[00:37:17.395]or the municipality.
[00:37:21.844]there is an effect on community
[00:37:23.633]because it's taking so long to rebuild,
[00:37:26.005]that's one thing.
[00:37:27.304]Because it's taking so long,
[00:37:28.296]this disaster happened six years ago.
[00:37:30.656]So because it's taking so long to rebuild,
[00:37:33.108]people have reestablished to other places.
[00:37:35.606]So it means they've lost employees,
[00:37:37.951]they have lost income coming in to their area.
[00:37:41.936]So it does have effect,
[00:37:43.269]but the amount of the effect,
[00:37:45.098]I don't know.
[00:37:47.711]Sorry, economy is not my focus,
[00:37:49.919]but if you're really interested,
[00:37:51.907]I can get that information for you.
[00:37:56.197]This is Otsuchi.
[00:37:57.887]This is another area but this is north.
[00:38:00.433]So this is now in Iwate Prefecture.
[00:38:03.835]This is Otsuchi Bay,
[00:38:06.785]and this picture was taken this summer.
[00:38:14.007]one local business here, and one house.
[00:38:18.889]In Otsuchi, only 1/3 the population has comeback,
[00:38:22.712]or plans to comeback.
[00:38:24.902]So, basically in a lot of these areas that are rebuilding,
[00:38:28.539]they're rebuilding ghost towns
[00:38:30.205]because the residents have now reestablished themselves.
[00:38:33.734]So if you were a child,
[00:38:35.933]and you were born when the disaster happened,
[00:38:38.683]you're basically a first grader now.
[00:38:40.768]So you're parents aren't gonna want to move you
[00:38:43.326]back to where you used to live
[00:38:44.965]because you've already reestablished yourself
[00:38:48.395]in this new community.
[00:38:49.867]So, that's what I saw in a lot of these areas that
[00:38:54.085]So in Otsuchi,
[00:38:56.333]they're also building massive embankment and seawalls .
[00:38:59.924]But in terms of the residents,
[00:39:03.039]they own land but no one is coming back.
[00:39:10.423]This is Mayaku.
[00:39:12.823]So, in addition to using debris to
[00:39:17.688]assist with the reconstruction of
[00:39:19.584]coastal embankments and seawalls,
[00:39:21.745]they're also reusing debris for memorial parks.
[00:39:28.413]is a river gate or water gate here.
[00:39:30.705]A newly constructed water gate.
[00:39:32.805]This picture shows components of the damage
[00:39:35.399]of previous water gate.
[00:39:37.307]They basically have set it aside
[00:39:39.395]to make a memorial park.
[00:39:41.520]So in several areas, they're also recycling,
[00:39:43.587]reusing debris for memorial parks.
[00:39:48.575]This is Taro.
[00:39:50.259]This is also up north in Japan,
[00:39:53.056]in Iwate prefecture.
[00:39:54.914]The importance of this picture is
[00:39:57.136]that this is the seawall,
[00:39:59.483]you see they have rehabilitate it.
[00:40:01.378]This was the existing seawall.
[00:40:03.291]They have rehabilitate that seawall,
[00:40:05.731]but they have moved the coastal community
[00:40:07.767]all the way up in the hill side.
[00:40:14.660]And this is almost the tip of the
[00:40:18.727]Hongo Island of Japan,
[00:40:20.853]right before you get to Hokkaido.
[00:40:23.502]This is Kuji.
[00:40:25.161]In Kuji, this is a river gate,
[00:40:29.211]and this placard like on that building
[00:40:31.380]shows where the water was.
[00:40:34.006]The river gate is here.
[00:40:36.173]The water came up here.
[00:40:38.389]So, the tsunami floodwaters flooded over the river gate.
[00:40:42.476]But luckily in this area, the city is offset.
[00:40:46.187]So right behind
[00:40:47.984]this river gate is a coastal forest.
[00:40:50.916]So although the tsunami floodwaters
[00:40:52.532]came over the river gate,
[00:40:54.349]the coastal forest slowed down the tsunami floodwaters.
[00:40:57.897]So in Kuji, that city,
[00:40:59.869]they said if the water level came up
[00:41:01.421]to I think their calves, their legs.
[00:41:03.640]So it wasn't as high as some of the other areas.
[00:41:08.539]This is also in Kuji,
[00:41:09.590]a closer look at another part of the city.
[00:41:13.580]And see, the front water wasn't as high.
[00:41:17.886]So, during my time there in Japan,
[00:41:20.035]I've been learning about how they're rebuilding,
[00:41:23.054]how they're recycling, reusing debris for reconstruction,
[00:41:26.172]and what technologies they're coming up
[00:41:28.008]to recycle and reuse debris for the reconstruction.
[00:41:34.213]So just to summarize what I'm doing in my Fulbright.
[00:41:38.045]I'm learning about what's happening
[00:41:39.240]in these two affected prefectures,
[00:41:41.415]both Miyagi and Iwate.
[00:41:43.809]Again, I still haven't seen Fukushima.
[00:41:46.450]There's still some issues going on with contamination,
[00:41:49.562]and it's restricted to go to certain areas.
[00:41:52.959]But the two areas that I have been studying so far,
[00:41:56.878]they have successfully managed their debris.
[00:42:00.226]They're recycling and reusing
[00:42:01.479]both concrete and tsunami deposits
[00:42:04.258]for the reestablishment and reconstruction of their cities.
[00:42:08.932]And also, they're coming up with new technologies
[00:42:12.271]in which they recycle and reuse debris.
[00:42:14.262]Some are using the concrete debris in bags,
[00:42:17.563]and filling it into their seawalls.
[00:42:19.836]Some are using it in coastal embankment.
[00:42:22.515]For some of the memorial parks,
[00:42:23.862]they have mixed debris
[00:42:25.073]that they are compacting and using that as
[00:42:28.828]coastal embankment areas or coastal forests.
[00:42:32.081]So these are lessons that we can learn
[00:42:34.379]from what do you do to overwhelming amounts of debris.
[00:42:37.313]And then we can compare that
[00:42:38.323]with what we're doing here,
[00:42:39.619]what we have done with disasters here.
[00:42:45.264]This past summer, as I said,
[00:42:47.364]hopefully some of you can join me in this work.
[00:42:50.647]Thanks to the support of the national science foundation,
[00:42:53.003]I was able to take eight students with me to Japan
[00:42:56.197]for one week.
[00:42:58.750]We basically toured all of these cities,
[00:43:01.121]and my students got to see what it is I'm studying.
[00:43:05.763]Actually, seven students and one high school teacher,
[00:43:08.200]but she's applying to grad school.
[00:43:09.586]So I'm trying to bring her in as a graduate student.
[00:43:12.872]But this was a summer reconnaissance experience.
[00:43:15.196]So that students, both undergraduates
[00:43:17.263]and beginning master students,
[00:43:19.424]can learn about what I'm doing in disaster mitigation,
[00:43:21.907]and disaster recovery research
[00:43:24.473]in the hopes of encouraging them to consider this
[00:43:28.258]as a field of a study or a career field.
[00:43:34.032]So I like to thank all those that
[00:43:37.762]had a hand in me learning this information
[00:43:40.698]and acknowledge those that have been helpful in me,
[00:43:43.485]collecting the data while they're in Japan.
[00:43:46.949]But before I completely end,
[00:43:50.944]that's the end but it's not the end.
[00:43:54.882]Can you guys tell who this is?
[00:43:57.669]Does it look like me?
[00:44:01.943]So that's me.
[00:44:02.776]I went to Kyoto and
[00:44:05.439]got this done.
[00:44:06.626]But I want to tell you guys one last thing before I end,
[00:44:11.441]about the search project,
[00:44:13.439]which is a newly funded NSF project
[00:44:15.766]that will allow me and my colleagues
[00:44:18.899]to include graduate students in our research.
[00:44:23.554]The goals of this is to increase the number
[00:44:25.936]of minority graduate students in STEM
[00:44:28.098]that are doing disaster mitigation research.
[00:44:32.356]We have a Twitter page, and a Facebook.
[00:44:34.648]If you're interested in learning more about
[00:44:36.751]how you can be involved in this research,
[00:44:39.639]please check out our Facebook or our Twitter page.
[00:44:43.470]And I think I will stop there,
[00:44:47.083]and answer questions.
[00:44:48.026]I just have miscellaneous pictures at the end.
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