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Chap 12 EE
Narrated Power Point for Chap. 12 in EE
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Good morning, everyone.
Now we're on to Chapter 12.
We're gonna be dealing with associations
and interest groups.
And we're gonna look at non-voluntary associations,
which may seem a little bit strange to you.
and given that you're at the University of Nebraska,
there are all sorts of associations
that you can join on a voluntary basis.
And then we're gonna look at some ideas
that explain variation in associations.
And note that in previous chapters,
with the focus on small scale societies,
group membership in associations
was largely based on kinship or residence.
And now we're talking about
voluntary associations in this chapter,
or non-voluntary associations,
that are not very common in small scale societies,
but are more common in more complex societies.
Although associations also exist in small scale societies.
So, on to associations and interest groups.
Associations or interest groups
have the following characteristics in common.
Some kind of formal institutional structure exists,
there's some kind of leadership and rules and regulations.
some peoples are excluded from membership
based on a variety of criteria, it could be age,
could be sex, it could be interests, skill, etc., etc.
Membership is based on commonly shared
interests and purposes.
And there's a clear sense of mutual pride and belonging.
That is, there's some kind of solidarity, esprit de corps,
that exists in these associations and interest groups.
Non-voluntary associations are more characteristic
of relatively unstratified or egalitarian societies.
And so in the text, we see age-sets,
and we'll explore some of those,
and then also unisex associations,
for example, where only women can be members
or only men can be members.
And here are some examples of
different kinds of associations.
Some are universally ascribed or variably ascribed,
and some are based on achievement.
And to kind of give you some detail,
so here we're talking about criteria for membership,
and in an ascribed criteria, it is pretty much designated
at birth and can be based on age, sex, kinship,
or ethnic affiliation or even religion.
Achieved, however, criteria for membership
is based on accomplishments, demonstrated merit,
a position that is earned or chosen.
And so, this is the two different kinds of criteria
that put people into these different kinds of associations.
And getting back to what I mentioned before,
age-sets are non-voluntary associations whose members belong
because of universally ascribed characteristics,
such as age.
And so the text shows,
has a description of Karimojong age-sets
and also Shavante age-sets.
And in many cases, these essentially are types of
warrior societies where men and certain age groups,
for example, between ages of let's say 15 and 30,
responsible for herding, for warfare,
they can't get married until they move out of the age-set,
and same thing applies to the Shavante,
who are not herders but essentially
these groups kind of take the place of kinship groups
in these societies, and the important thing is
that everyone must become a member as they pass through
And here's the description of the Karimojong,
a junior age-set, senior generation set,
a retired, the seniors, for example,
not initiated boys.
So after initiation, they join the junior generation set,
they have a certain set of duties.
Senior age-set, as they move through the aging process
to the retired generation.
And typically, as we'll explore later in the text
or in the chapter 12 explains,
that here you need to mobilize a lot of people.
Kinship typically is the mode of mobilization,
but in this situation, kin may be dispersed
or they may be too few to accomplish the various tasks
that are important in certain kinds of societies.
There are non-voluntary associations, again,
and these are unisex associations, typically,
are associations that restrict membership to one sex,
So, the text describes the Mae Enga Bachelor Associations.
These young men are kind of set apart from their families,
they live in a common shelter,
they interact very, very frequently with one another.
And then we look at another society, the Mende,
and we have Poro and Sande societies,
and these essentially are for men and for women.
And the purpose is largely educational
where boys are taught how to be men,
or girls are taught how to be women.
And the membership is off limits to one sex or the other.
They're very private in that way.
And then the Ijaw's Women's Association,
which largely has to do with
the cooperation for commercial activities
among these African people.
Voluntary associations are more common
in stratified or complex societies.
So I've moved from non-voluntary associations,
more common in simple societies,
and we move to stratified societies.
We find all sort of associations,
military associations, regional associations,
ethnic associations, rotating credit associations,
multiethnic associations, and other interest groups,
for example, as NGOs, or non-governmental organizations.
And some of these associations
have got military associations
are not quite as voluntary as it would seem.
And we'll explore that a little bit later
in the slides.
Military associations exist to united members
through their common experience as warriors,
to glorify the activities of war, and to perform
certain activities, services, for the community.
And for example, you could think of the VFW,
Veterans of Foreign Wars.
The criteria is having served in the military.
And although they do glorify the activities of war,
in terms of protecting one's nation,
they also do a lot of charitable work
in helping their various communities.
Regional associations bring together migrants
from common geographic backgrounds.
The functions of regional associations may change over time
as social conditions change.
And so, what we're talking about here
in voluntary associations in complex societies,
is that there's lots of regional kind of sub-ethnic,
And also in stratified societies,
you have lots of migrants coming in from all over the world.
And so people, for example,
people from Appalachian move to Chicago
take advantage of economic opportunities,
they're from various regions,
they settle in different parts of the city,
and they help one another get jobs, find houses,
make connections and things of that nature.
So this is what we mean by regional associations.
And their functions change over time.
They can be political over time, but a lot of that
has to do with just basically economic assistance
among those who are already settled.
And so people who are moving from the countryside
into urban setters, then kind of seek out people
who have common regional backgrounds
and cultural backgrounds as well.
Ethnic associations, membership is largely based
And we have our tribal unions,
especially in Africa.
And also friendly societies.
And basically, again, we have movement
from the countryside into the city.
People are seeking their better economic opportunities,
and so they move to those sections of the cities
that are dominated by particular ethnic groups
that they're members of.
And again, they receive assistance in finding
a place to live, jobs, learning how the government works,
and things of that nature.
Another example is rotating credit associations.
The basic principles is that each member of the group
agrees to make a regular contribution,
in money or in kind, to a fund,
which is then handed over to each member in rotation.
And so again, these are associated with
ethnic groups typically.
And this is kind of an entrepreneurial situation
where people will essentially use the funds
contributed by other members to, for example,
to start businesses, to expand businesses,
to pay for education for their children,
deal with medical problems, things of that nature.
And so this is a really kind of interesting
self-organized kind of help group
that is financial in orientation.
Multiethnic associations increasingly voluntary groups
draw from members of many different backgrounds.
And for example, we can think of political parties.
As multiethnic associations, multiethnic and multi-regional
associates have been involved in independence
movements around the world.
And here we're talking about revolutionary groups,
sometimes political groups, that want to institute
fundamental changes in the government.
Frequently peaceful, but sometimes violent.
These multiethnic associations are becoming more important
as people bond together because they have
common political beliefs, beliefs about equality,
and the right kind of government,
and it's irrespective of their ethnic group identity.
Other interests groups; voluntary associations
in complex societies have members who belong
because of common, achieved interests.
And again, for example, the Veterans of Foreign Wars,
and all of these kinds of fan groups, sports groups,
music groups, internet clubs,
and organizations that you might find on campus.
The people who are bonded because they have
a common interest in gaming, or some other kind of
activity that they really like.
And so they are eager to meet other people
who like what they like, and they form these kinds of
fairly informal, and definitely voluntary
Explaining variation in associations.
Associations whose members belong
because of variably ascribed characteristics
tend to be replaced by highly industrialized societies
by associations whose membership is based on
And so again, we have the associations like age-sets
that are variably ascribed depending on your age.
And by being ascribed, it's kind of like
something you have like sex, ethnicity, or age
which is kind of like inherent in your identity too.
As we moved to more complex societies,
where membership is based on achieved qualities
Kind of expertise that you might have,
that allows you to claim some sort of achieved quality.
Some concepts and terms.
So know the difference between achieved versus ascribed
as membership criteria.
And also the difference between voluntary
versus non-voluntary organizations.
You know non-voluntary groups in which you have
to become a member just because you typically have
a certain set of ascribed characteristics.
Age-sets seem to appear when kin groups
are dispersed and mobilization is necessary.
As I mentioned before, this is very common among
There's a great deal of dispersion,
a good deal of warfare, and so in order to mount a defense
you can't really depend on a dispersed or even small size
And so you essentially create these organizations
that are based on common residence and identity
in the certain region, and age issues to organize
Multi-ethnic associations are again becoming more common.
And the kind of multi-ethnic societies that exist
more and more around the world.
As you look around the world,
one change that has occurred
because of globalization and ease of mobility,
is that there are very few pure cultures left.
Whether we're talking about England, France,
the United States, or South Africa.
There's a variety of ethnic groups that exist
within a political boundary.
And then looking at some of the highlights in the textbook;
ethnic associations in China Town, again,
these are designed to help immigrants
to various large citizens of the United States
with the Chinese population,
to kind of get into the economic system,
get jobs, and things of that nature.
And then also the interesting highlight,
do women's associations increase status?
There is some evidence that they do,
but it's pretty limited in terms of the domain,
whether it's economic, political, or other sorts
It helps a little bit.
And then finally, there's a good section on
non-governmental organizations and their growth.
Non-governmental organizations are essentially
organizations, for example, wildlife organizations
that pressure governments to engage in conservation
set of parks.
Or groups of, for example, such as Doctors Without Borders,
the International Red Cross.
They are frequently funded by governmental organizations,
and you know the special purpose groups
who generally have a kind of orientation that focuses
on helping people achieve certain kinds of socially
important, what they believe to be socially important,
So that's it for associations and interest groups.
The key thing here is that moving away from pure residence
and kinship as a means of organizing people
as we move from small-scale societies
to more complex societies.
Also social media groups, Facebook and Twitter, etc.,
these are kind of also interest phenomena
that are developing in recent times.
Okay that's it.
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