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Chap 10 212 EE
Narrated Power Point for Chap. 10 of EE (ANTH 212)
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Good evening to you all,
or at least it's good evening for me.
We're gonna go to marriage and family, chapter 11.
And define what is marriage,
why is marriage nearly universal?
How does one marry?
Restrictions on marriage, the universal incest taboo,
a really important issue.
Whom should one marry?
Lots of societies have real stringent rules
on who one can marry.
And how many does one marry?
You'll be surprised to know perhaps that
if you look at the standard, as a rough example,
86% of all societies permit polygyny,
and polygyny is a marriage form
as we'll find out pretty soon,
is where a man can have more than one wife.
And we'll talk about the nature of the family,
the nuclear and the extended family
and then why extended families
are pretty common worldwide.
Marriage merely means a socially approved
sexual and economic union,
usually between a man and a woman.
And this is typically an enduring kind of relationship.
One important dimension of marriage is cohabitation,
but there are groups such as the Na in China
and the Nayar in India
where cohabitation is not expected.
It's exceptionally rare.
And so we have marriages without
the husband and the wife having a common residence,
but these are really rare.
And then there are kinda rare types of marriages,
especially as the text pointed out,
same sex unions that occur in a variety of societies,
especially in native North America
and to some extent native South America.
Why is marriage nearly universal?
There's some ideas out there.
I think perhaps a combination of them is probably correct.
One has to do with a gender division of labor.
The idea here is that women
are really good at certain kinds of activities,
men in other activities, kinds of activities.
And together they can make an efficient, economic unit.
That's true, but I think prolonged infant dependency
is probably the most important reason,
in that humans are slow to develop.
They take a lot of nurturing and time.
They're essentially not able
to become economically independent,
by that I mean be able to produce
enough food for their own uses, needs,
until they're about 18 years of age,
it happens a little bit earlier for girls than for boys,
and so I think this is probably
the most important reason for
why marriage occurs, why monogamy is especially common,
and it's in tune with lots of other research
on different animals from an evolutionary perspective.
Sexual competition, that could be an issue too.
It's a way for people to maintain
the unity of their own union
and prevent others from competing,
but that may be one dimension of marriage.
The assumption is that there's some kind of fidelity,
but again, I think prolonged infant dependency.
And there's some mention of other mammals and birds.
Some research that the em-bers have done
on postpartum requirements,
and that again, feeds into the issue
of prolonged infant dependency,
postpartum means after birth,
and the kinds of investments that's required.
And again, when you see this in other mammals and birds,
that it takes two to rear
an infant and take care of
until they're able to fend for themselves.
So this idea of prolonged infant dependency
is probably the most important reason
for the evolution of marriage
and accounts for its effect
of the nearly human universal.
How does one marry?
Some societies mark marriages
by elaborate rites and celebrations,
while others do so in a much more informal way.
In our society it's a big celebration.
In other societies it's pretty much marked by simply
a woman moving to a man's residence,
taking up living with him
and there's no big celebration or ordeal.
And so that is kind of like
the marking of the onset of marriage,
a ceremony is quite variable.
But importantly, there are a number of economic aspects
of marriage that you want to kind of take a look at.
And let's go through these.
In about 75% of all societies,
some kind of economic transaction is required.
In a good number of societies,
and you'll see the pie chart in just a minute,
a bride price is required.
And this is where a man essentially
has to pay the bride's family for the right
to that woman, the right to have a complete
and faithful sexual access to her,
the use of her labor.
And so typically in many herding societies
it's a transfer of some kind of wealth,
like cattle, goats, other things of value.
In those societies that don't have
much in the way of material wealth, we have bride service.
And this is a situation where the husband
has to work for the family of the bride
for a number of years, one or two,
before he gains the right to take her
to his own home and have their marriage.
So that's another form of payment, in terms of service.
In some societies it's common that there's an exchange.
The one family has a son who wants to get married.
They arrange a marriage with a young woman in another family
with the expectation that that woman
in the other family has a brother
who at some later time, or at the same time,
will marry a woman from the other family.
And so there's this exchange of females.
And by the way, in a number of societies
you can have these things kinda working together.
The group I worked with, the Yanomamo,
they both engage in bride service,
sometimes called groom service,
and the exchange of females.
Sometimes there's just a token exchange
of gifts of little value.
It's more symbolic between the families to,
you know it's an economic aspect of marriage.
Then we have dowry.
Now, a lot of people misunderstand dowry.
Dowry, think about the term endowed.
So it means that you get something.
In a dowry system, when a woman marries,
she's endowed by her family with a set of resources.
Sometimes they're jewels, sometimes they're pots and pans
that are, it may seem trivial to us,
but in societies that are highly agricultural,
these are really important tools.
And she brings that into the marriage.
The husband typically brings land into the marriage.
And so the dowry plus the husband's
house or land form what we call,
write this down, a matrimonial fund.
That is, essentially it is
an economic startup package, if you will,
that combines resources from both families
to ensure that the new couple have a means to
start making a living effectively.
Don't worry about indirect dowry, it's not very common.
So I have it there listed,
but it's nothing you really have to worry yourself about.
Here's a, gives you kind of a picture.
In 75% of all societies,
we have these kinds of transactions.
25% of all societies,
we don't have these kinda transactions.
Now where would put marriages in our society?
Well, traditionally the
husband's family has to, oh excuse me,
the wife's family has to bear the cost of marriage,
that is setting up the reception
and feeding the guests, renting the space,
paying for the DJ, or whatever.
But we would probably just call this
a kind of maybe gift exchange.
The wife's family then would pay for the,
or excuse me, the husband's family
might pay for the rehearsal dinner
or something of that nature.
But these typically are not dramatic costs.
I'm not trying to say that a marriage
in the United States is cheap.
Some people really get extravagant,
but it's something we would call
like an economic transaction.
It's more or less kind of showing off
to your friends and neighbors and your relatives
about what kind of wealth you have
and it's more like a display than anything else.
Restrictions on marriage, the incest taboo
is pretty much universal.
That is there's a prevention
of close inbreeding through marriage.
And what it means is that typically
you can't marry anyone within your own family.
In many societies, however,
you can marry a first cousin, or a second cousin,
and many of you, for example, of European descent,
going back three or four generations,
may know of cousin marriages, first or second cousins,
that have happened in your family.
It's very kind of common in Europe.
But the restrictions are against any kind of marriage
within the nuclear family,
or between grandparents, grandchildren, aunts,
nephews, uncles, and nieces.
And so this is pretty much universal,
a kind of pattern that we find, although limits vary,
but close inbreeding is essentially prevented.
There are a number of theories
about the universal incest taboo.
And the two that I think are most important
are the childhood-familiarity theory,
and this was devised by Edward Westermarck
at the turn of the 1900s.
He was a Finnish cross-cultural researcher,
along with the inbreeding theory.
So these are the two key kind of explanations.
And actually they're not in competition.
But before I get into talking about those two,
Freud's psychoanalytic theory,
I don't even know why it's in the text,
is essentially, what's the word I want to use, bogus?
Has no empirical
demonstration at all, but let's focus on
what we call the proximate causes,
there's the childhood-familiarity theory
and the inbreeding theory,
which is more of a functional, ultimate explanation.
And the childhood-familiarity theory
is the idea that if you grow up with another individual
in an intimate day-to-day interaction,
at the time of sexual maturity,
even though you may play doctor earlier on,
you'll have no interest in having sex with that individual.
And so basically we're talking about our siblings.
And we grew up with them, we have day-to-day interactions,
and the very idea of even having sex with a sibling
strikes people as morally disgusting,
a horrible thing to even kind of try to imagine.
And so we have this kind of natural aversion
to having any kind of sexual interest
in someone that we grew up with.
And so this provides a kind of psychological mechanism
that accounts for part of the theory.
The other part of the theory
has to do with inbreeding depression,
write that down, inbreeding depression.
And what that means is that people who,
for example, are siblings,
they have sex, they have offspring,
and typically those offspring
have very serious problems
if they survive past the first couple years of age.
And this is documented in a wide variety of animals.
It's well documented in humans.
That the first kind of like clear demonstration
was an interesting article by James Neel
and William Schull called The Children of Incest.
And through examination of a series of case histories,
they show that the offspring from inbred,
you know sister/brother kinds of
incestuous sex just pretty much
had a very low probability of survival.
If they did survive, then they were mentally deficient
or had other sorts of kind of crippling characteristics.
So the childhood-familiarity theory
essentially provides us with a psychological mechanism
that makes us not to even want to go there in a sense.
And the inbreeding theory talks about
the adaptiveness of not engaging in inbreeding.
So whom should one marry?
Well, we have a lot of societies.
In some societies you have to marry outside a particular
group, that is your nuclear family, for example.
But within a certain social circle,
could be religious, could be within your own culture,
could be within your own ethnicity.
And so these notions of exogamy and endogamy
essentially define the world of
appropriate marriages that you can have.
In many societies, as I mentioned,
a cousin marriage is prescribed.
The idea that you can trust kin,
you can get along with them.
And we know that, for example,
alliances are created and maintained
through inter-marriage between families,
and so cousin marriages sometimes occurred.
And then we have the interesting cases,
the levirate and the sororate.
And the levirate is actually from the Bible,
the first Old Testament, practiced by the Levites,
that's why I have it called the levirate,
and it means that if
a man dies, who's married,
then his brother is required to marry
his deceased brother's wife.
And the sororate is much the same,
just kind of the opposite.
If a woman dies in marriage,
then the woman's sister is required
to marry the former husband of her deceased sister.
And the kind of argument here
for the levirate and the soroate
is that it kinda maintains alliances
that were established by marriage.
If there's a death of one of the individuals,
then the alliance is potentially broken,
and so a quick remarriage
allows the alliance to persist.
How many does one marry?
Well, we can talk about plural marriages
and the term is polygamy.
That is is a woman with more than one husband at a time
or a man with more than one wife at a time.
In the case of, you know specifically,
polyandry is a term where a woman
is allowed to take more than one husband at a time.
That's really, really rare.
Only about maybe two to 3% of all societies permit it.
On the other hand, polygyny is permitted
in 86% of all societies in the ethnographic record.
And so if you think about it,
and you think perhaps polygyny is really odd,
and really what has to be explained is monogamy.
Now why is monogamy so rare?
Now, that being said, even though
in 86% of all societies polygyny is permitted,
most of the men and women
in these societies where polygyny
is permitted are married monogamously.
And also, if you look at those societies
that practice monogamy, you find that
they're very common in complexly
organized state level societies
and we call this socially imposed monogamy,
but in general, as a species overall,
we are somewhat of a polygynous species
because it is so commonly allowed.
And typically males that have high status,
especially wealth, are the ones who
are able to marry polygynously.
So as I mentioned, polygyny is a practice
in which men are allowed to be married
to more than one woman at the same time.
And one theory is that societies
that have a long postpartum sex taboo allow this practice.
There's like really weak, weak support for this,
a theory that they champion in the textbook.
It has to do with the fact largely
that certain men in societies
are exceptionally wealthy
and oftentimes the women are better off
being the second wife of a very rich man
than the first wife of a very poor man.
And so that's one explanation that it has to do
with wealth differentials or status differentials,
where polygyny is practiced.
Sororal polygyny, polygyny comes in two forms,
sororal, that is the preference
is to marry women who are sisters.
And nonsororal polygyny is the rule
that you can marry the multiple wives,
but none of them should be sisters.
So that's nonsororal polygyny.
The sororal part, talking about the fact,
as in sorority or sisters, is what that stands for.
Polyandry is a practice whereby
one woman is allowed to be married to more than one man.
I mentioned this before, there's also two forms.
Fraternal, that is brothers marry a single woman.
So it's kind of like sororal polygyny, if you will.
And then nonfraternal polyandry,
where a woman marries men
who are not related, not brothers to one another.
Again, polyandry is relatively uncommon,
although it's much more common
than people have been led to believe.
One of my former graduate students and I
published a paper on human nature
about the unexpected commonness of polyandry.
You can go to my web page
and download a copy of that paper
if you want to read about what we found out,
that it was much, much more common than previously suspected
and typically occurs in societies
that are hunter-gatherers or are simple
agricultural societies or horticultural societies.
To the family now, is defined as a social
and economic unit consisting minimally
of one or more parents and their children.
Sometimes families are formed by adoption.
That's one way if the couple has lost children
or is unable to reproduce.
And typically worldwide, most adoptions are of close kin.
And so they may be essentially a couple
adopting a nephew or a niece,
one that perhaps has lost their parents.
Or sometimes they haven't lost their parents
and they just essentially need children in the family
to kinda help out with economic affairs.
And then we're gonna talk about extended-family households,
which are more common than nuclear family households.
And there we have multi-generational sorts of households.
And then some possible reasons
for extended-family households.
And again, adoptions as I mentioned,
most adoptions occur between kin
and may be due to lack of kin
in the recipient family, that is offspring.
There may a consequence
of high mortality rates through disease.
So a family could be losing children,
and so a related family might give
the equivalent of their nephews and nieces
to the other family to kinda make up for this loss.
And so it's kind of like a way
to kind of bulk up the family
that has lost members, largely children,
as a consequence of natural factors.
So, what's an extended-family?
It's the most common form of family.
And it's a prevailing form of family
consisting of a married couple
and one or more married children,
all living in the same household.
So for example, a husband
and a wife get married, they have kids.
The oldest son typically will marry
and then bring his bride into the family.
And so we have what's called a patrilineally
or a patrilaterally extended family household.
There are matrilaterally extended family households,
but patrilaterally extended households are much more common.
And possible reasons for extended family households.
Most societies commonly have extended-family households,
as noted, and they are mostly found
in societies that are with sedentary agricultural economies.
And so these are not modern agricultural societies,
but simple, but fairly intensive agricultural societies.
And a lot of the reasons for this
has to do with the fact that land may be in short supply,
but additional labor can make that land more productive.
These possible reasons too have to do with,
so that would be the first reason,
kind of like the ability to use additional labor
to make farming more efficient.
Also, if you keep the property
within an extended family,
then it prevents this continual subdivision
into smaller and smaller parcels through time.
For example, if you have a hundred acres
and you have two sons and they inherit,
then they have 50 acres.
And they inherit their sons,
it goes down to 12 and a half, et cetera, et cetera,
we get smaller, smaller, smaller in size.
So extended families kinda prevent
that process from going on.
And also is found where either parent
must be away from the household to work.
So for example, if a woman has to be away
for a long period of time,
she has her mother and mother-in-law,
or perhaps a sister who can take over duties,
care for her children, things of that nature.
Same thing will apply for a husband and family
if he had to be away herding cattle,
for example, over a long distance.
And so these extended family units
are essentially economic cooperative units
that it's better to be essentially
well organized and large so people
can more efficiently work together.
And some highlights mentioned in the textbook.
One-parent families are becoming much, much more common,
probably as a consequence of wealth
in a commercial context,
in that in the case here,
we're talking about are largely women,
they no longer need the economic resources
of a man in order to have a family.
And so they're able to essentially go it alone
and we're finding that we're talking about
one-parent families, we're typically talking about,
and here we're talking about 85 to 95%
of one-parent families are headed by women.
They call these matrifocal.
That's M-A-T-R-I-F-O-C-A-L, matrifocal families.
And so that one highlight talks about that in your text.
And family and social security in Japan,
it talks about the decline of the extended family.
And the extended family was kind of like,
to some extent, a social security network.
That is the older couple became incapacitated,
couldn't work, and the way they began to
care for their grandchildren,
and their children would support them economically.
The extended family began to disappear in Japan
as a consequence of agriculture being not as important,
and so the state steps in to essentially
recreate that form of family social security
that was inherent in the extended family,
and so take a look at that highlight.
It's very interesting to see how
this need for caring for the elderly
was done in the extended family context.
And now the state's stepped in
because the extended family no longer exists and helps out.
Here are some key terms and concepts.
Theories of marriage in here.
The issue of parental investment and also in needing
two adults to take care of children
who have a long period of immaturity.
We talked about extended and nuclear families.
Nuclear families are pretty much isolated families,
just husband, wife, and their children.
And they're typically found in areas
where you know you have to have a lot of mobility.
And you essentially move to where the jobs are,
which moves you away from your own families
and prevents the extended families from forming
and in extended families,
typically are cooperative entities
that are involved in relatively intensive agriculture.
The incest taboo, it focused on
and the prevention of inbreeding,
as the two linked causes of the incest taboo.
Economic transactions at marriage.
We talked about bride price, groom service,
dowry, et cetera, et cetera.
Dowry typically, by the way,
occurs in those societies that are intensively agriculture.
And again, the dowry is essentially
where a woman has resources that she brings into a marriage,
combines with the husband's resources,
so they can have a matrimonial fund
to start a marriage.
Then know the difference between
monogamy, polygyny, and polyandry.
And then marriage arrangements,
we have, I talked about exogamy, endogamy,
cousin marriage, the levirate and soroate.
And the important thing to note here
is that parents have historically
have had a great deal to say about who one marries
than our own society and in recent historic times,
we're kind of free to choose,
although bringing home a boyfriend or a girlfriend
that you're serious about,
you'll know they'll get scrutinized by the parents
and the parents will express their opinions
of the potential marital relationship
that could develop, but historically you know,
the parents have been, are the ones
who essentially arrange marriages.
And the idea here is that young people
are really too foolish,
they don't know what marriage really entails.
And another issue too is in our own society,
romantic love is supposed to be
the kind of be-all and end-all of marriage,
and that people marry because they fall in love.
What's interesting, in some cross-cultural research,
only kinda briefly mentioned in the text,
is that while romantic love is a cross-cultural universal,
it is not a cross-cultural foundation for marriage.
Marriage typically occurs for political,
social, and economic reasons.
And historically they've been arranged by parents.
Today that's quite different.
Romantic feelings are the center of our marital decisions,
but that's kind of like a relatively
rare, recent historical development.
So that's it for marriage and family.
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