The Intersections Between Sexual Violence and Alcohol on Campuses: Using Research to Guide Effective Prevention Planning and Collaboration 1 of 2
Research consistently finds an association between sexual violence and alcohol. However, the nature of that association is complex, so translating these findings into successful prevention efforts can be challenging. This training will provide a unique opportunity for campus sexual violence and alcohol prevention professionals to come together and explore these issues. The session is designed to foster a dialogue about how these issues intersect and provide an opportunity for participants to generate ideas about how best to approach these issues in their own prevention efforts. The session will begin with a review of research findings about sexual violence and alcohol and an overview of a framework for effective prevention on college campuses that consists of a set of best practice principles and a strategic planning process. Through interactive exercises, discussion, and sharing ideas, participants will explore the implications of the research and best practices for creating more effective prevention and education efforts and finding opportunities for collaboration and mutual support across alcohol and violence prevention efforts. The workshop will touch on an array of specific topics, including the relationship of the alcohol/sexual violence intersection to consent, social norms, skill-building, bystander intervention, and environmental management.
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[00:00:01.560]Good morning, everyone.
[00:00:03.650]Welcome to today's workshop.
[00:00:05.630]Now you can make a noise.
[00:00:07.605]Now you can participate.
[00:00:09.271]It's always interesting, in these programs,
[00:00:11.090]that we bring you here
[00:00:12.460]and the crux of the process is interaction.
[00:00:17.990]But because of technology we have a few minutes of silence
[00:00:21.730]so the engineers can do their thing and get things started.
[00:00:25.820]So I'd like to welcome you all to this workshop
[00:00:29.950]on the intersection of sexual violence and alcohol.
[00:00:33.140]I'm Ian Newman.
[00:00:34.490]I'm the director of
[00:00:36.440]the Nebraska Prevention Center for Alcohol Abuse.
[00:00:39.750]I do a lot of other things around the university,
[00:00:41.780]pretty much anything anybody else won't do.
[00:00:44.430]And the Nebraska Collegiate Consortium
[00:00:50.150]is an interesting entity.
[00:00:51.420]We started out with 13 schools across the state,
[00:00:55.380]and now we have practically all of the schools,
[00:00:57.470]up in the 20s.
[00:00:58.780]We have 15 schools represented here today, 15 institutions
[00:01:01.655]of higher education, plus a number
[00:01:04.540]of groups from the community
[00:01:06.680]which is really important.
[00:01:08.410]Because there's two things that really drive
[00:01:10.910]the successes that we've had and the successes
[00:01:13.070]that we hope to have in the future.
[00:01:15.470]One is campus community collaboration.
[00:01:19.210]So we really need to be working with
[00:01:20.930]all those other agencies in the community.
[00:01:23.900]And secondly is data-driven decision making.
[00:01:27.330]We're accumulating more and more information,
[00:01:29.740]more and more data, and we need to find ways
[00:01:32.310]to use that in our planning.
[00:01:34.880]So in today's discussion, you'll be thinking about
[00:01:38.080]those two things, along with everything else
[00:01:40.330]that we're thinking about.
[00:01:41.880]Campus community collaboration
[00:01:44.780]and data-driven decision making.
[00:01:46.890]This is an interesting topic that we have today.
[00:01:48.940]It's a vital topic.
[00:01:50.370]It's a topic that's blown open
[00:01:51.840]into the public just recently.
[00:01:53.670]So we now have community interest
[00:01:55.520]and we now have community support.
[00:01:57.870]For those of you that have been struggling to
[00:01:59.810]try to bring some of these issues to the visibility level,
[00:02:03.320]it's a whole new playing field now
[00:02:04.820]because of what's happened nationally.
[00:02:06.830]So it's very timely that we have
[00:02:08.470]this particular workshop today.
[00:02:11.620]I wanna do some quick introductions before we begin.
[00:02:15.630]Megan Hopkins you know, she's not in the room at the moment,
[00:02:19.020]but she's to be thanked for all of the organization
[00:02:21.390]and all of the contacts.
[00:02:22.950]She makes me look really good, which makes me very happy,
[00:02:26.460]and she does a fantastic job.
[00:02:28.830]I'd like you to remind her about that when you see her
[00:02:32.782]and encourage her, not that she needs a lot
[00:02:34.680]of encouragement, she was born with encouragement.
[00:02:37.190]But she's just a great supporter.
[00:02:39.690]And Duane Shell, who's not in the room, who's our data guy.
[00:02:43.080]I talked about data-driven decisions.
[00:02:45.250]He can be very helpful to you, as you think about
[00:02:47.800]what you might have in your records
[00:02:49.800]or you might have access to that you can use in planning.
[00:02:54.350]He can help you think through some of those issues.
[00:02:57.730]He can also tie you into new mechanisms perhaps
[00:03:00.210]of collecting data, but in many cases we've got data.
[00:03:03.500]We just don't always look at it
[00:03:04.840]and we don't always use it in decision making,
[00:03:07.520]and we don't bring it to the attention
[00:03:08.990]of our higher administrators in an appropriate fashion.
[00:03:12.140]So Duane, whom you'll see around,
[00:03:15.340]if you've got questions related to data,
[00:03:17.580]take them to him for sure.
[00:03:22.850]Megan asked me to remind you that at the end,
[00:03:25.070]there's an evaluation form that we'd like you to fill out.
[00:03:28.110]It's important to us, because we like to look at that
[00:03:30.530]in terms of doing these skill-building workshops.
[00:03:33.090]Remember, this is a skill-building workshop.
[00:03:36.460]How do you develop a skill?
[00:03:40.440]So when you go away from here today,
[00:03:42.140]we want you putting into practice
[00:03:44.360]some of the things that you've learned today.
[00:03:46.680]So that the value of today's workshop is not being here.
[00:03:50.710]The value of today's workshop is what happens
[00:03:52.790]when you leave here and you begin to practice
[00:03:55.380]some of the things you've learned today
[00:03:56.650]and you begin to recruit others into the process
[00:03:59.720]of getting these things done.
[00:04:05.300]Lunch will be here.
[00:04:06.860]Refreshments are here as you want them.
[00:04:09.210]Washrooms are down the hall, over to your left
[00:04:12.470]when you go outside the door,
[00:04:13.440]or to the right near the front door.
[00:04:15.910]So that's all you need to know now
[00:04:17.900]to get all you can out of this workshop.
[00:04:21.020]Linda Langford is going to introduce herself,
[00:04:23.580]tell you something about her.
[00:04:25.110]We are very fortunate to bring her to Nebraska
[00:04:28.010]to benefit from her experiences.
[00:04:30.350]She works now as a private consultant.
[00:04:32.840]She also works with the Education Development Center.
[00:04:35.760]She's involved in critical issues facing us today,
[00:04:38.490]like suicide, like alcohol, like sexual violence.
[00:04:42.540]So Linda actually came to Nebraska,
[00:04:44.450]knowing the value of Nebraska,
[00:04:46.980]which is not what a lot of people know.
[00:04:49.000]She's been here since Saturday, Sunday?
[00:04:52.763]See, so people do come to Nebraska
[00:04:54.940]because Nebraska's just a nice place.
[00:04:57.490]The other reason she comes to Nebraska, of course,
[00:04:59.500]is a person that you owe a great deal to,
[00:05:03.560]and that's Linda Major.
[00:05:05.160]Linda Major has been key in the development
[00:05:08.690]of alcohol-related policies and practices
[00:05:10.570]in this community since before I was born.
[00:05:15.777]It's not true.
[00:05:20.830]She ages well.
[00:05:24.410]She's a special assistant to our Student Vice-Chancellor,
[00:05:28.310]but she has contacts all around the country.
[00:05:30.730]She's facilitated what we've done in this community
[00:05:33.100]in so many different ways, and she continues to do that
[00:05:36.070]and she's a storehouse of information and experience
[00:05:40.390]for those of you that are perhaps struggling with issues
[00:05:42.530]in your own communities, who'd like to tap into
[00:05:45.060]her experience and her thoughts
[00:05:46.580]and her great network of contacts all around.
[00:05:50.000]So again, welcome.
[00:05:52.460]This room sounds a little dead.
[00:05:54.280]When you hear the sound in here,
[00:05:57.170]don't let that intimidate you in terms of
[00:05:59.020]answering questions and asking questions.
[00:06:02.560]Everything you say in this room,
[00:06:03.900]it goes up through these things,
[00:06:05.070]so be careful what you're not saying publicly,
[00:06:09.140]because it can be heard.
[00:06:10.760]But this is a great facility.
[00:06:12.710]We are going live across the state,
[00:06:14.520]so in addition to the people that are here
[00:06:16.120]and the people that are in the overflow room,
[00:06:19.340]there are people across the state
[00:06:20.440]that are participating in this.
[00:06:22.060]We record these sessions and we make them available
[00:06:24.950]in DVD and other forms afterwards
[00:06:26.800]for folks that couldn't be here.
[00:06:28.640]So not only are you a part of learning yourself,
[00:06:32.390]but the product of this will hopefully help
[00:06:34.880]other people learn also.
[00:06:37.210]So again, welcome.
[00:06:38.670]I'd like to introduce to you Linda Langford.
[00:06:47.261]Thank you so much, Ian.
[00:06:48.610]It's great to be back in Nebraska, I've been here before.
[00:06:51.390]A little tidbit about me and Linda Major,
[00:06:54.500]that around Linda Major, I am known as Linda Minor.
[00:06:57.698]So that tells you how she's regarded in the field at large.
[00:07:02.560]So thank you so much for taking the time to be here.
[00:07:06.320]I'm delighted to be here.
[00:07:08.431]We're gonna have a long conversation today.
[00:07:10.180]You're gonna have conversations with one another,
[00:07:12.314]And so people who are in the overflow room and remote,
[00:07:16.340]you can ask your questions as well,
[00:07:18.830]and I hope if you're remote,
[00:07:22.380]that you'll sort of stick with it.
[00:07:24.460]It's gonna build throughout the day,
[00:07:27.150]so that you'll not just float in and out
[00:07:29.890]as much as your able, just to stay with us.
[00:07:34.360]So let me just say a little word about myself.
[00:07:37.020]As Ian said, so I used to work at a national center
[00:07:41.000]that was funded by the US Department of Education
[00:07:43.270]called the Higher Education Center
[00:07:44.730]for Alcohol, Drug Abuse and Violence Prevention,
[00:07:46.960]a name only a government agency could love.
[00:07:49.741]And so I worked starting there in 1998.
[00:07:54.030]Worked there for about four years
[00:07:55.750]as the Director of Evaluation,
[00:07:57.390]and then for the last 10 years that I worked there,
[00:08:01.300]they said, we do alcohol and drug prevention,
[00:08:04.600]but we're not really doing violence prevention,
[00:08:06.250]we should do that.
[00:08:07.083]So that was my background, so I was the Director
[00:08:10.790]of Violence Prevention Initiatives at that center
[00:08:12.710]for about 10 years, and unfortunately the center
[00:08:17.380]was defunded a couple years ago.
[00:08:19.944]So I continue that, work with colleges,
[00:08:24.520]violence prevention in colleges, with my own company,
[00:08:28.600]and then I also work half-time
[00:08:30.390]at another national center that's funded by the
[00:08:32.130]Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration
[00:08:35.080]and that's called the Suicide Prevention Resource Center.
[00:08:37.370]And some of that work is with colleges but mostly
[00:08:39.370]that's sort of more national level community work.
[00:08:44.420]And so I'd like to say a little bit more
[00:08:46.210]about why I chose that little knot figure
[00:08:49.400]for my logo for my company.
[00:08:51.930]That's an eternal knot or an endless knot.
[00:08:55.270]So it's got some various, lots of different meanings,
[00:08:57.970]but a couple of the meanings are that
[00:09:00.210]it's a closed design of simple harmony and simplicity
[00:09:08.880]and so I like the idea of being holistic and closing gaps.
[00:09:14.380]It has the connotation that future positive effects
[00:09:18.310]are found in present actions,
[00:09:20.050]and I think that that's a powerful idea for our field.
[00:09:23.310]It also relates to the connection of head and heart
[00:09:27.290]and I think we have to have both to do this work well.
[00:09:31.378]So that's a little bit about me.
[00:09:33.590]I can't ask about everybody who's listening
[00:09:36.160]but I'm interested in knowing at least who's in this room.
[00:09:39.460]So if you are here as part of a team,
[00:09:42.240]as part of a group from a campus or with a campus,
[00:09:45.090]can you raise your hand?
[00:09:47.320]Okay, a lot of you.
[00:09:48.153]Any people here solo in this room?
[00:09:54.020]We may have some in the overflow room
[00:09:55.960]or listening, so all are welcome.
[00:10:00.100]I just wanna get an idea of who you all are,
[00:10:02.970]so I'm gonna call out some roles
[00:10:04.710]and just have you raise your hand,
[00:10:05.880]just so I can see who's here
[00:10:07.870]and you can also see who's here.
[00:10:09.430]So if you work in prevention,
[00:10:11.130]wellness, health promotion area raise your hand.
[00:10:15.890]Some of you may have multiple hats here.
[00:10:19.200]Fraternity and sorority life?
[00:10:23.320]None in the room, okay.
[00:10:27.948]A few, okay.
[00:10:34.490]Law enforcement or campus safety, or community safety?
[00:10:38.260]Okay, great, thank you for being here.
[00:10:40.950]Res life or housing?
[00:10:47.560]Intramural sports or sports clubs? (chuckling)
[00:10:53.490]Varsity athletics, other athletics?
[00:10:56.980]Yeah, we have our athletic person there.
[00:10:58.630]We're gonna be calling you all day, great.
[00:11:02.150]She's like, I never should have raised my hand.
[00:11:07.320]Some of you.
[00:11:08.153]How many of you are administrators?
[00:11:13.700]Do we have any students here?
[00:11:19.590]I'm so glad.
[00:11:20.850]Community partners, from off-campus partners?
[00:11:26.470]And who am I missing, who haven't I called?
[00:11:31.160]Oh yeah, thank you, student health.
[00:11:35.226]How many student services?
[00:11:36.840]Yeah, a lot of you.
[00:11:37.710]How many student health?
[00:11:40.873]Anybody else I missed?
[00:11:44.073]So it's a nice diverse group.
[00:11:45.240]I love that.
[00:11:46.073]I think this does need to be
[00:11:47.010]an interdisciplinary conversation.
[00:11:50.777]I wanna make sure to welcome our webcasters.
[00:11:54.160]We know you're there, and please do
[00:11:56.050]email Megan if you have questions
[00:11:57.760]and she'll bring them to us.
[00:12:01.000]I wanted to just say up front so I don't forget to say it
[00:12:03.172]that in the slides, you'll see that little workshop icon,
[00:12:07.270]so if you see that that means there's space
[00:12:09.820]on your worksheet which you all got, I think right,
[00:12:14.890]either to do an activity, write something down, take notes.
[00:12:19.420]So there's an opportunity for you, it's in pink, looks like,
[00:12:24.420]opportunity for you to interact with the content
[00:12:27.480]and I hope you'll do that.
[00:12:28.670]So there'll be times where I just have you
[00:12:30.980]write some things down and then we'll share back
[00:12:33.010]or have you work in smaller groups and share back.
[00:12:36.250]So that's what that's for.
[00:12:39.425]Just wanna talk a little bit about
[00:12:40.870]the idea of today in my mind, is really to
[00:12:47.510]talk about this intersection between alcohol
[00:12:49.550]and sexual violence, and the intersection is complex
[00:12:53.160]and we're a diverse group as you just saw.
[00:12:55.570]I really do think this needs to be
[00:12:56.880]an interdisciplinary conversation.
[00:12:59.100]And so Alan Berkowitz, one of my good friends
[00:13:02.720]and colleagues, taught me that issues have cultures,
[00:13:07.970]disciplines have cultures, and solutions have cultures.
[00:13:11.130]And so in a way this is a cross-cultural conversation.
[00:13:14.420]And so sometimes when we get
[00:13:15.900]into cross-cultural conversation
[00:13:17.460]there's language or concepts or something that kind of says,
[00:13:20.730]what, I don't use that word in the same way
[00:13:23.360]or I don't really know what that person means by that.
[00:13:25.810]So I invite you to approach today as kind of
[00:13:28.050]that cross-cultural conversation,
[00:13:30.040]like when you go to another country and you're genuinely
[00:13:32.030]curious and open about how they do things there
[00:13:34.780]and use that as an opportunity to learn,
[00:13:36.800]now that we've stepped out of the day-to-day work,
[00:13:39.640]to use that as an opportunity to really hear
[00:13:42.660]when your colleagues that come from
[00:13:44.290]different segments of community life and campus life
[00:13:48.240]and off-campus life, to really hear from each other
[00:13:51.630]about what your views are and kind of understand
[00:13:54.570]how you each come to this issue.
[00:13:57.040]So really, the ground rule is just to take that opportunity
[00:14:00.542]to have that genuine curiousness.
[00:14:02.870]And if you hear something that kind of catches you,
[00:14:05.580]that seems a little off to you or something,
[00:14:07.340]just ask a question.
[00:14:08.173]Just say, can you tell me more about that,
[00:14:09.540]or how do you use that term,
[00:14:11.070]because I'm not sure that we use it the same
[00:14:13.530]and just take that opportunity to learn from each other.
[00:14:19.470]I put up a trigger warning because in a couple places
[00:14:22.160]there's explicit descriptions of sexual assault incidents
[00:14:25.790]that might be triggering to people who might have had
[00:14:29.640]experiences with sexual violence,
[00:14:31.180]or anybody, 'cause it's upsetting.
[00:14:33.130]And so I ask you, please to take care of yourselves.
[00:14:36.810]Feel free to step out at any point.
[00:14:39.930]Take care of each other.
[00:14:40.900]If you see somebody that might be distressed,
[00:14:44.800]see if you can be of support to them.
[00:14:49.387]I have also tried to include right at the moment
[00:14:52.510]where that content will occur, another trigger warning.
[00:14:56.270]So just be conscious of everybody's self-care.
[00:15:01.940]Okay, so I'm gonna step into this a little bit at a time,
[00:15:06.070]and so I just wanna start out
[00:15:07.230]with a kind of basic assertion
[00:15:09.340]that alcohol and violence are associated.
[00:15:11.520]Right, we know that, the research says that.
[00:15:14.880]And there's an association at an individual level
[00:15:18.530]and then I'm talking violence broadly
[00:15:22.270]that in general, drinkers have greater involvement
[00:15:26.420]in more crime and violence.
[00:15:29.130]There's also an association at an environmental level,
[00:15:31.900]where for example, the research shows where there's
[00:15:35.210]increased levels of alcohol availability,
[00:15:37.540]there's more crime and violence.
[00:15:39.250]And when there's higher amount of drinking
[00:15:42.780]in a campus environment,
[00:15:44.930]there's higher consequences to non-drinkers
[00:15:47.520]including more crime and violence.
[00:15:49.710]And so we see that association.
[00:15:53.518]And so the real question for us today is:
[00:15:55.180]What's the nature of that association?
[00:15:56.950]That's what we really need to unpack
[00:15:58.910]to get having good interdisciplinary solutions to it.
[00:16:03.870]And I will just say up front, it is complex,
[00:16:07.720]especially with sexual violence.
[00:16:09.620]And so my thesis is that by looking at research,
[00:16:14.530]the national research literature,
[00:16:16.050]research we've done locally,
[00:16:18.690]and then looking at local data, that's what will get us
[00:16:21.850]to that more nuanced understanding
[00:16:23.510]about what's the nature of the association
[00:16:25.270]in our campus community.
[00:16:26.860]And that will open up opportunities
[00:16:29.910]to collaborate on it, to really see.
[00:16:32.280]So sometimes when we talk at it, too high a level,
[00:16:35.130]there's too many things going on
[00:16:36.800]and it's hard to see how to get your hands around it.
[00:16:39.900]So what I want us to do today
[00:16:42.500]is to spend time looking at some data together.
[00:16:44.880]Sometimes it'll feel a little in the weeds.
[00:16:46.830]We'll look at very specific kinds of data
[00:16:48.790]and very specific research findings about particular areas,
[00:16:52.070]and say: Okay, when we sit and look at this together
[00:16:54.820]in an interdisciplinary conversation,
[00:16:57.170]where does that advance the conversation
[00:16:59.390]and can we start seeing opportunities to collaborate?
[00:17:02.480]So instead of trying to solve the whole thing at once,
[00:17:04.540]which we with most complex problems, we wanna break it down.
[00:17:08.270]So that's what we're gonna do today.
[00:17:11.060]And what we're really looking at today
[00:17:13.030]is this intersection.
[00:17:14.534]That's supposed to be yellow on the left
[00:17:18.030]and blue on the right so it looks green in the middle.
[00:17:20.250]It's a great visual,
[00:17:21.290]but I'm not sure it totally worked out here.
[00:17:25.713]So I'm just gonna tell you, we're in the green area.
[00:17:28.970]And so I also wanna be clear that I'm not arguing
[00:17:32.540]that we should just overlap those boxes entirely
[00:17:35.420]and that the whole area should be green.
[00:17:37.130]I really believe, and I think it's well supported,
[00:17:40.820]that there are gonna be distinct prevention initiatives
[00:17:45.220]that we do about each area.
[00:17:47.750]So then we need to be thoughtful about,
[00:17:50.220]okay, where do these intersect
[00:17:52.160]and where should our prevention strategies intersect
[00:17:55.700]and what pieces need to be distinct?
[00:17:57.860]I think that's another way of opening up the conversation,
[00:18:00.480]that sometimes what we do might be overlapping messages.
[00:18:05.160]Sometimes we might say, okay you, my prevention partners,
[00:18:09.840]you give these messages and us, our sexual violence partners
[00:18:13.610]or vice versa we'll do these other messages
[00:18:16.370]and so you'll handle this piece
[00:18:19.570]and we'll handle this piece and it's complementary.
[00:18:21.450]It doesn't always have to be overlapping.
[00:18:23.550]That also needs to be coordinated and that's a decision.
[00:18:28.970]So I'm interested in your thoughts about
[00:18:30.770]why the intersection is important to understand.
[00:18:34.460]And apparently these mics magically pick you all up,
[00:18:36.820]which I think is just a miracle,
[00:18:38.010]so thank you technology people.
[00:18:40.940]So why is this intersection important?
[00:18:51.810]People at home will experience this as dead air.
[00:19:02.694]Because there's a high co-occurrence
[00:19:03.952]of alcohol use in sexual violence
[00:19:06.522]or a lot of times it happens at the same time,
[00:19:09.022]in the same evening, so targeting both
[00:19:11.485]would be really important for those in similar situations.
[00:19:15.903]So a high co-occurrence.
[00:19:17.210]They occur in the same evening
[00:19:19.040]and so targeting both would seem to make sense
[00:19:21.550]in some context, great.
[00:19:24.990]Putting on my administrator's hat,
[00:19:27.250]there's an economies of scale that we can realize,
[00:19:30.070]given dwindling resources, or if we can maximize
[00:19:32.910]our resources by working together
[00:19:34.830]and providing consistent messages across the campus.
[00:19:38.423]So we're not gonna get lots more money to do prevention work
[00:19:41.580]anytime soon probably, and so to the extent
[00:19:45.850]that we can use what we have very efficiently
[00:19:49.650]and pool resources when it makes sense
[00:19:51.500]or reinforce messages when it makes sense,
[00:19:53.200]that's gonna be economical.
[00:19:56.130]Great, what else?
[00:20:03.620]Why are you all here? (chuckling)
[00:20:05.820]I'm genuinely curious, actually.
[00:20:10.830]What's your motivations for wanting to understand it?
[00:20:14.950]So that we can educate students
[00:20:16.540]and change our cultures and --
[00:20:18.880]Great, so you can --
[00:20:20.170]Know how to prevent their friends
[00:20:21.770]and themselves from being in those situations.
[00:20:24.750]I love that.
[00:20:25.583]Right, so you can educate students
[00:20:26.600]and change the culture and help them educate their peers.
[00:20:35.390]I'll get you talking.
[00:20:38.770]Yeah so I think you mentioned some of the really big reasons
[00:20:42.950]that stand out for me.
[00:20:44.180]I thought there could have been others,
[00:20:46.310]but there don't have to be.
[00:20:50.010]The other thing I would just say
[00:20:50.980]as a person who's worked around the country
[00:20:54.520]is that this is a baffling intersection for some people.
[00:20:57.950]People struggle with it a little bit,
[00:21:00.160]so I think one of the reasons to dig into it for a day
[00:21:02.830]is just to try to make headway
[00:21:04.720]and having good conversations about it.
[00:21:08.060]So that's what I'm saying.
[00:21:10.000]I wasn't really sure how the room would be configured
[00:21:12.540]and I said table mates.
[00:21:13.620]I sort of mean if you're in a team,
[00:21:16.280]you can talk with people that you're here
[00:21:19.857]from your campus and community.
[00:21:21.440]If there are any solo people that I haven't identified,
[00:21:23.830]you can feel free to just talk with
[00:21:25.250]the folks who you're sitting with.
[00:21:27.920]What I'd like you to do is just really just take
[00:21:29.740]a couple minutes to share with each other
[00:21:33.060]some of the key sexual violence prevention
[00:21:35.570]and alcohol prevention efforts that you
[00:21:37.020]currently have underway,
[00:21:38.010]and number one on your worksheet has space for that.
[00:21:42.130]Part of what I experience is a lot of times
[00:21:44.310]people just don't know what each other are doing,
[00:21:46.560]and so it doesn't have to be an exhaustive list,
[00:21:50.070]and then just list them down.
[00:21:52.960]They can be on campus or in the community,
[00:21:55.370]and just put a star by any that address
[00:21:57.150]the sexual violence/alcohol intersection.
[00:21:59.820]I'm just gonna give you about
[00:22:01.430]four or five minutes to do that.
[00:22:04.314](participants muffled chatting)
[00:27:06.494]I can give you about one more minute
[00:27:08.072]just to finish up your initial list here.
[00:28:02.777]Okay, so I'd like to hear some of the initiatives
[00:28:06.168]that you wrote down.
[00:28:07.401]So what are some of the things,
[00:28:08.406]some of the sexual violence initiatives?
[00:28:13.649]At our school,
[00:28:14.482]we work on active bystander training
[00:28:16.565]where we get them to behavior bystander training
[00:28:20.078]so they're able to react in situations,
[00:28:21.995]help out a friend or go tell someone what's going on
[00:28:24.476]to prevent an assault or any kind of (mumbles)
[00:28:27.287]that can occur on campus.
[00:28:28.812]Great, active bystander training.
[00:28:31.131]How many of you are doing that?
[00:28:33.985]With peer educators.
[00:28:35.526]With peer educators, okay.
[00:28:37.302]And what other things did you write down for violence?
[00:28:41.511]We're doing the bystander training
[00:28:42.855]with all of our orientation leaders.
[00:28:44.801]That's a new thing this year.
[00:28:46.489]Okay, with all orientation leaders.
[00:28:48.268]And do they train anybody else, or it's for them there?
[00:28:50.786]Well normally, 'cause we employ Green Dot,
[00:28:54.287]normally we have it available for any student leader
[00:28:56.696]but now we're gonna do that six hours
[00:28:58.895]just with the 140 orientation leaders so that they're ready
[00:29:01.825]by the time freshmen hit campus.
[00:29:05.160]But no, they're not gonna
[00:29:06.202]then go and train anybody.
[00:29:08.071]Okay, yeah, but that's a lot
[00:29:09.470]of natural leaders get trained, yeah.
[00:29:13.551]Other sexual violence initiatives?
[00:29:17.032]We do a lot of really specific,
[00:29:20.073]besides just bystander, how to observe and intervene.
[00:29:22.829]We do things like warning signs
[00:29:26.453]of healthy and unhealthy relationships.
[00:29:28.248]We do actual training for individuals.
[00:29:30.797]Like we go and do presentations
[00:29:32.855]for classes and things, and student organizations.
[00:29:36.157]So some skill-building about relationship violence
[00:29:39.151]and sexual assault specifically.
[00:29:43.980]How about anybody else?
[00:29:45.965]One more example.
[00:29:50.913]We work in housing and we --
[00:29:53.043]Can you speak up?
[00:29:54.028]Yeah, I work --
[00:29:54.861]They came and asked me to make sure people project.
[00:29:57.597]Yeah, we work in housing
[00:29:59.023]and we work with the RAs a lot.
[00:30:01.813]And sometimes they're the first resource
[00:30:04.290]for students 'cause those are their peers.
[00:30:06.567]And so we have lots of,
[00:30:09.360]whenever we do RA training we have talks
[00:30:12.561]and we show videos about it and we tell stories
[00:30:15.639]of stuff that already has happened on campus.
[00:30:18.504]And how that was handled in the past.
[00:30:22.527]Great, and is that so they know how to respond
[00:30:25.665]to those sort of incidents?
[00:30:28.726]And what are some of the alcohol
[00:30:30.264]and drug prevention initiatives that you listed?
[00:30:39.448]We have a questionnaire
[00:30:40.281]that goes out to all first-year students--
[00:30:41.839]Can you shout?
[00:30:42.672]A questionnaire that goes out to all
[00:30:43.558]first year students and gives them
[00:30:44.466]personalized feedback based on
[00:30:46.771]how risky their current drinking level is.
[00:30:49.567]Okay, so feedback survey that goes out to all first-years
[00:30:53.275]and gives them feedback on how risky their drinking is.
[00:30:55.820]Great, what else?
[00:30:58.859]College alcohol profile that a lot
[00:31:01.082]of us now implemented in the state
[00:31:03.218]where it's based upon (mumbles).
[00:31:06.035]Some schools have implemented
[00:31:08.123]in the first year college alcohol profile.
[00:31:10.566]Others use it for sanctioning students.
[00:31:12.759]Okay, so great, so first year
[00:31:14.660]or sanctioned college alcohol profile.
[00:31:20.772]Social norms program.
[00:31:22.154]Okay, what does that look like on your campus?
[00:31:25.030]We survey everyone on campus annually
[00:31:28.809]and then from that, kinda figure out
[00:31:31.081]what alcohol use statistics we wanna target.
[00:31:34.203]Oh, is it a media campaign?
[00:31:36.348]It's a media campaign, yeah.
[00:31:38.209]So there's a couple different ways you could do that,
[00:31:39.970]but yeah it's pretty typical, great.
[00:31:43.047]We do specific weekend programs,
[00:31:45.282]provide an alternative to going out.
[00:31:47.636]Or we've got mocktail event
[00:31:50.267]to teach them safe drinking and the issues
[00:31:54.762]that could come up with drinking and stuff like that.
[00:32:01.022]We've just launched
[00:32:01.855]the Power of Parenting website with the NCC's help.
[00:32:05.324]we're really looking forward to good effects in the fall.
[00:32:08.847]So that's encouraging parents to talk with their--
[00:32:10.914]Communicate and educate.
[00:32:12.194]Their young people, yeah.
[00:32:14.684]I think, Rob Teresi came, right?
[00:32:16.049]Yeah, he's great.
[00:32:17.248]Policy in general really.
[00:32:19.388]Is the backbone of it.
[00:32:20.221]Policy is the backbone, absolutely.
[00:32:24.080]So I encourage you to continue.
[00:32:26.490]Sometimes one of the values of this coming together
[00:32:29.440]is just to hear about the latest things
[00:32:31.130]that each other are doing that isn't something
[00:32:33.120]you're working on together.
[00:32:34.060]So I encourage you to sort of share,
[00:32:36.680]to add it to that list and broaden your knowledge
[00:32:40.130]throughout the day of what's happening in either side.
[00:32:46.420]And some of you work separately on these topics,
[00:32:50.700]I know some of you are probably from campuses
[00:32:52.360]where everybody does everything,
[00:32:53.820]and so you may know more about what each other are doing.
[00:32:58.370]But it's just an opportunity
[00:32:59.203]to make sure you sort of know
[00:33:01.030]what's happening in each area.
[00:33:03.500]So a common thread that I think forms really a groundwork
[00:33:09.384]kind of a baseline to this work, is that there's the idea
[00:33:12.560]of effective prevention in each area
[00:33:16.670]and there's some commonalities
[00:33:17.950]and then there's some unique aspects.
[00:33:20.240]But I just wanted to spend a little time
[00:33:22.040]talking about the commonalities.
[00:33:25.680]And so I'd like you to, as we go through this section,
[00:33:31.450]to jot down ideas and there's a place on your worksheet
[00:33:36.115]to ask yourselves: What are potential intersections
[00:33:38.420]and how we go about doing these two types of work?
[00:33:42.040]So what are some of the principles of effective practice
[00:33:44.270]and are there some ways that we could dovetail
[00:33:47.000]the ways that we plan and think about prevention?
[00:33:54.090]So just some basic ideas, just to make sure
[00:33:57.670]we're all doing some shared definitions here.
[00:34:00.470]So if we're gonna talk about sexual violence
[00:34:03.200]and alcohol prevention, maybe we should talk about
[00:34:04.790]what is prevention for a minute.
[00:34:08.210]And so I don't know how many of you are familiar
[00:34:10.020]with this idea of moving upstream.
[00:34:12.800]So here's a story that illustrates
[00:34:15.590]this idea about prevention.
[00:34:17.790]So you're fishing by a stream, and suddenly
[00:34:22.960]somebody comes down, they're coming down the stream
[00:34:27.070]and they're struggling, and they're drowning,
[00:34:29.580]so you jump in and you pull them out.
[00:34:31.770]And then so you get back out
[00:34:33.310]and then there's another person,
[00:34:34.620]coming down the stream struggling.
[00:34:36.580]You jump in and pull them out.
[00:34:38.210]And pretty soon there's more people coming down the stream
[00:34:40.990]and you get some other people and everybody's
[00:34:44.260]jumping in and pulling people out.
[00:34:46.860]And you start building tents and blankets and food stations
[00:34:51.740]so you can help all these people who were in the stream
[00:34:54.790]who you're getting out to keep them from drowning.
[00:34:57.090]And you think: Well what's going on here?
[00:34:58.770]So you start to walk back up the stream
[00:35:01.300]and you see some people clinging to the branches,
[00:35:03.590]and they haven't fallen in, but they could fall in
[00:35:07.190]and so you're trying to help them out
[00:35:08.690]and make sure they don't fall in.
[00:35:11.860]You continue walking up the stream
[00:35:13.420]and what you find is there's a wooden bridge.
[00:35:16.040]The bridge has no railings, it's slippery, it's too narrow,
[00:35:19.500]and that's where most people are falling in.
[00:35:22.300]So this idea of prevention is really that if we just
[00:35:26.600]stay downstream and keep pulling people out,
[00:35:28.910]we'll always keep pulling people out.
[00:35:30.940]And if we're really gonna ever change the number of people
[00:35:33.700]who are coming down the stream, we have to walk back up
[00:35:36.090]and find what's going on upstream.
[00:35:39.340]And again, that also has a lesson about
[00:35:42.450]the kinds of prevention that we wanna do.
[00:35:44.280]So we could educate the whole community
[00:35:46.990]about the narrow bridge with no railing that's slippery,
[00:35:49.940]or we can put a railing on and widen the bridge
[00:35:53.650]and put some non-slip, put some sticky stuff down
[00:35:56.770]so that people don't slip off.
[00:35:58.437]So there's also, once we get upstream and see what we see,
[00:36:03.500]there's a variety, and we might want to do both actually.
[00:36:06.040]So there's a variety of ways that we can address it
[00:36:07.930]once we get up there.
[00:36:09.590]I think that in alcohol we have a much better idea
[00:36:13.360]of what that upstream work looks like
[00:36:16.830]than we have had in sexual violence.
[00:36:18.690]But I think that we've really, there's been a big leap
[00:36:20.860]forward in sexual violence and really thinking
[00:36:22.610]about what that upstream work look like.
[00:36:25.100]Does that make sense?
[00:36:26.020]So when we're talking about prevention today,
[00:36:27.380]we're really gonna try to talk a lot about
[00:36:28.890]the upstream work.
[00:36:30.670]Because there's really a lot of attention
[00:36:33.770]in the sexual violence world right now to response.
[00:36:36.790]That's critically important and I don't wanna
[00:36:39.480]undermine it, but I also want to say,
[00:36:41.690]sometimes I think it's helpful to just try to have
[00:36:43.400]the prevention conversation separately,
[00:36:46.160]to kind of break that off and look at that.
[00:36:49.640]So and consistent with that story, I really think of this
[00:36:52.940]as a spectrum of prevention to response.
[00:36:55.320]There's prevention, there's early intervention,
[00:36:57.050]there's response and treatment.
[00:36:58.754]You kind of heard that in the story.
[00:37:01.780]So again, today we're gonna really focus
[00:37:03.600]on that prevention end.
[00:37:05.980]The goal there is really to stop problems from occurring
[00:37:09.710]by changing the underlying factors that cause the problems.
[00:37:14.030]Right, but that means we have to find out what
[00:37:15.470]the underlying factors are that cause the problems.
[00:37:18.300]One thing that's an important distinction about prevention
[00:37:21.790]is that we're really talking
[00:37:22.690]about prevention in a population.
[00:37:25.210]We're not talking about a particular incident.
[00:37:28.820]So an incident focus is really a response focus.
[00:37:31.800]Once an incident has happened, we try to say:
[00:37:34.310]What happened in that incident?
[00:37:35.950]What were the contributing factors in that incident?
[00:37:39.740]When we're moving to prevention, we're saying:
[00:37:42.610]What are the patterns across all incidents?
[00:37:45.880]What does that look like in the whole population?
[00:37:48.700]So it also moves us away from thinking about:
[00:37:54.840]Well, what did this victim do?
[00:37:56.430]And what did this perpetrator do?
[00:37:58.130]And it says: What are the patterns
[00:38:00.630]of these behaviors across the population
[00:38:02.740]and how do we change those patterns
[00:38:04.090]in the whole population?
[00:38:05.510]So we're moving from the idea of an incident
[00:38:07.430]to the idea of a broad issue.
[00:38:09.720]So that's another part of this transition.
[00:38:12.300]Early intervention, response and treatment
[00:38:13.910]absolutely have a role in supporting prevention.
[00:38:16.390]There's a way that having those clear standards
[00:38:19.680]and letting the community know
[00:38:20.640]what those clear standards are
[00:38:21.750]and helping them meet those standards
[00:38:23.300]is really an important part,
[00:38:26.080]it's sort of a support to prevention
[00:38:28.010]but I don't think of that as essentially prevention.
[00:38:31.170]And we'll come back to that idea much later in the day.
[00:38:36.060]So I just wanna offer this to you as a tool for home.
[00:38:40.200]If you don't have a good idea of what's going on,
[00:38:44.050]that first exercise, across your campus and community,
[00:38:47.320]that first exercise is a good one to complete with partners.
[00:38:50.690]Then, take everything you've listed
[00:38:52.350]and try to see what box it goes in.
[00:38:55.040]And sometimes certain things will go in more than one box.
[00:38:57.750]You'll talk about some response issues
[00:38:59.310]and you'll talk about some prevention issues,
[00:39:01.160]and in the world that's perfectly appropriate,
[00:39:03.760]but this can be very educational, 'cause sometimes
[00:39:05.950]we find that we're doing a lot of response,
[00:39:07.780]a lot that's related to response
[00:39:09.130]and maybe not as much around prevention
[00:39:11.510]and so it's just helpful to see that mapped out.
[00:39:17.730]Okay, so we're on board with the idea of prevention
[00:39:22.200]so then we ask: Well how do we prevent problems?
[00:39:24.690]And so there's just a problem-solving process
[00:39:28.780]that public health offers us.
[00:39:30.120]It's actually very similar to problem-oriented policing
[00:39:33.970]and to lots of other paradigms from other fields.
[00:39:36.690]I happen to be a public health person,
[00:39:38.010]so I'll show you the public health approach.
[00:39:41.530]And it's really that we start by describing the problem.
[00:39:45.280]The kind of who, what, when, where, how, but not why.
[00:39:50.550]Identify contributing factors is really the why question,
[00:39:53.700]and I'm using that as a sort of shorthand
[00:39:55.980]for causes, contributors.
[00:39:58.280]Sometimes we look at things and they're correlated.
[00:40:00.590]We don't know if they're exactly causal,
[00:40:02.600]but sometimes they're markers for what's going on.
[00:40:06.120]So if we first describe it,
[00:40:07.380]we really know what it looks like.
[00:40:09.660]That's very helpful and I think that this group
[00:40:12.050]has seen that a lot because you've collected
[00:40:13.510]and looked at a lot of data.
[00:40:15.500]And then we wanna say: What is the research
[00:40:18.230]and what does our local data tell us
[00:40:19.440]about why it's happening?
[00:40:21.510]That helps us to focus on what we wanna change.
[00:40:25.530]And then once we have a sense of where and whom
[00:40:30.880]and at what time, and then why it's happening,
[00:40:34.100]then we wanna somehow create interventions.
[00:40:36.390]We wanna create efforts that intervene
[00:40:39.120]in that chain or constellation of events.
[00:40:41.490]So the contributing factors isn't sort of one factor.
[00:40:44.150]It's a constellation, it's a series of events
[00:40:47.670]and it's a constellation of events or of attributes.
[00:40:51.530]And then we wanna somehow figure out: How do we intervene
[00:40:54.010]and interrupt that chain or that constellation of factors?
[00:40:57.680]And then we wanna say: Did that work?
[00:41:00.920]So I use the word intervention,
[00:41:02.840]just because it's a generic term
[00:41:04.560]for all the different ways that we could try
[00:41:06.320]to interrupt those contributing and causal factors.
[00:41:10.440]So we'll be thinking about
[00:41:13.060]this public health approach today.
[00:41:15.450]So just some limitations of traditional,
[00:41:19.110]and by traditional I mean some of the past practices
[00:41:23.000]that I think are becoming less and less common.
[00:41:27.003]For a long time, the way that higher ed
[00:41:28.100]did prevention in really all areas
[00:41:32.330]where the efforts were not very institutionalized.
[00:41:36.340]A lot of times one motivated person gets on it and says,
[00:41:41.160]you know, a new faculty member, a motivated student
[00:41:43.630]or a group of students, particular staff member says:
[00:41:46.820]I'm gonna make this happen.
[00:41:48.700]But what happens if that person gets tenure
[00:41:51.480]or graduates or moves jobs?
[00:41:55.320]Maybe those efforts, that passionate effort isn't
[00:41:58.982]able to continue in the same way.
[00:41:59.815]A lot of times times they're limited
[00:42:01.190]in scope they address,
[00:42:02.990]because of the scope of the people
[00:42:04.340]who are doing the initiative.
[00:42:05.850]So it's in residence halls, but it's not anywhere else.
[00:42:09.310]A lot of times very fragmented efforts.
[00:42:11.450]So it's hard to know a lot of times
[00:42:13.080]in these complex institutions, you know,
[00:42:15.830]the left hand knowing what the right hand is doing.
[00:42:19.880]A lot based on what others have done.
[00:42:21.940]So how many of you are on those listservs that say:
[00:42:24.250]Well we're trying to do something
[00:42:25.260]about relationship violence,
[00:42:28.140]what is everybody else doing?
[00:42:29.990]That's a conversation we have, and that's useful,
[00:42:32.710]but then we also have to be saying:
[00:42:34.110]What does the research tell us is effective?
[00:42:38.410]Vague goals and objectives; we wanna raise awareness,
[00:42:40.640]we wanna educate people,
[00:42:45.380]we wanna, not really a clearly defined sense
[00:42:48.210]of what we're trying to change.
[00:42:49.450]So I think we're really moving towards
[00:42:50.860]a much more refined sense
[00:42:53.431]of what the change objectives are.
[00:42:56.190]And then this idea of activity-based is really about
[00:42:59.260]sitting down at the beginning of the year and saying:
[00:43:00.730]I think we need a poster, what should our poster be?
[00:43:03.390]Instead of thinking, what is it that we wanna change
[00:43:07.240]and then what's the right way to do that?
[00:43:09.720]so a lot of the principles I think are really
[00:43:12.750]designed to overcome these.
[00:43:15.950]Here's how I would summarize the biggest prevention mistake,
[00:43:18.630]that we don't ask ourselves these questions:
[00:43:21.580]What is the nature of the problem we're trying to solve?
[00:43:24.370]How will our proposed efforts or what we're doing now
[00:43:26.520]or what we might do solve those problems?
[00:43:28.830]And what evidence suggests that
[00:43:30.430]that intervention might work?
[00:43:32.150]I think if we sort of disciplined ourselves
[00:43:34.030]to keep asking these questions,
[00:43:36.220]that that would move us towards more effectiveness.
[00:43:41.090]So there are lots of frameworks for prevention
[00:43:44.250]in higher education.
[00:43:46.370]These are some that we created
[00:43:48.030]while we were at the Higher Ed Center.
[00:43:51.650]What I'll be referring to most today is
[00:43:53.200]the purple one up on the right, that's a publication
[00:43:56.610]that I wrote at the Higher Ed Center,
[00:43:57.950]Preventing Violence and Promoting Safety
[00:43:59.660]in Higher Education Settings.
[00:44:02.190]I think all of you are familiar
[00:44:03.090]with Environmental Management,
[00:44:04.290]which is the alcohol and drug prevention framework.
[00:44:07.850]And then really the glue that we used
[00:44:10.560]at the Higher Ed Center for both of those areas
[00:44:12.680]was to really talk about strategic planning
[00:44:14.370]or data-driven planning.
[00:44:18.580]So the principles that come from that purple publication,
[00:44:21.990]and I would say that these are general prevention principles
[00:44:25.310]so they're labeled as violence prevention
[00:44:27.190]because they were in the violence prevention framework,
[00:44:30.020]but they also apply to alcohol and drug prevention.
[00:44:32.280]I use them also for, actually in suicide prevention,
[00:44:36.823]so the same principles.
[00:44:39.010]So these, I'm just putting these up here.
[00:44:41.750]I don't think any of these are really new to any of you,
[00:44:45.030]but again, just to get ourselves on the same page
[00:44:48.000]because everything we talk about today
[00:44:49.560]will really be grounded in these kind of principles.
[00:44:52.370]So of course, we'd wanna be doing the upstream work
[00:44:54.800]as well as the downstream work.
[00:44:57.140]You're all very familiar with systematic
[00:44:59.720]strategic planning, data-driven planning.
[00:45:04.180]This third one just really comes about as a result
[00:45:06.940]of data-driven planning, that this idea of
[00:45:09.830]making our efforts strategic.
[00:45:11.782]So that means picking out the part
[00:45:14.430]of the problem we're trying to solve
[00:45:16.440]and targeting particular problems
[00:45:19.640]that we identify through data.
[00:45:21.410]That's a principle that we'll be talking about a lot today.
[00:45:25.420]Research-based, research informed.
[00:45:27.350]Some areas there's less research,
[00:45:28.830]but we always wanna use all the research
[00:45:30.280]that's available to us.
[00:45:31.400]I already talked about evaluated.
[00:45:33.690]Comprehensive, I really think of as addressing
[00:45:36.250]all of the contexts and settings and aspects
[00:45:38.780]of the problem that our data tell us.
[00:45:40.830]So this sort of the opposite of fragmented
[00:45:43.310]and limited in scope.
[00:45:46.280]Multiple components, this is not new to you.
[00:45:49.430]That means education and policy,
[00:45:51.968]and normative change and skill-building.
[00:45:57.530]All those components have to work in sync.
[00:46:00.270]And then this is what I think that really is coming to us
[00:46:04.180]from the feds is, coordinated and synergistic.
[00:46:06.670]This idea that, we know, one of the most robust findings
[00:46:11.490]on health promotion inside and outside of higher ed
[00:46:14.570]is that one-time programs don't work.
[00:46:17.240]So how do we make them not one time,
[00:46:20.096]we work together to have a thoughtful sequence
[00:46:24.600]where we really are building over the course
[00:46:27.700]of a year and over the course of a college career.
[00:46:29.920]That's my theory, is that one way to make that happen
[00:46:32.160]without giant amounts of funding for all these issues
[00:46:35.470]is to really look for those points of intersection
[00:46:38.110]and to really see how that fits together
[00:46:40.850]and reinforce those messages so the education results don't,
[00:46:45.180]you know, if there's change for six weeks
[00:46:48.150]and then it just goes away.
[00:46:51.280]Collaborative and multi-sectoral, you're all here, check.
[00:46:55.850]And then supported in a thoughtful way
[00:46:58.472]by infrastructure, systems, and institutional commitment.
[00:47:02.120]And I don't want this to, if you don't feel like
[00:47:04.530]you as much commitment from your institution
[00:47:06.900]as you would like to have, I really think that
[00:47:09.810]another way of having that is just for the people
[00:47:12.130]who are doing the work to have that commitment
[00:47:14.240]and to work with one another.
[00:47:15.970]So I don't always think that,
[00:47:17.200]it's nice when lots of support comes from the top,
[00:47:20.760]and I think it's also possible to do a lot
[00:47:23.410]just by doing your jobs well.
[00:47:26.290]So, basic principles.
[00:47:29.796]I talked about the prevention framework
[00:47:33.070]as principles in a process, so this is the process.
[00:47:35.570]It really is just an elaborated version
[00:47:38.410]of the public health model, where we start really
[00:47:41.640]by understanding the problem.
[00:47:43.240]That's the same in the public health model
[00:47:44.820]is describing the problem.
[00:47:46.590]And when I talk about problem analysis,
[00:47:48.740]I'm really talking about understanding what it looks like,
[00:47:51.440]looking at the causes and contributors
[00:47:53.030]and also looking at what's in place,
[00:47:55.070]what we're already doing and what's the current climate.
[00:47:58.060]Some people call that needs assessment,
[00:48:00.790]and I don't love that because I think there's so many needs
[00:48:03.450]that we all have to do our work better,
[00:48:05.860]that it can distract us.
[00:48:07.750]Talking about what we need, if there's
[00:48:10.970]different stakeholders around the table,
[00:48:12.850]then everybody's bringing to the table
[00:48:14.280]what all of their diverse needs are.
[00:48:16.500]I think really the task of that first step is to say:
[00:48:19.320]What is the shared problem we're all trying to solve?
[00:48:22.130]What can we each, everybody has a different view
[00:48:26.330]and different knowledge and unique knowledge
[00:48:28.160]about what that problem looks like and how it plays out
[00:48:30.540]so if we can pool that with one another at the beginning,
[00:48:33.420]then that's very powerful.
[00:48:35.980]Setting long range goals is just where do we wanna end up.
[00:48:39.100]Making sure we're consulting the research literature
[00:48:41.590]based on our problem, based on where we wanna end up.
[00:48:44.160]What does the literature say about what might get us there?
[00:48:46.970]And then going.
[00:48:48.480]So this is the antidote to being activity-based
[00:48:51.990]and starting with the idea of an activity
[00:48:54.150]and really starting from a different place
[00:48:55.900]and getting to activities, strategies
[00:48:57.990]and activities a little bit later on.
[00:49:02.587]This isn't the training to go step-by-step through this,
[00:49:05.230]but again, I think that kind of flow
[00:49:07.320]will underpin our discussions today.
[00:49:11.840]So problem analysis, I talked about that a little bit.
[00:49:14.660]I love this Tolkien quote.
[00:49:15.950]"It will not do to leave a live dragon
[00:49:17.640]"out of your plans if you live near one."
[00:49:20.468]To me, that's the heart of problem analysis, right?
[00:49:22.520]So what's the dragon?
[00:49:24.850]What does the problem look like?
[00:49:26.390]What is going on?
[00:49:28.300]What can't you ignore if you're gonna do good planning?
[00:49:32.700]So again, that describe the problem is kind of,
[00:49:35.060]if you could be a fly on the wall with perfect senses,
[00:49:37.610]what would you see?
[00:49:38.660]Where would it be,
[00:49:39.493]What would it look like?
[00:49:40.820]Causes and contributors are the why
[00:49:43.380]and then what's in place now.
[00:49:47.790]So why do local analysis?
[00:49:50.520]This is the sort of, describe the problem.
[00:49:55.870]I love this example.
[00:49:56.910]So who's familiar with the idea of a red zone?
[00:49:59.850]Heightened risk for sexual assault
[00:50:01.870]early in a college career.
[00:50:02.980]People talk about this frequently.
[00:50:06.860]And actually, it's not that well-supported by data.
[00:50:09.760]If you look at some of the Dot Fisher studies,
[00:50:11.680]some of the other studies, it's not that clear
[00:50:13.990]that there is an early risk.
[00:50:16.030]People experience it on campuses,
[00:50:17.880]so I don't wanna say it's not true,
[00:50:19.670]but it's hard to see it in the data.
[00:50:21.290]So a couple different researchers said, well, let's do some
[00:50:23.290]studies on particular campuses and see.
[00:50:25.860]Is there really a red zone on our campus?
[00:50:28.320]So Kimble and colleagues did one study on one campus
[00:50:33.330]and found that what they called unwanted sexual experiences
[00:50:38.260]was higher in year one versus year two
[00:50:41.600]and to some extent in the early months,
[00:50:43.500]but not limited to the early months.
[00:50:45.740]So if we go, oh red zone, we have to do a lot then,
[00:50:48.320]and then we don't have to worry so much about it.
[00:50:51.180]The data says on that campus
[00:50:52.800]that we're missing something so that's one thing.
[00:50:56.940]And we found that it was a really spiking risk
[00:51:01.010]for both year one and year two students,
[00:51:03.910]both years during the brief winter semester,
[00:51:07.090]they have a Jan plan.
[00:51:08.890]And so and the way that they got to that
[00:51:13.530]is they did focus groups
[00:51:14.720]of students in advance and said:
[00:51:15.910]When do you think that risks
[00:51:17.070]for sexual assault would be highest?
[00:51:19.310]And they said, well ask about the January term.
[00:51:21.650]Then they put that on the survey and that's what it was.
[00:51:25.770]Study two, different campus, didn't really find
[00:51:28.890]that same pattern of results.
[00:51:31.780]It was higher, most high on that campus
[00:51:33.810]during sorority pledging which was actually on October.
[00:51:36.230]It wasn't that September period that people think,
[00:51:39.250]okay, it's the first six weeks or whatever the number is
[00:51:41.360]that people think, September into October.
[00:51:44.200]So when most people think the red zone is ending,
[00:51:46.540]this other campus, that's when their spike is.
[00:51:49.420]So the idea that you can take from these
[00:51:55.470]is that risk is really tied maybe more to local events
[00:51:59.630]and context than to newness, per se.
[00:52:02.580]And it could be that new students on your campus
[00:52:05.840]are at particular risk.
[00:52:07.470]But until we collect the data we don't know.
[00:52:10.210]So I think my take-home for this is sure,
[00:52:13.160]students are walking onto campus for the first time
[00:52:15.170]and they don't know a lot about what's going on
[00:52:16.790]so sure, we're gonna provide them some up-front
[00:52:19.160]education usually anyway, but let's not just hone in
[00:52:23.760]on the red zone as being at a particular time
[00:52:26.250]because people say that out there.
[00:52:28.400]Let's look at really what the high-risk settings
[00:52:31.000]and times are on your own campus.
[00:52:33.940]And so that the reason they thought
[00:52:35.580]the brief winter semester
[00:52:36.560]was high-risk is that it was just, it was a very,
[00:52:40.210]there was no classes, very relaxed time,
[00:52:43.940]pretty unsupervised, lots of partying, so it was just
[00:52:48.580]the normal rules, normal social rules were off,
[00:52:51.320]normal social structures were off,
[00:52:52.880]a lot of people left campus,
[00:52:56.000]and so it was just that time where
[00:52:57.610]that constellation of circumstances
[00:52:59.360]would lead to greater risk.
[00:53:05.160]So why is it happening?
[00:53:06.640]I think you're all pretty familiar
[00:53:07.690]with the social ecological model,
[00:53:09.350]we'll be coming back to this.
[00:53:10.890]The basic idea is that risk is not just from
[00:53:14.600]the factors within individuals,
[00:53:16.670]but is also influenced by the structures around them.
[00:53:19.783]There are individual level factors,
[00:53:22.350]there's also interpersonal,
[00:53:25.910]dyadic or group level contributors, institution.
[00:53:32.660]Actually some people use a ecological model
[00:53:35.040]that's four levels.
[00:53:36.400]I like this for campuses, this version with five levels,
[00:53:39.590]because institutional is a very distinct environment
[00:53:44.320]with a set of levers and characteristics
[00:53:48.860]that we can leverage.
[00:53:50.090]And then we also know that community plays a separate role,
[00:53:54.600]So if we mash those together I think we lose something
[00:53:58.350]in terms of really being able to think through:
[00:54:00.620]What could we do at that's interpersonal at group level?
[00:54:02.740]What could we do that's institutional level?
[00:54:04.230]What can we do that's community level?
[00:54:06.330]And then there's the broader policy
[00:54:07.620]and society level as well.
[00:54:10.260]So we'll come back to this as we go through
[00:54:11.900]and look at factors at different levels.
[00:54:16.520]Another way to look at contributing factors,
[00:54:18.210]risk and protective factors,
[00:54:19.736]is to think about risk factors.
[00:54:24.140]I think most people are familiar
[00:54:25.180]with risk and protective factors.
[00:54:26.560]Risk being increases the likelihood of a problem.
[00:54:29.480]Protective meaning buffering against that risk.
[00:54:32.970]I like to call on Mary Koss's work.
[00:54:37.080]I like to divide the idea of risk
[00:54:39.160]into risk and vulnerability.
[00:54:41.320]With risk being factors that increase
[00:54:43.990]the likelihood of perpetration.
[00:54:45.760]Vulnerability being factors
[00:54:47.360]that increase the likelihood of victimization.
[00:54:50.020]Again, I think it's important to keep us
[00:54:54.310]out of a victim-blaming place.
[00:54:57.160]Saying that somebody is more vulnerable
[00:54:58.700]because of certain factors doesn't mean
[00:55:00.240]that they're at fault.
[00:55:01.590]It just means that there's surrounding circumstances
[00:55:05.460]that increase their vulnerability.
[00:55:07.190]The example that I like to use is:
[00:55:09.434]I live in the Boston area, it's an urban environment,
[00:55:14.230]and when I leave my house in the morning
[00:55:16.430]I lock it, because I don't want people
[00:55:18.350]to come in and take my stuff.
[00:55:20.846]So if I don't do that one day; I forget to do it,
[00:55:25.750]I decide that I don't want to live in a place
[00:55:28.190]where people should have to lock their doors,
[00:55:29.560]I'm not going to do it anymore, I increase my vulnerability
[00:55:32.760]to having somebody come in and rob me,
[00:55:35.910]but I'm not at fault for that.
[00:55:37.490]The person who decided to come in
[00:55:38.720]and rob me is still at fault for that.
[00:55:40.780]There's a way of separating these conversations
[00:55:44.310]in a way that can, again,
[00:55:46.470]unlock some possibilities for intervention.
[00:55:52.430]So that's the language that I'll be using today.
[00:55:56.790]So the, why is it happening, question,
[00:56:00.593]I just wanna underscore that we know from the research
[00:56:03.200]that environment does matter.
[00:56:04.630]This is not a new idea to this group.
[00:56:06.600]I don't know if you've seen this before,
[00:56:08.940]this poster from FACE says, "Holding young people
[00:56:11.320]"solely responsible for underage drinking
[00:56:12.960]"is like holding a fish responsible
[00:56:14.300]"for dying in a polluted stream."
[00:56:16.370]So that idea that the surrounding environment.
[00:56:18.950]And I just love this study from Elissa Weitzman
[00:56:21.170]and colleagues that looked at the extent to which
[00:56:25.520]students who were not high-risk drinkers in high school
[00:56:27.770]became high-risk drinkers in college, took up that behavior.
[00:56:31.260]And what they found is that it varied
[00:56:33.300]by the campus environment that they came into
[00:56:36.760]and that that uptake was higher at campuses
[00:56:39.570]that had a lot of drinking,
[00:56:41.600]had supportive attitudes of drinking, and low price.
[00:56:47.280]High accessibility and low price.
[00:56:48.850]In fact price was the strongest predictor
[00:56:50.877]of whether they took it up.
[00:56:53.350]So a lot of the times I hear from people,
[00:56:56.390]oh there's nothing we can do, they're already drinking,
[00:56:58.980]they're already sexually assaulting when we get them.
[00:57:01.000]There's nothing we can do.
[00:57:02.400]And I just don't, I don't agree.
[00:57:04.770]I think that we cue them about what behavior
[00:57:06.910]we expect by the environment that they come into.
[00:57:10.010]And we can't cue it perfectly,
[00:57:12.300]but I think we can create environments
[00:57:14.510]that send the message that we want you
[00:57:16.820]to act in responsible and healthy ways.
[00:57:22.380]So the paradigm shift in this kind
[00:57:25.180]of prevention framework is the
[00:57:26.850]activity to strategy prevention paradigm shift is this.
[00:57:31.150]Instead of starting with a question:
[00:57:32.980]What are we gonna do?
[00:57:34.310]We're gonna start with the question:
[00:57:35.350]What are we trying to change?
[00:57:37.060]And how do we know what we're gonna try to change?
[00:57:39.210]We have to look at the research.
[00:57:41.100]So if you sat down for that first meeting and said,
[00:57:44.210]we wanna increase student's skills for
[00:57:45.690]engaging in healthy relationships,
[00:57:47.200]that a very different starting place than,
[00:57:50.190]we need a poster or we need workshops.
[00:57:54.180]Does that make sense?
[00:57:58.840]So moving into this idea of why use research and data.
[00:58:03.450]So first of all, that our understanding
[00:58:04.870]of the problem will drive our choice of solutions.
[00:58:08.070]And so using the research literature
[00:58:11.130]to inform local analysis,
[00:58:13.320]I a minute ago talked about the red zone findings,
[00:58:16.580]the findings from those two studies on the red zone.
[00:58:20.010]The high-risk periods vary across campuses
[00:58:22.120]and risk is tied to local events and contexts.
[00:58:24.830]So what do those findings, how could you
[00:58:27.090]extrapolate from those findings for what
[00:58:30.398]you wanna do on your campus?
[00:58:33.620]What does that suggest to you about how to apply that?
[00:58:40.330]We should figure out
[00:58:41.163]when our high-risk periods are.
[00:58:43.773]On our local areas.
[00:58:44.606]Right, so it doesn't tell you
[00:58:46.290]when your high-risk periods are,
[00:58:47.930]it just tells you, okay, this is a source of variability
[00:58:50.940]and we might be missing something if we don't figure out
[00:58:53.550]when our own high-risk periods are.
[00:58:54.710]So it kinda cues you to do some kind
[00:58:56.770]of investigation into that.
[00:58:58.930]And it doesn't necessarily mean that it has to be
[00:59:01.480]a randomized controlled trial.
[00:59:03.306]There's lots of ways of talking with one another,
[00:59:07.690]of collecting the data you have.
[00:59:09.860]Back to Ian's invitation to think through
[00:59:12.870]what data have and how to use it.
[00:59:15.670]So there may be existing data
[00:59:17.090]that would answer that question,
[00:59:18.350]or we may have to look at what data we have
[00:59:20.660]and then supplement with other data.
[00:59:23.550]So to me that's a great use of research literature
[00:59:25.990]is to say, so when I'm looking at research,
[00:59:30.600]national research, I kind of say:
[00:59:32.180]What does this mean for our campus?
[00:59:34.330]So that's the question I'm gonna invite you
[00:59:36.110]to ask yourselves today is: Looking at this data,
[00:59:39.570]what does this mean for what we should be doing?
[00:59:42.930]So that's the, what does the problem look like.
[00:59:45.920]Then I would also argue that the nature of our solutions,
[00:59:48.570]wherever we're putting out there in terms of solutions,
[00:59:51.350]does educate the community about the nature of the problem.
[00:59:55.240]So I think it works the other way.
[00:59:57.120]And so we wanna ask: Do the solutions that we have
[00:59:59.390]in place reflect an accurate understanding
[01:00:01.799]of what we know from the research and data?
[01:00:05.560]So I want you to take a look at these
[01:00:08.280]and there's some questions on your worksheet.
[01:00:11.050]I'm just gonna have us do this interactively.
[01:00:17.380]Number four on page two.
[01:00:20.020]So looking at these materials, and these are
[01:00:22.140]materials I found on the interweb,
[01:00:24.230]I didn't make 'em up.
[01:00:26.300]What do these materials suggest
[01:00:27.890]are the characteristics of typical rapists?
[01:00:34.470]Who they're --
[01:00:35.303]Jump out of the dark
[01:00:36.136]and it's the stalkers, the unknown person.
[01:00:39.450]Yep, they're a stranger.
[01:00:42.723]They look creepy.
[01:00:43.710]They look creepy.
[01:00:55.620]Who else is a typical rapist?
[01:01:00.780]Although it actually
[01:01:02.273]doesn't say that, interestingly.
[01:01:04.571]I don't know if you can't see this that well.
[01:01:06.210]It is that well.
[01:01:07.360]You can see it better up here.
[01:01:09.710]It actually doesn't say male ever though, does it?
[01:01:11.500]I mean it says, so the front brochure, I kind of hid it
[01:01:14.410]in back, but it says Safety Advice for Women.
[01:01:17.655]And so it's sort of implied,
[01:01:18.530]but it actually doesn't say it's men that I saw.
[01:01:22.100]Maybe you're seeing something different than me.
[01:01:25.490]But it does suggest that women
[01:01:27.071]are more likely to be the victim.
[01:01:29.100]It does say that, yeah, exactly.
[01:01:31.140]That it happens in the dark.
[01:01:32.910]In the dark, yeah.
[01:01:34.240]Yeah, so the second question is:
[01:01:35.710]What are characteristics of typical rapes?
[01:01:38.090]It happens in the dark, yeah.
[01:01:45.300]Right, it happens at night.
[01:01:46.880]What are women doing when this happens to them?
[01:01:54.240]They're walking alone.
[01:01:56.090]They're walking after dark.
[01:01:57.450]They're walking outdoors.
[01:01:59.210]How dare they.
[01:02:00.570]They're distracted --
[01:02:02.824]They're living their lives.
[01:02:04.490]They're just not paying attention
[01:02:05.323]and not worrying about it enough.
[01:02:06.156]Right, not paying attention.
[01:02:06.989]Not worrying about it enough.
[01:02:07.822]They're not communicating.
[01:02:09.580]Yep, not communicating, that's right.
[01:02:11.410]Picking up hitchhikers.
[01:02:13.210]Letting strangers into their houses.
[01:02:16.750]Yep and so what does this say
[01:02:20.330]that sexual violence is caused by?
[01:02:22.560]How would you complete that?
[01:02:23.860]Sexual violence is caused by, according to these materials.
[01:02:30.200]If you took literally
[01:02:31.120]what's that black box kind of advice.
[01:02:32.910]It's like women need to go back to the Victorian era
[01:02:35.560]where somebody takes care of them and keeps them safe.
[01:02:39.150]Right, but just not even extrapolating that far,
[01:02:41.410]and I don't disagree, what does these suggest
[01:02:46.790]literally, like very literally what?
[01:02:48.390]Don't get so drunk,
[01:02:49.223]but you can get a little drunk.
[01:02:50.420]Right, sexual violence
[01:02:51.253]is caused by getting too drunk.
[01:02:53.590]And not saying no.
[01:02:55.630]That's right, not saying no.
[01:02:57.920]All right so not making yourself clearly understood.
[01:03:01.390]So we're blaming women.
[01:03:09.267]It's caused by people slipping things
[01:03:11.710]into your drinks.
[01:03:13.868]It's caused by strangers.
[01:03:16.580]Hitchhikers, yeah that's a big theme.
[01:03:22.840]It's caused by women
[01:03:24.260]not checking the rear seat of their cars.
[01:03:26.940]Or under their car,
[01:03:27.800]I keep hearing that too.
[01:03:29.860]My list of, sexual violence is caused by,
[01:03:32.980]is extremely lengthy.
[01:03:33.970]That if we really go through this,
[01:03:35.250]you know, leaving your windows unlocked.
[01:03:36.780]Failing to check the rear seat of the car.
[01:03:38.550]Not having a cellphone.
[01:03:39.770]Not having change for a payphone.
[01:03:41.400]Not carrying a whistle.
[01:03:42.800]Leaving your house key under your doormat.
[01:03:44.690]Letting strangers into your home.
[01:03:45.820]Picking up strangers.
[01:03:46.780]Accepting rides from strangers.
[01:03:48.510]Having a personalized license plate,
[01:03:50.060]that's my favorite one.
[01:03:53.090]And so who is responsible for stopping sexual assault?
[01:03:58.093]So kinda going back to my point
[01:04:00.410]that the nature of our solutions
[01:04:02.910]educates the community about the problem,
[01:04:05.740]and I think that's really critical to think about.
[01:04:09.850]So this is another, I put it on the bottom
[01:04:12.110]of your worksheet, I think it would be interesting
[01:04:14.740]to get some people together and look at the materials
[01:04:17.830]that your community has about sexual assault
[01:04:20.440]and ask yourself those four questions.
[01:04:22.540]According to these materials, what are the characteristics
[01:04:26.760]of typical rapists, what are the characteristics
[01:04:28.530]of typical rapes sexual violence is caused by,
[01:04:31.070]and who is responsible for stopping it?
[01:04:33.670]Because as I think that we're sending educational messages
[01:04:35.840]through some of those materials that might be unintended.
[01:04:39.750]I think that could be sort of an interesting activity.
[01:04:42.240]Which worksheet is it in?
[01:04:43.430]Yeah, they're right on your worksheet.
[01:04:44.560]Oh there, I'm sorry.
[01:04:45.393]Page two, number four.
[01:04:50.760]And so I mean, it's not even like
[01:04:54.120]we're not gonna necessarily
[01:04:55.710]stop giving safety information out,
[01:04:57.600]I'm not suggesting that we don't give
[01:04:59.670]general safety information out in some kinds of contexts.
[01:05:03.240]But if we take our sexual violence prevention materials
[01:05:07.250]and look at them from that lens:
[01:05:10.200]What is the educational message of them?
[01:05:12.240]Realizing that it's not just what we say in workshops
[01:05:14.490]that's educating the community.
[01:05:16.610]So thought that was a fun little activity.
[01:05:19.080]Okay, so here's the rejoinder, which I love.
[01:05:21.710]Top 10 tips to end rape.
[01:05:23.690]Don't put drugs in women's drinks.
[01:05:25.830]When you see a woman walking by herself, leave her alone.
[01:05:30.109]If you're in a lift and a woman gets in, don't rape her.
[01:05:33.694]So I mean like it kind of shows you
[01:05:35.390]how preposterous the other thing is.
[01:05:37.940]I like number eight, carry a whistle.
[01:05:39.540]If you're worried you might assault someone by accident
[01:05:41.440]you can hand it to the person you're with
[01:05:42.760]so they can call for help.
[01:05:45.710]You know, go with a friend and have them
[01:05:47.240]stop you from raping people.
[01:05:48.860]So I mean it kinda shows,
[01:05:50.930]just flipping it on the other side,
[01:05:52.170]and I don't suggest handing this out
[01:05:53.750]as an educational piece, this is just for you guys.
[01:05:55.992]But flipping it around does kinda show
[01:06:01.200]what the other thing is really all about.
[01:06:04.190]So anyway, I thought if I was gonna show one,
[01:06:06.502]I'd show the other.
[01:06:08.400]And there's your Victorian era
[01:06:11.010]woman screaming: Stop rape!
[01:06:14.650]So just in terms of kind of
[01:06:20.220]finishing out this prevention piece.
[01:06:21.940]So what we know from the research is that
[01:06:23.960]risk is cumulative, that risk is highest
[01:06:26.350]with a convergence of factors.
[01:06:28.340]There's multiple factors, there's no simple explanation
[01:06:31.724]for sexual assault, for alcohol abuse,
[01:06:34.900]or any other complex problem.
[01:06:37.240]So in order to be successful, we're gonna have to address
[01:06:40.100]multiple risk, protective and vulnerability factors.
[01:06:43.040]I'm just gonna say right up front,
[01:06:44.590]alcohol alone is not a causative factor for violence.
[01:06:47.540]Simply adding alcohol does not cause sexual violence.
[01:06:51.320]And that alcohol use is not an excuse
[01:06:53.220]for violent or risky behavior.
[01:06:55.170]We don't let it be one in lots of other contexts,
[01:06:58.420]so I think it's really just important
[01:07:00.060]to put that out in front.
[01:07:02.450]But we do need to unpack that relationship
[01:07:04.730]and see what it looks like.
[01:07:06.580]So what's the logic of creating interventions?
[01:07:09.200]When we look at data that describes the problem,
[01:07:11.560]that helps us know where and when to focus our efforts.
[01:07:15.990]Where when, to whom, so it kinda helps us say:
[01:07:19.370]Where are those particular areas that need attention?
[01:07:23.580]So we can be comprehensive.
[01:07:25.210]And then the contributing factors are the
[01:07:28.240]answer the question, what needs to change?
[01:07:30.260]So that's why we need to use those both together.
[01:07:32.420]Then we can say: Which of these factors
[01:07:33.880]that we've identified are modifiable,
[01:07:35.820]and then what works to modify them?
[01:07:38.360]And take the (speaker drowned out by coughing)
[01:07:40.581]to modify them.
[01:07:41.680]So that's kind of the logic of how to use data
[01:07:44.510]in that public health model.
[01:07:48.300]Picking the right activities.
[01:07:49.700]This says protests signs are an ineffectual way
[01:07:51.720]of communicating nuanced cues on issues
[01:07:53.400]that cannot and should not be reduced
[01:07:54.730]to simple pithy slogans.
[01:07:56.885]So we want to pick the right, you know,
[01:07:58.770]the prevention interventions, we wanna pick ones
[01:08:01.200]that match the problem that we've identified through data
[01:08:03.690]and that are able to make the changes that we've identified.
[01:08:07.090]And so just a couple lessons from the prevention literature.
[01:08:11.360]First one is, I used to teach Health Communications
[01:08:13.570]to masters students at Tufts University College of Medicine
[01:08:17.565]and they always wanted to raise awareness,
[01:08:22.450]and so I finally came up with KADNAB.
[01:08:25.270]In general, knowledge alone does not alter behavior.
[01:08:28.470]It's a bit of an overstatement.
[01:08:30.160]If you give people a suicide prevention hotline,
[01:08:32.020]some of them will call it,
[01:08:33.450]that's a little bit of knowledge piece.
[01:08:34.980]But when we're talking again about complex behaviors
[01:08:37.250]like bystander intervention, like negotiating consent,
[01:08:41.210]like even reducing your own high-risk drinking,
[01:08:45.770]You know, that just the knowledge piece won't be enough.
[01:08:48.860]So you wanna keep that in mind.
[01:08:51.470]As Ian said, to build skills, we need to do
[01:08:53.680]practice, you need role-playing, need to know what
[01:08:56.250]that behavior looks like, not just that we should do it.
[01:09:00.130]Scare tactics in the alcohol and drug area
[01:09:03.280]are pretty demonstrated to not be so effective.
[01:09:07.080]In other areas, the literature isn't so clear
[01:09:09.560]but I would say is that there's a large literature
[01:09:12.430]on using scare tactics in the communication literature
[01:09:15.030]and if you're willing to read all that literature
[01:09:17.240]and use it really carefully, you're welcome to try.
[01:09:20.670]But I would just say that it's very easy for scare tactics
[01:09:24.080]to backfire and for them to norm the wrong messages
[01:09:29.750]and to have the opposite effect than you want.
[01:09:31.850]So I just think trying to scare people
[01:09:34.890]into the right behavior
[01:09:35.820]is probably not the best approach.
[01:09:38.430]Which is not the same as letting people know factually
[01:09:40.730]what consequences will occur if they do certain things.
[01:09:44.573]Not the same thing.
[01:09:46.260]We already talked about one-time programs,
[01:09:47.790]change doesn't last and that one of the principles
[01:09:50.900]is that multiple reinforcing components work best.
[01:09:53.910]So again, trying to frame out, okay so if this
[01:09:56.980]is what we need to be thinking about
[01:09:58.330]when we're creating interventions,
[01:10:00.070]this is a great basis for us to approach the intersection.
[01:10:04.850]We wanna just know how every activity fits in.
[01:10:08.480]So do we wanna do more than one activity,
[01:10:10.340]we wanna do the right ones,
[01:10:12.030]we want to know what each one's designed to do,
[01:10:14.540]we want each one to be well-designed,
[01:10:16.640]to follow best practices
[01:10:17.960]for whatever it is,
[01:10:19.760]and then wanna know how they work together.
[01:10:24.320]And this is another area where I think
[01:10:27.030]there's a conversation there about mutually reinforcing.
[01:10:30.570]So what does that term, primary prevention, look like?
[01:10:32.900]I put this in just because that's language
[01:10:34.850]that's starting to be used
[01:10:35.810]in the sexual violence materials.
[01:10:37.550]It's a public health term.
[01:10:38.990]It's really equivalent to my spectrum
[01:10:40.590]of prevention to response.
[01:10:42.260]It's really equivalent to that prevention left in there.
[01:10:45.780]So what does primary prevention really look like?
[01:10:48.910]The idea of moving upstream is primary prevention,
[01:10:52.520]to make sure that we're not just responding
[01:10:54.420]but we're also preventing,
[01:10:57.690]that we're looking at the population level,
[01:10:59.520]that we're not saying: How would we have
[01:11:01.330]prevented this one incident, but how do we prevent
[01:11:03.720]patterns of incidents across the population?
[01:11:06.460]In sexual violence, to start focusing on perpetration.
[01:11:09.810]And you saw from those brochures how ill-conceived
[01:11:15.780]it sort of is just to think about victimization.
[01:11:18.750]And so here's an interesting factoid about
[01:11:21.930]looking at research and data, is that for years and years
[01:11:24.510]and years, what we did was victimization surveys.
[01:11:27.310]And whenever you collect data on something,
[01:11:28.880]you automatically want to change that.
[01:11:32.030]So if you scan the environment,
[01:11:34.250]suddenly you wanna change the environment.
[01:11:36.090]If you do victimization surveys,
[01:11:37.390]it turns out the people you wanna change are the victims.
[01:11:39.660]And so it's interesting now that we're looking
[01:11:42.730]at surveys that look at perpetration.
[01:11:45.130]So one of the themes here is to be
[01:11:49.470]really thoughtful about which data you're looking at.
[01:11:52.790]And so if we're preparing for this, I would sort of pick up
[01:11:55.590]these different studies and say, oh, this one seems
[01:11:58.620]like it might be great, and it was really
[01:12:00.000]all about victimization.
[01:12:01.090]And I sort of thought, well, we're gonna try to
[01:12:02.970]talk about perpetration and I looked at those studies.
[01:12:05.180]So just something to keep in mind.
[01:12:07.780]We wanna go beyond awareness to skills,
[01:12:10.830]and skills in a primary prevention context
[01:12:15.010]means talking about what to do and not just what not to do.
[01:12:19.660]'Cause we have the kind of don't drink in high-risk ways,
[01:12:24.360]don't sexually assault people, don't haze people.
[01:12:27.480]But what is the behavior that we want people to do?
[01:12:30.290]What's the positive behavior that's the other side of that?
[01:12:33.621]So that's, I think, where people are sort of stretching
[01:12:37.510]to kind of say, what does that upstream piece look like,
[01:12:40.240]is what's the proactive skill, not just the absence
[01:12:43.730]of the bad behavior.
[01:12:45.610]So again, we'll keep talking about that.
[01:12:49.190]Going beyond individual change
[01:12:50.620]to interpersonal and environmental change,
[01:12:52.220]that's the shift to primary prevention and that idea of
[01:12:54.960]coordinated sequence and sustained efforts.
[01:12:58.050]So when you hear in some of the federal documents
[01:13:03.050]this language of primary prevention,
[01:13:04.630]this is what people are talking about is this kind of shift.
[01:13:10.810]Any questions on that?
[01:13:11.730]I wanna just make sure I'm giving you room
[01:13:18.350]to ask about that.
[01:13:20.840]So anything else that you would all add?
[01:13:23.470]I mean you all have deep expertise in prevention,
[01:13:26.710]in effective prevention.
[01:13:29.431]I know some of you know a lot about primary prevention,
[01:13:31.240]is there anything that I left off
[01:13:33.260]effective primary prevention that you would add to that?
[01:13:40.030]And this isn't your last opportunity.
[01:13:41.520]Later on you can say, oh I know.
[01:13:44.320]So I asked you to think about what are potential
[01:13:46.900]points of intersection in how we do our work?
[01:13:49.230]So if those are the principles that we're looking at,
[01:13:51.990]if some of the, you know we talked about various ways
[01:13:54.700]of using research and data,
[01:13:56.220]of doing data-driven planning, of focusing on perpetration.
[01:14:01.620]Can you think of any potential points of intersection
[01:14:04.240]right now in the way that we approach work?
[01:14:20.420]People are thinking.
[01:14:23.340]I'll just say one that occurred to me is data collection.
[01:14:27.110]That if we want to do data-driven planning
[01:14:30.850]for alcohol prevention and data-driven planning
[01:14:32.680]for sexual violence prevention
[01:14:34.490]that we both gotta do data collection.
[01:14:36.800]It seems like that even just that would be an opportunity
[01:14:40.400]to say, because we know that students get over-surveyed,
[01:14:43.380]we know that people don't, if you're gonna do
[01:14:47.030]key informant interviews of decision-makers around campus,
[01:14:49.410]maybe they don't wanna have multiple interviews
[01:14:53.950]so maybe there's a way of pooling our efforts there.
[01:14:58.275]Some of the collaborative structures to me seem like
[01:15:00.780]places where you could talk about the intersections.
[01:15:04.130]It doesn't mean, again, that you have one task force
[01:15:06.740]or coalition that deals with both issues,
[01:15:08.640]'cause I think that can get muddled sometimes.
[01:15:11.730]But I think that can be a place where the intersections
[01:15:14.980]are talked about in deliberate ways.
[01:15:16.570]Or you can have partners at the table
[01:15:18.560]that represent the intersection.
[01:15:21.430]So anyway, I think that's just something
[01:15:22.640]to be thinking about is it's not always
[01:15:24.640]the interventions themselves I think
[01:15:27.260]that are the opportunities for intersection
[01:15:29.890]but maybe just some of the kinds of ways
[01:15:31.590]that we're doing focus groups and can you ask
[01:15:34.170]a couple questions for me at the end,
[01:15:36.060]or we're gonna go talk to these five administrators
[01:15:40.660]and ask about their priorities about health and safety,
[01:15:42.860]and could you throw a couple questions in about this?
[01:15:46.200]You know, yeah.
[01:15:47.980]I think partnering with faculty
[01:15:50.720]who are incentivized to do research,
[01:15:54.610]whether it be psychology, sociology, criminal justice.
[01:15:58.430]Bringing in expertise and creating
[01:16:01.200]partnerships with faculty to help evaluate and collect data.
[01:16:04.820]Great idea, yeah, yeah.
[01:16:07.090]So some of those same kind of partnerships
[01:16:08.930]and then how do we not go to the same faculty
[01:16:11.300]over and over with multiple requests,
[01:16:15.080]but can we coordinate in some way that will
[01:16:17.200]make them more, you know, if there's a particular
[01:16:19.510]person that everybody wants to consult,
[01:16:21.460]can we combine our forces and say,
[01:16:23.540]hey, we want you to do this combined thing for us.
[01:16:26.400]Yeah, I love that, yeah.
[01:16:32.190]Either thoughts or comments before we forge on ahead?
[01:16:39.087]So, research and data on the intersection
[01:16:41.460]of alcohol and sexual violence.
[01:16:46.448]Just flip over to here.
[01:16:54.070]So here's our roadmap for the rest of the day,
[01:16:57.620]and the things that are in the purply-blue font,
[01:17:01.380]that part one, two, three and four and five,
[01:17:04.070]are really the segments of the rest of the program today
[01:17:07.170]and you can see that we're doing:
[01:17:08.860]Part one is describe the problem,
[01:17:10.330]but then the contributing factors
[01:17:11.990]in parts two, three and four,
[01:17:13.710]and then there should be a little time at the end
[01:17:15.330]for you to talk about where you wanna go next.
[01:17:17.070]So I'll be coming back to this map
[01:17:19.620]so you can see where we are on it.
[01:17:22.610]I'm not gonna tell you what everything is
[01:17:24.400]right now that's on it,
[01:17:25.320]'cause I'll just explain it as we go,
[01:17:27.000]but that kind of gives you a sense of how we're proceeding.
[01:17:30.452]We're gonna start with part one, describe the problem.
[01:17:32.480]And just, I started to talk about this already
[01:17:36.320]when I talked about being aware
[01:17:37.830]of whether a survey is a victimization survey
[01:17:40.430]or perpetration survey or bystander survey,
[01:17:42.510]Kind of what are we asking about?
[01:17:48.191]I like to say that each piece of data
[01:17:49.450]is inherently useful and inherently flawed.
[01:17:52.030]That it tells you what it tells you
[01:17:53.390]but it doesn't tell you what it doesn't tell you.
[01:17:55.620]And so there's different kinds of data.
[01:17:57.600]We have official reports.
[01:17:59.870]We know that official reports of anything don't represent
[01:18:02.990]the full range of the behaviors that occur,
[01:18:05.510]but it's useful to know how many official reports there are.
[01:18:09.606]But we have to know what is required to be reported.
[01:18:12.830]We just have to know what we're looking at
[01:18:14.250]when we're looking at data, especially with sexual violence.
[01:18:17.260]Most sexual violence isn't officially reported,
[01:18:19.940]so we know that we need to go to surveys
[01:18:21.460]and to other methods to really see
[01:18:24.220]what's going on with those.
[01:18:25.740]So just as you're thinking about research and data,
[01:18:28.870]it's very useful to ask: Who was asked this?
[01:18:34.030]Who's in the sample?
[01:18:34.920]Who's not in the sample?
[01:18:36.450]How is it measured?
[01:18:39.447]Another thing about sexual violence is that the way,
[01:18:43.610]it's very sensitive to measurement type.
[01:18:46.130]So the way you frame the survey, if you were saying,
[01:18:49.770]I'm gonna survey you about crime,
[01:18:51.310]is you get different responses than
[01:18:53.130]I'm gonna survey you about your personal relationships,
[01:18:56.400]than if you say, I'm gonna ask you
[01:18:57.720]about your health and safety issues
[01:18:59.680]versus I'm gonna ask you
[01:19:00.600]about victimization experiences, right.
[01:19:02.150]That framing matters.
[01:19:03.900]I'm not saying any of them are right or wrong,
[01:19:05.620]it just affects what the set the people are in.
[01:19:09.140]The kinds of questions that you ask, in particular,
[01:19:12.410]have been identified by, there's some good studies
[01:19:14.760]that show, so if you just ask people:
[01:19:16.880]Have you ever been raped?
[01:19:18.040]Have you ever been sexually assaulted?
[01:19:19.700]You get far lower numbers than if you ask people
[01:19:23.850]And say you know,
[01:19:25.110]has anybody ever put their penis in your vagina
[01:19:27.200]against your will, or you know,
[01:19:28.460]those kinds of specific questions
[01:19:30.650]and don't label them as rape or sexual assault,
[01:19:33.300]because people don't always know.
[01:19:35.040]You know, people don't necessarily know
[01:19:36.020]that incapacitated rape is rape.
[01:19:38.830]But you can ask the questions in really specific ways.
[01:19:41.730]So there's magnitudes greater of offenses that get reported
[01:19:45.760]when you ask behaviorally-specific questions.
[01:19:48.080]So it means that something like
[01:19:49.620]The National College Health Assessment,
[01:19:51.500]that asks, I think, does some labeling of the behaviors
[01:19:55.810]and asks only a few questions, is gonna get at less of
[01:19:59.100]the offenses than things that are much more detailed.
[01:20:01.780]But we're always making those trade-offs right?
[01:20:03.500]We can't always ask sixteen questions
[01:20:05.590]about a single thing on a survey.
[01:20:07.820]So but just be aware of what you're looking at.
[01:20:10.460]That if you're looking at something that asks people,
[01:20:13.880]were you ever raped, then you're getting fewer people
[01:20:16.470]than actually experienced something
[01:20:18.310]that met the legal definition of a rape.
[01:20:22.310]We're also concerned, I would say today in prevention,
[01:20:25.490]with things that don't meet the legal definition
[01:20:27.440]of a rape or sexual assault.
[01:20:29.820]We're concerned about the whole range of behaviors,
[01:20:32.010]including low-level behaviors that might be problematic
[01:20:35.930]and worrisome to people, but might not meet some standard.
[01:20:41.980]So that's another way that when we move
[01:20:44.140]from response to prevention,
[01:20:46.580]that we're really concerned about a whole range
[01:20:49.110]of behaviors including everything across the spectrum
[01:20:52.630]that would be coercive or uncomfortable.
[01:20:59.500]So we'll just keep in mind as we go
[01:21:01.640]that there's a lot of different data
[01:21:03.760]and data sources and we'll just be thoughtful
[01:21:05.470]about what we're looking at as we go.
[01:21:08.620]So describe the problem, is our first step as you recall.
[01:21:13.290]And so one thing I would say is that views of the alcohol
[01:21:16.760]and sexual violence association are shaped
[01:21:18.970]by people's beliefs about rape, about what rape is.
[01:21:23.410]So what do people think of as rape?
[01:21:31.680]What's a real rape?
[01:21:35.760]The man in the bushes.
[01:21:37.095]The man in the bushes.
[01:21:39.330]Yep, what else?
[01:21:40.670]Use of force.
[01:21:41.503]Use of force.
[01:21:42.360]Use of force, good.
[01:21:46.590]Has to be like physically violent.
[01:21:48.035]Physically violent, yep.
[01:21:50.300]An innocent victim.
[01:21:51.780]Innocent victim, yep, absolutely.
[01:21:55.170]Male raping females.
[01:21:57.320]Male raping females, right.
[01:22:00.220]Using a knife to rape.
[01:22:01.900]Right, so sometimes a weapon, right?
[01:22:04.460]Stranger jumps out of the bushes
[01:22:05.800]with a knife or gun kind of thing.
[01:22:08.460]Stranger creeps through
[01:22:10.320]unlocked screen window at night, right?
[01:22:12.990]And there is actually some studies on
[01:22:15.630]the idea of a real rape, where they've really studied that.
[01:22:19.430]And so that to the extent, and I'm not saying
[01:22:23.270]that that's a good phrase, by the way,
[01:22:24.870]I just wanna be clear.
[01:22:27.181]You know, that they're talking about, I'm using air quotes
[01:22:29.130]for people who can't see me,
[01:22:31.490]so but that idea of the stereotypical definition
[01:22:35.620]of what is a sexual assault or what is a rape
[01:22:38.400]affects the way that people process this association.
[01:22:43.426]What about if the people involved are acquainted?
[01:22:45.450]What do people think of as,
[01:22:48.300]what's the prototypical scenario of that?
[01:22:54.210]Say more about permission.
[01:22:56.280]If it's someone that you know,
[01:22:58.540]you're wanting to be with that person
[01:23:01.000]so therefore maybe there was some inferred permission.
[01:23:04.820]Yeah, so because you're acquainted with them,
[01:23:07.430]that that implies that you are consenting, yeah.
[01:23:11.870]Same thing like if you had
[01:23:12.830]consent sex once, it's always consent.
[01:23:15.240]Right, if you had sex once it's always consent, good.
[01:23:19.383]What are the rest of the stereotypical beliefs
[01:23:22.820]that people have about acquaintance rape?
[01:23:27.940]Take the girl upstairs at a party.
[01:23:31.044]Take the girl upstairs at a party, yep.
[01:23:42.263]I think there's an idea
[01:23:43.309]about acquaintance rape that sometimes it's more about
[01:23:45.990]people regretting it after fact
[01:23:47.220]and calling it sexual assault.
[01:23:49.410]Yeah, so this idea of regretting it after the fact
[01:23:51.890]and calling it sexual assault, right?
[01:23:53.700]So it was consenting at the time,
[01:23:55.080]but it's regretted sex, yeah I hear that.
[01:24:00.110]And that alcohol was involved right?
[01:24:01.860]Just to name the elephant in the room
[01:24:04.170]that we're talking about all day.
[01:24:07.202]So that conceptualization affects what people,
[01:24:11.750]how people will process.
[01:24:13.350]All you have to do is read the comments section
[01:24:15.240]of any article that has occurred in the past couple years
[01:24:20.080]and you'll just see those beliefs expressed.
[01:24:23.890]So for an accurate understanding, we have to be accountable
[01:24:27.480]to say: Well what's really the accurate situation there?
[01:24:30.310]And that's where research and data can help us.
[01:24:33.170]So here's the reality.
[01:24:34.400]There's a place on your worksheet
[01:24:35.690]to take notes if you want to.
[01:24:37.680]So this is the most common scenario.
[01:24:40.260]It is true that the most common scenario is:
[01:24:43.320]Male offender and a female victim
[01:24:45.220]but it's not the only scenario,
[01:24:47.070]so I think that's a really critical piece.
[01:24:49.488]That they know each other.
[01:24:51.720]That they interact socially prior
[01:24:53.510]to the assault in some way.
[01:24:55.340]And most are never reported.
[01:24:58.040]And so although this the prototypical scenario,
[01:25:04.940]it's really critical that in our prevention efforts
[01:25:08.300]and the way that we think about it,
[01:25:09.320]that we're not ignoring male victims, same-gender assaults
[01:25:12.340]and all the different circumstances that can happen.
[01:25:16.040]And that's something that I see when I'm on campuses
[01:25:18.080]and talking to students about what they don't like
[01:25:20.940]about what their campus is doing in terms of
[01:25:23.130]educational materials, they often say,
[01:25:26.120]it's too white heterosexual.
[01:25:30.560]So just making sure that we're representing that
[01:25:32.810]full range of demographics that you have on your campus
[01:25:36.010]and full range of kinds of incidents that really occur.
[01:25:39.820]I will talking a lot about male offenders and female victims
[01:25:43.420]'cause that's what the research is about a lot
[01:25:45.790]and it was just, in our time today,
[01:25:47.920]I couldn't spin it out into the small pockets
[01:25:51.040]of research there are in these other areas.
[01:25:53.120]But I just wanna acknowledge that I'm doing that
[01:25:55.540]and that's not because I don't think the other kinds
[01:25:58.680]of sexual assaults are important.
[01:26:02.810]So alcohol involved in assaults,
[01:26:06.780]on average, Toni Abbey says,
[01:26:09.290]her research says that it's around 50% that the victim,
[01:26:13.490]offender or both were drinking, across studies.
[01:26:16.390]There's a giant range, and again,
[01:26:17.880]it depends on who you're looking at.
[01:26:19.850]Whether they were reported.
[01:26:20.860]Whether they weren't reported.
[01:26:22.700]Whether there was a subsample, et cetera.
[01:26:25.980]But you often hear 90%, you know, like very big estimates
[01:26:32.020]and I think those have come up in some studies
[01:26:33.840]but on average across well-done studies
[01:26:36.830]the reviews say around 50%.
[01:26:41.030]Whatever the specific percent is there,
[01:26:43.120]I think it's really critical to say that
[01:26:44.450]alcohol is not involved in many assaults.
[01:26:47.600]So it's not sufficient, it's not something that alone,
[01:26:51.440]you add to a scenario and then sexual assault breaks out.
[01:26:55.630]So I think we have to keep that in mind.
[01:26:59.340]If alcohol is involved, usually both are drinking,
[01:27:02.740]but again a lot of times we're not distinguishing
[01:27:04.490]the level of drinking.
[01:27:05.610]So in some of the studies they're really looking at people
[01:27:07.927]that having had one or two drinks,
[01:27:11.340]the drinking box gets checked.
[01:27:13.380]So again, there's fewer studies
[01:27:15.960]that really are looking at patterns,
[01:27:18.090]but looking at a level of intoxication, et cetera,
[01:27:23.750]But usually both have had something to drink
[01:27:27.130]and that we're really talking about alcohol today
[01:27:30.320]because although there's a lot of, you know,
[01:27:31.900]you saw in the brochures that people can slip things
[01:27:34.890]into your drinks and they can, much, much less common
[01:27:38.680]than alcohol, and typically if there's other drugs involved,
[01:27:41.640]it's other drugs and alcohol are involved.
[01:27:44.490]So even most incidents where drugs were ingested
[01:27:50.410]voluntarily or involuntarily, alcohol was also ingested.
[01:27:54.370]So today we're just gonna talk about alcohol.
[01:27:56.160]But again, the same kind of process and those questions
[01:28:00.300]that we're asking today, I encourage you to ask
[01:28:03.700]you know, for assaults involving other drugs
[01:28:08.180]and for assaults involving other kinds of scenarios
[01:28:12.550]so you can use the same process that we're talking about.
[01:28:15.340]I would also say that local analysis is really critical.
[01:28:17.960]I have been on campuses where there has been,
[01:28:21.160]they've just noticed an uptick in drugging rapes
[01:28:24.420]and somebody was making, there was a group on campus
[01:28:27.980]that was making date rape drugs.
[01:28:29.970]So you wanna have your ear to the ground
[01:28:33.410]and figuring out how to address that if that happens
[01:28:35.310]to be a particular issue on your campus.
[01:28:37.180]We can't just assume it's not.
[01:28:41.499]So here's another piece of the reality.
[01:28:43.620]So we're gonna watch this DVD.
[01:28:45.570]This is a very explicit description of an assault,
[01:28:50.180]so I just wanna be conscious about that.
[01:28:53.949]I'll just switch this over here.
[01:28:57.040]It's about seven minutes.
[01:29:01.946]And it's fairly upsetting so I'm just...
[01:29:45.340]We had parties every weekend.
[01:29:46.820]That's what my fraternity was known for.
[01:29:48.590]And we'd invite a bunch of girls, lay out a bunch of kegs
[01:29:51.660]or whatever we were drinking that night,
[01:29:53.670]and everyone would just get plastered.
[01:29:55.890]And we'd all invite girls, all of us in the fraternity.
[01:29:58.080]You know, we'd be on the lookout for the good-looking girls,
[01:30:00.300]especially the freshmen, the really young ones.
[01:30:02.740]They were the easiest.
[01:30:03.573]It's like they didn't know the ropes, kind of, you know?
[01:30:05.670]Like they were easy prey.
[01:30:07.240]And they wouldn't know anything about drinking
[01:30:09.040]or how much alcohol they could handle,
[01:30:10.700]so you know, they wouldn't know anything
[01:30:13.630]about our techniques.
[01:30:15.160]What were those techniques?
[01:30:16.810]Well we'd invite 'em to the party, you know.
[01:30:18.300]We'd make it seem like it was a real honor,
[01:30:20.490]like we didn't just invite any girl,
[01:30:22.100]which I guess in a way is true.
[01:30:24.720]You know, and then we'd get 'em drinking right away.
[01:30:26.650]We'd have all those kegs, but we always had
[01:30:28.340]some kind of punch also, you know, like our own home brew.
[01:30:32.860]And we'd make it with a real sweet juice and just pour in
[01:30:36.130]all kinds of alcohol and it was really powerful stuff.
[01:30:40.310]The girls wouldn't know what hit 'em.
[01:30:42.150]They'd be guzzling it, you know, 'cause they were freshmen,
[01:30:45.490]kind pf nervous and it's just juice anyhow, right, so.
[01:30:48.890]When you say it was just juice,
[01:30:50.200]you mean the girls wouldn't know
[01:30:51.190]that it was spiked with alcohol?
[01:30:52.520]Well they knew, I mean they knew that.
[01:30:54.970]At least the smart ones did, but it was a party, right?
[01:30:57.800]Not some kind of like social tea.
[01:31:00.660]I think they must have known, or most of them did anyway.
[01:31:02.950]The ones that didn't had to have been really naive.
[01:31:04.830]Well, did you count on them being naive?
[01:31:07.350]Yeah, the real young ones.
[01:31:08.860]The naive ones were the easiest,
[01:31:10.360]and they'd be the ones that we'd target.
[01:31:12.010]What do you mean by target?
[01:31:13.280]That's what we'd call 'em.
[01:31:14.460]You know, we'd all be scouting for targets during the week.
[01:31:17.080]You know, we'd pick 'em out, work 'em over during the week
[01:31:19.660]and then get 'em all psyched up
[01:31:21.060]to come to one of our famous parties.
[01:31:23.370]They'd be the ones we'd really work on.
[01:31:24.790]What would happen once they were drunk at the party?
[01:31:26.880]Well, that's when one of us would make our move.
[01:31:29.270]By then, each one of the girls had been kind of
[01:31:30.770]staked out by one of us, meaning one of the guys
[01:31:32.630]would be working on 'em, getting 'em drinks,
[01:31:34.940]keeping the juices flowing, so to speak.
[01:31:37.210]And you kinda had to know your moment, you know,
[01:31:39.080]when to make the move.
[01:31:40.220]You basically had to have an instinct for it.
[01:31:42.020]Can you describe what happened in the
[01:31:43.420]specific occasion you referred to in your questionnaire?
[01:31:47.700]I had this girl staked out,
[01:31:48.890]I picked her out in of my classes,
[01:31:50.440]you know, worked on her.
[01:31:51.500]She was all prepped.
[01:31:53.152]I was watching for her, you know,
[01:31:54.010]and the minute she walked into the door of the party,
[01:31:55.890]I was on her.
[01:31:57.260]And she was really good-looking too.
[01:31:59.470]We started drinking together
[01:32:01.290]and I could tell she was nervous.
[01:32:02.880]I could tell she was nervous
[01:32:03.780]'cause she was drinking that stuff so fast.
[01:32:06.050]What was she drinking?
[01:32:07.130]Well, it was the some kinda punch we'd made.
[01:32:08.920]You know, the usual thing.
[01:32:10.270]Did she know it was spiked with alcohol?
[01:32:13.070]I don't really know,
[01:32:13.980]although she must have after a while, you know,
[01:32:15.800]'cause she started to get plastered in just a few minutes.
[01:32:19.270]And so I started making my moves on her.
[01:32:22.390]I kinda leaned in close, you know, got my arm around her,
[01:32:25.530]and then at the right moment, I kissed her.
[01:32:27.120]I moved in a little closer.
[01:32:28.650]You know, like the usual kind of stuff.
[01:32:31.410]I'm sure it was no surprise to her.
[01:32:32.940]She'd done it a thousand times before, you know,
[01:32:34.760]and after a while, I asked her if she wanted
[01:32:36.810]to go up to my room, you know, get away from the noise
[01:32:39.480]and she came right away, so actually, it wasn't my room.
[01:32:43.760]We always had several rooms designated before the party,
[01:32:46.610]you know, that were all prepped for this.
[01:32:49.990]Yeah, we'd set aside a few rooms, you know,
[01:32:51.740]bring the girls up to once they were ready.
[01:32:53.690]What happened when you got to the designated room?
[01:32:56.270]Well, she was really woozy by this time,
[01:32:58.160]so I brought up another drink, you know,
[01:32:59.760]and sat her down on one of the beds, sat down next to her
[01:33:02.940]and pretty soon I just made my move.
[01:33:05.080]I don't remember exactly what I did first.
[01:33:06.410]I probably leaned her down on the bed,
[01:33:08.300]started working on her clothes, feeling her up.
[01:33:10.360]How did she respond?
[01:33:12.290]I don't remember.
[01:33:13.700]I started working her blouse off, you know,
[01:33:15.190]I think she might have said something.
[01:33:16.380]I don't remember.
[01:33:17.550]I didn't expect her to get into it right away.
[01:33:19.590]Did she say anything?
[01:33:20.870]Yeah, at some point she started saying things like
[01:33:23.120]you know, "I don't wanna do this right away,"
[01:33:24.650]or something like that.
[01:33:26.110]I just kept working on her clothes, you know,
[01:33:28.050]and she started squirming, but that actually helped
[01:33:29.950]'cause her blouse came off easier.
[01:33:31.340]And I kinda leaned on her, you know,
[01:33:34.790]kept feeling her up, get her more into it.
[01:33:37.370]She tried to push me off, so I pushed her back down.
[01:33:39.680]Were you angry?
[01:33:41.120]No, but you know, it pissed me off that she played along
[01:33:43.390]the whole way and then decided
[01:33:44.410]to squirm out of it like that at the end.
[01:33:45.900]I mean she was so plastered she probably
[01:33:48.000]didn't know what was going on anyway.
[01:33:49.740]I don't know.
[01:33:50.573]Maybe that's why she started pushing on me,
[01:33:51.870]But, you know I just kept leaning on her,
[01:33:54.320]pulling off her clothes.
[01:33:55.810]At some point she stopped squirming.
[01:33:57.260]I don't know, maybe she passed out.
[01:33:58.580]Her eyes were closed.
[01:34:00.830]I fucked her.
[01:34:02.140]Did you have to lean on her,
[01:34:03.340]hold her down when you did it?
[01:34:04.790]Yeah, I had my arm across her chest like this, you know?
[01:34:07.480]That's how I did it.
[01:34:09.160]Was she squirming?
[01:34:10.320]Yeah, she was squirming, but not as much anymore.
[01:34:13.060]What happened afterwards?
[01:34:14.300]I got dressed and went back to the party.
[01:34:16.130]What did she do?
[01:34:19.728]You know, I think there are many things we can learn
[01:34:21.100]from this very disturbing interview.
[01:34:23.290]Most notably are some of Frank's terms,
[01:34:25.680]the language he uses.
[01:34:27.110]He uses words like prey, targets, staked out.
[01:34:31.600]These are all words that serve to dehumanize his victim
[01:34:34.410]and they're the common language amongst criminals.
[01:34:37.190]It's also notable that Frank exhibits
[01:34:39.530]no empathy for his victim.
[01:34:41.180]At a time when she's experiencing extreme terror,
[01:34:44.670]his reaction was one of anger, not empathy for her state.
[01:34:48.120]He also minimizes his violence and sanitizes it.
[01:34:51.150]If you remember, in that reenactment, he demonstrates,
[01:34:54.030]he says that he put his arm across the top of her chest.
[01:34:56.810]What he really shows is his arm across the woman's windpipe
[01:34:59.680]which is probably blocking off her breathing
[01:35:01.730]and undoubtedly causing her immense terror.
[01:35:26.620]So, that's horrifying.
[01:35:33.084]But I think it's really critical to acknowledge that dynamic
[01:35:40.430]and that research has been out for a number of years now.
[01:35:45.320]And I think that's sort of been slowly seeping its way
[01:35:47.720]into people's understanding of, that the public conception
[01:35:52.240]about what a real rape looks like is off in some ways.
[01:35:58.020]It's not to say that every sexual assault
[01:36:00.010]looks like that, but there's a lot of it.
[01:36:03.850]So that was David Lisak, and in his study with Miller
[01:36:08.450]from 2002, now this is was a little bit of a
[01:36:12.790]slightly older college student sample, but what they found,
[01:36:17.540]so obviously the vast majority of men that they interviewed,
[01:36:21.130]so they did these questionnaires and if they said yes
[01:36:23.330]to certain questions on the questionnaire,
[01:36:24.730]they brought them in for an interview
[01:36:26.150]and that was the transcript of the interview.
[01:36:27.770]That's what the guy said.
[01:36:29.780]So David Lisak was doing the part that he did
[01:36:32.110]and then they had an actor reading from the transcript.
[01:36:36.350]So the vast majority of men weren't rapists.
[01:36:40.380]Of those that were, there were 120 people
[01:36:46.820]committed a sexual assault, 76 were repeat rapists
[01:36:52.120]and were predatory in that way.
[01:36:54.070]44 were single-act rapists.
[01:36:56.750]But if you look at the 44 who were responsible
[01:36:59.270]for then 44 rapes, but that 76 men were responsible
[01:37:04.220]for 439 rapes and attempted rapes,
[01:37:07.390]on average of about six each.
[01:37:09.770]And so some of them, I guess that's a little bit
[01:37:12.830]of a skewed mean, so I guess the median was around three,
[01:37:16.570]so that means there were some people
[01:37:17.580]in there who had just perpetrated a lot of them.
[01:37:20.660]So I think that this research has really
[01:37:23.680]revolutionized our understanding
[01:37:25.400]of what we need to be thinking about on campuses
[01:37:29.190]and I think really needs to inform the way that we look
[01:37:32.180]at the intersection of sexual violence and alcohol.
[01:37:38.040]So it was 91%.
[01:37:42.030]So the serial rapers committed 91% of the incidents,
[01:37:45.520]of the rapes or attempted rapes,
[01:37:47.470]but it was 2/3 of the sample.
[01:37:49.880]So this is another place where when you're thinking about,
[01:37:52.770]like if you have a person sitting in front of you
[01:37:55.020]who's responsible for sexual assault,
[01:37:57.480]you don't know which one they are.
[01:38:00.100]Because 2/3 were serial rapers
[01:38:03.030]and 1/3 were single act rapists.
[01:38:06.910]So I think we have to be really conscious of this,
[01:38:08.630]but also, we can't extrapolate
[01:38:10.230]that to individual circumstances.
[01:38:13.180]Since then, some others have repeated
[01:38:15.790]that same kind of study and found similar results,
[01:38:18.150]notably McWhorter in a Navy recruit sample.
[01:38:20.600]Very similar findings.
[01:38:22.850]Not exactly the same numbers,
[01:38:24.280]but the pie would look pretty much the same.
[01:38:28.291]So about 6 1/2% of the entire sample had committed rape.
[01:38:35.350]Again, 2/3 were repeat rapists.
[01:38:37.380]And the other finding is that they also
[01:38:39.540]had committed a range of other offenses
[01:38:41.470]that weren't attempted or completed rape,
[01:38:43.000]including a lot of sexual assaults.
[01:38:45.570]And again, the majority of these other offenses
[01:38:47.500]were perpetrated by the repeat rapists.
[01:38:52.210]Battering intimate partners, they also studied child abuse,
[01:38:56.010]although I didn't put it up there.
[01:38:57.600]And so 58% committed violence other than a rape.
[01:39:02.040]So again, this idea that there's one thing
[01:39:04.610]going on with them; they may be committing other offenses.
[01:39:10.460]So I'm just interested in a couple thoughts.
[01:39:21.751]What are your thoughts on what implications
[01:39:23.210]this has for our work on campus sexual assault?
[01:39:29.160]I know I'm showing you this huge heavy video on it.
[01:39:31.990]Just a clarification.
[01:39:34.099]Is there anything about the percentage that were known?
[01:39:38.034]Where the suspect knew the victim,
[01:39:39.070]or is that out of this --
[01:39:40.320]I don't think that they,
[01:39:42.410]to my knowledge they didn't measure it.
[01:39:44.410]I don't think it was something
[01:39:45.460]that was talked about in there.
[01:39:46.950]None of them were, that's why they call that undetected.
[01:39:51.160]So none of them went through a conduct system
[01:39:54.519]or went through a criminal justice system.
[01:39:58.040]So you know, I would guess that a number of them.
[01:40:02.693]You mean whether they were acquainted or not?
[01:40:05.670]Yeah, I mean, I think that the dynamic was probably
[01:40:08.160]fairly similar to what he was describing,
[01:40:09.850]and so would you say they were acquainted or not?
[01:40:12.470]She was targeted, and so that's,
[01:40:16.240]they didn't meet for the first time at the party
[01:40:18.540]but beyond that I don't really know.
[01:40:23.420]This may be a stretch
[01:40:24.780]but I'm gonna take a stab that, you know,
[01:40:28.640]if you're looking at data that identifies
[01:40:31.220]high-risk environments and if you can begin
[01:40:34.590]to put different or disparate parts of data together,
[01:40:38.810]you may be able to see patterns and trends,
[01:40:42.180]I'm making some assumptions
[01:40:43.760]that perpetrators are attracted to certain environments.
[01:40:48.060]And that it could be that we could find commonalities
[01:40:51.080]within each one of those environments.
[01:40:53.420]Yep, no I think that's a really,
[01:40:55.520]I think that's a really great observation.
[01:40:59.260]So if you have an environment in which
[01:41:01.640]that behavior could not be detected, all it needs,
[01:41:05.990]if there's not a predatory person in that environment,
[01:41:08.550]all it needs is a predatory person deciding
[01:41:10.400]they're gonna take advantage of that environment.
[01:41:13.130]So if what's going on, if the only difference is
[01:41:16.890]that you're lucky that there's not a person
[01:41:19.080]with that mindset in that environment,
[01:41:21.240]then we can identify that maybe as an environment
[01:41:23.430]that needs work, not just because of sexual assault
[01:41:26.260]but because there's probably a whole range
[01:41:27.630]of other risky behaviors that was described.
[01:41:30.690]So yeah, no, I think that that's a great thought.
[01:41:36.627]What else, what other thoughts do you guys have on this?
[01:41:43.243]I don't know if any of you
[01:41:44.076]who are doing educational programs,
[01:41:45.690]do you ever talk about this
[01:41:46.920]in your educational programs?
[01:41:51.050]What do you guys say about --
[01:41:52.250]We've shown the video before.
[01:41:53.690]Yeah, who've you shown it to?
[01:41:56.423]To college students.
[01:41:58.310]In presentations and such.
[01:42:00.450]Yeah, what do they make of it?
[01:42:02.260]Well I think there's
[01:42:03.251]kind of a misconception about perpetrators in that,
[01:42:07.180]especially when we talk about serial perpetrators,
[01:42:10.230]that they that they tend to view them
[01:42:11.290]as like a social deviant and Frank wasn't.
[01:42:15.810]He was a pre-law college student,
[01:42:17.500]and so this video allows us to open up that dialogue
[01:42:20.980]and to be able to talk about that.
[01:42:22.606]Right, they're not gonna come dressed in a red cape
[01:42:26.580]with horns growing out of their heads,
[01:42:28.020]glowing eye look you know, yeah.
[01:42:31.610]I'm not necessarily saying that I think people should,
[01:42:34.440]but I think it's an interesting question
[01:42:35.910]about do we have this conversation?
[01:42:41.780]A couple of you said you were doing bystander,
[01:42:43.950]so in thinking of doing bystander skills training,
[01:42:47.350]where might this fit in with a bystander
[01:42:55.770]I'm thinking of these
[01:42:57.950]repeat offenses, let's say.
[01:43:00.790]How many of their acquaintances were aware
[01:43:03.923]and perhaps didn't intervene and/or aided in
[01:43:09.237]setting up the potential environment for which these occur?
[01:43:15.371]Yep, I saw that there's two things that you said
[01:43:17.880]and I think they're both really important.
[01:43:19.300]One is, how many people saw this incident unfold
[01:43:24.010]and maybe could have stopped it at different points
[01:43:26.110]along the way, so that's a great question for bystander,
[01:43:28.130]is: What is the sequence of events?
[01:43:29.740]'Cause this didn't just come,
[01:43:31.250]this didn't just happen suddenly,
[01:43:32.700]there was a whole sequence of events that led up to this
[01:43:34.860]that he himself described.
[01:43:36.830]And then who was setting up the environment
[01:43:40.187]where this could go undetected?
[01:43:42.460]And I think those are both really important things.
[01:43:44.490]So if we want people to intervene as bystanders,
[01:43:47.320]and they need to know to recognize the problem,
[01:43:49.900]I think we have to help them know the variety
[01:43:51.710]of ways that the problem could look.
[01:43:53.570]That doesn't necessarily mean showing this video,
[01:43:55.550]but I think that it's bringing these dynamics
[01:43:57.830]to people's attention, so yeah.
[01:44:00.300]There's also the dynamic of, you know,
[01:44:02.310]what kind of act (mumbles), what the research shows,
[01:44:05.831]you know, it shows or it doesn't show.
[01:44:08.966]If it doesn't show it's the internal thinking
[01:44:10.924]of the folks that were called back in.
[01:44:12.930]What was their perception of what went on.
[01:44:15.252]And I think that plays in the bystander training too,
[01:44:17.360]because if you ask them,
[01:44:18.270]is this what you did, they would say no.
[01:44:20.889]Absolutely, yeah and I've heard David talk
[01:44:24.270]about this before and he says, people said,
[01:44:26.030]they will never tell you what they did.
[01:44:28.030]Well, they were perfectly happy to describe it
[01:44:29.740]because they didn't label it as problematic in any way.
[01:44:33.080]So are we ever gonna, in our 15-minute orientation program,
[01:44:37.760]are we gonna change Frank's mind?
[01:44:40.100]No, but what we can do is get people wise to Frank.
[01:44:45.330]So if other people were able to label that behavior,
[01:44:49.520]and I don't wanna say we could never
[01:44:51.700]make a difference for him under any circumstance
[01:44:54.290]but we're certainly not in our, you know,
[01:44:56.470]in a brief educational intervention.
[01:44:58.550]But if we could get other people to label his behavior
[01:45:00.680]as problematic and not go along with it,
[01:45:04.450]that would stand out as more deviant.
[01:45:07.250]That would make them look more like, what is that?
[01:45:10.770]We don't do that here.
[01:45:12.440]Yeah, so that's a great thought, yeah.
[01:45:14.810]You know, I guess the question in my head,
[01:45:16.590]maybe I'm taking this off-topic,
[01:45:17.970]but I really like your point about providing the stats
[01:45:22.580]and an accurate picture.
[01:45:23.730]When I think about our bystander program,
[01:45:26.300]we do that early on with school-specific
[01:45:28.980]or region-specific stats.
[01:45:30.495]But your point about scare tactics too,
[01:45:35.370]you know, where would you put the Frank video
[01:45:38.590]on that spectrum?
[01:45:39.970]You know, because --
[01:45:40.803]Yeah, I know, yeah.
[01:45:41.636]And yet too, there's also a piece of me,
[01:45:44.030]right, that a lot of people like
[01:45:45.680]to call them freshmen in college,
[01:45:46.860]I call them four years past eighth grade
[01:45:49.740]and the reason why I do that is,
[01:45:52.170]I think a lot of times when parents get involved,
[01:45:55.790]we get a little more traction with them
[01:45:58.170]on changing behavior.
[01:46:00.000]So I go both ways, I guess, because sometimes
[01:46:03.386]scare works for children, right?
[01:46:05.710]You know, don't touch that, it's hot.
[01:46:09.030]But when I saw that video,
[01:46:10.750]I thought boy, that's great for educators and faculty.
[01:46:14.470]I don't know.
[01:46:15.920]Your point about scare tactics.
[01:46:17.160]So I don't think there's a question.
[01:46:18.720]Well and that's why I said, I'm not necessarily
[01:46:21.050]showing this with the recommendation that you
[01:46:23.130]just now start showing it to everybody.
[01:46:25.110]Right, right, right.
[01:46:26.200]But I think there could be audiences.
[01:46:28.300]So if we're training faculty and staff to understand,
[01:46:31.890]certainly for training hearing boards.
[01:46:34.280]Like in a response sense, if people are responding
[01:46:36.520]or people are not on board with some of the things
[01:46:39.700]that we're doing because of their misunderstanding about
[01:46:43.040]the full picture of what rape really looks like,
[01:46:45.920]for decision-makers there might be a reason to show that.
[01:46:48.870]Would I put that in a student intervention?
[01:46:50.660]I mean, I sort of keep stepping back to,
[01:46:53.790]You know, what do want people to do?
[01:46:55.970]What do we want students to do?
[01:46:58.120]Not just what not to do, right?
[01:47:00.120]Don't be a predatory rapist.
[01:47:02.260]We don't rape.
[01:47:03.420]But what do we want them to do?
[01:47:05.320]And then, does this help get us there or not?
[01:47:07.980]'Cause we have X amount of minutes in front of them.
[01:47:10.380]And I'm gonna say let's think about, so if really
[01:47:13.100]what we want is for them to recognize that situation.
[01:47:17.070]What are creative ways that we could do that besides that?
[01:47:20.690]You know what I mean?
[01:47:21.523]I'm not saying, you could use that, you know.
[01:47:24.240]It's been used, and I've talked to other people
[01:47:26.110]who have used it with students.
[01:47:26.943]So I think it's just a judgment call.
[01:47:29.260]But I think it's important for us as people
[01:47:31.160]who are creating the initiatives to know this
[01:47:35.980]and to have that reality, and I think that there's,
[01:47:38.360]you know, I think sometimes there's decision-makers
[01:47:40.030]that would really be taken aback by that.
[01:47:45.167]So I'm gonna give us a quick break here.
[01:47:51.140]Oops, sorry, I'm getting...
[01:47:59.389]I have my app here.
[01:48:00.222]It's called Big Clock.
[01:48:02.840]And it's a big clock.
[01:48:05.000]So I'm just gonna say let's do,
[01:48:09.020]let's come back at 25 after, strictly.
[01:48:17.450]And by the way, bathrooms that way and that way.
[01:48:19.670]They're both pretty small bathrooms, so.
[01:51:28.575](dramatic instrumental music)
[01:54:09.787]Pianist Carol Rosenberger
[01:54:11.303]with the Seattle Symphony Orchestra.
[01:54:13.423]That's Howard Hansen's piano concerto in G major.
[01:54:16.254]Gerard Schwarz led the Seattle Symphony.
[01:54:19.718]You're listening to classical music
[01:54:21.180]on Morning Concert here on NET Radio.
[01:54:23.884]We'll hear an overture by Felix Mendelssohn next,
[01:54:26.776]Claus Peter Flor leading the Bamberg Symphony.
[01:54:31.640](dramatic instrumental music)
[01:59:06.939]I think there's several reasons from my perspective.
[01:59:09.026]First of all, we know that that's not
[01:59:11.634]the only kind of perpetration that goes on.
[01:59:15.067]Second of all, I think it's critical,
[01:59:16.298]and we sort of started to talk about that
[01:59:19.365]in the last segment there, that really all perpetration
[01:59:22.430]takes place within a broader context:
[01:59:25.170]An organizational context, a social context,
[01:59:27.379]an environmental context, an alcohol context
[01:59:31.840]in both the broader culture and the subculture
[01:59:36.764]and cultures on our campuses.
[01:59:38.995]And we know that we need to address multiple causes
[01:59:45.096]and contributors, so I think we have
[01:59:46.869]to take a broader look beyond these folks,
[01:59:50.191]although we have to also be concerned about these folks.
[01:59:52.541]But I would say that not just are they,
[01:59:57.753]that these folks are perpetrating within that culture
[02:00:00.266]but they're also helping to create the culture,
[02:00:02.463]so I think the other thing to realize is that
[02:00:04.711]when this very extreme behavior is happening in a culture,
[02:00:09.924]I think that shifts what probably
[02:00:12.167]the peer culture sees as normal.
[02:00:14.857]It kind of pulls up the end of what people see as normal,
[02:00:17.953]so I think that's another thing to be thinking about
[02:00:20.105]is how do we change that culture around that person
[02:00:25.002]and help the other students see that this
[02:00:27.743]is in fact very aberrant behavior and that most people
[02:00:30.746]don't have anything like these values.
[02:00:33.694]So we're gonna go to contributing factors.
[02:00:36.956]So that was the piece on describing the problem.
[02:00:39.633]Again, the meta-lesson there is that we don't know
[02:00:42.080]what it looks like, and we are making assumptions
[02:00:44.210]about what it looks like.
[02:00:45.552]We're not gonna be comprehensive
[02:00:49.722]or we're gonna have ill-conceived interventions
[02:00:51.674]that don't really address the problem that exists.
[02:00:54.264]So the contributing factors piece,
[02:00:55.858]which is really the bulk of what we'll be
[02:00:56.863]talking about for the rest of the day:
[02:00:58.980]I divided it into three categories.
[02:01:00.710]And there's really this tremendous number
[02:01:02.560]of risk and protective factors that I could talk about.
[02:01:05.650]But what I decided is to just pick some certain areas
[02:01:09.200]so that we can practice that skill
[02:01:12.320]of looking at data together and saying:
[02:01:14.060]What does this mean for our efforts?
[02:01:15.690]And so there's other areas.
[02:01:16.900]I think I picked some areas that are pretty relevant,
[02:01:19.040]the research suggests are relevant.
[02:01:20.840]But I don't wanna say that I'm presenting
[02:01:22.810]all the possible contributing factors
[02:01:24.380]that you should be looking at.
[02:01:25.780]It's just as a sort of case study for looking at
[02:01:28.500]some key factors where we probably have
[02:01:30.620]a shared interest across alcohol prevention
[02:01:32.820]and sexual violence prevention
[02:01:34.680]and then practicing talking about them together.
[02:01:38.530]So taking a look at some,
[02:01:41.290]so we're on to the contributing factors
[02:01:43.390]and we're gonna take a look at some of the individual ones.
[02:01:46.950]So I said earlier that they're associated,
[02:01:49.240]and so I wanna just go back to this idea when we get
[02:01:52.160]into contributing factors, of: Well, what does that mean?
[02:01:55.100]What does it mean when things are correlated?
[02:01:57.210]You hear that alcohol is a risk factor
[02:01:58.980]for campus sexual assault, or X percent
[02:02:01.530]of sexual assaults involve alcohol.
[02:02:03.390]These are common statements,
[02:02:05.050]but what's under the hood there?
[02:02:07.140]And so somebody posted this on Facebook recently
[02:02:09.510]so I thought this was cute.
[02:02:10.950]The first panel says, "I used to think
[02:02:12.540]"correlation implied causation.
[02:02:14.300]"Then I took a statistics class and now I don't."
[02:02:16.700]She says, "Sounds like the class helped."
[02:02:21.766]But what's fun about this, Randall Munroe's cartoons,
[02:02:26.570]is there's always a hypertext,
[02:02:27.990]when you hover over it you get a little box.
[02:02:30.410]It says, "Correlation doesn't imply causation,
[02:02:32.390]"but it does waggle its eyebrows suggestively
[02:02:34.390]"and gesture furtively while mouthing, look over there."
[02:02:37.707]So I think some things that are correlation
[02:02:39.550]can also be a marker that we can look at and say,
[02:02:42.100]we should pay attention to that place.
[02:02:45.200]So remember: Multiple contributing factors,
[02:02:47.940]combination of risk, vulnerability, and protective.
[02:02:51.230]I'm gonna really focus on risk factors today,
[02:02:54.470]on really looking at what we know about
[02:02:56.870]association with perpetration.
[02:02:58.990]And we're gonna look across a couple
[02:03:01.064]different levels of the social-ecological model.
[02:03:04.740]So what does the individual level look like?
[02:03:06.980]There's a lot of different things at that level,
[02:03:08.880]but the way that I like to think of it is,
[02:03:11.660]an individual level factor is anything
[02:03:13.560]that's inside somebody's skin.
[02:03:15.360]It's like my, what I know, what I believe,
[02:03:18.410]my personal skill level, regardless of what else
[02:03:22.030]is happening around me.
[02:03:23.120]It's what I bring to the table.
[02:03:25.200]Also some things that aren't so changeable,
[02:03:26.730]like my history, my family of origin,
[02:03:33.541]the culture I came from, et cetera.
[02:03:35.747]But things so at that level in terms of prevention,
[02:03:38.300]we often look at things like beliefs and attitudes,
[02:03:40.320]skills and then I put knowledge last
[02:03:42.430]because as we know, KADNAB.
[02:03:45.370]So what do we know about individual
[02:03:49.680]predictors of perpetration?
[02:03:51.380]This is a range of individual characteristics
[02:03:53.410]that are associated with perpetration.
[02:03:57.070]Some of these are not totally unambiguous.
[02:04:00.400]There's a history of childhood abuse.
[02:04:01.740]There's some mixed findings in there about
[02:04:04.500]what kinds of abuse, and whether that's different
[02:04:07.270]for actually convicted sex offenders
[02:04:08.980]and people who were never detected, et cetera.
[02:04:11.050]But these are some of the kinds of general factors
[02:04:13.240]that the research shows are associated with perpetration.
[02:04:17.650]And there's some beliefs in there;
[02:04:20.520]including hostility towards women, rape-supportive beliefs,
[02:04:24.650]and stereotyped gender roles.
[02:04:30.040]And one of those factors is the person's individual,
[02:04:32.660]personal level of alcohol consumption.
[02:04:36.190]So when I say these are individual correlates
[02:04:38.660]of perpetration, I wanna just also say
[02:04:40.090]there's not a profile.
[02:04:41.620]So we can't take it to that place
[02:04:43.900]and that alcohol alone isn't sufficient.
[02:04:46.990]And so one way that I think about that is that there;
[02:04:51.220]so fewer people drink in high-risk ways than we often think,
[02:04:54.980]than you would think from watching TV.
[02:04:56.880]But a significant minority of students
[02:04:58.800]on most of our campuses drink in a given period of time
[02:05:03.820]and almost none of them perpetrate sexual assault.
[02:05:08.470]So when I think about, it's neither necessary
[02:05:11.400]nor sufficient for sexual assault.
[02:05:14.190]Lots of sober people perpetrate sexual assault
[02:05:17.310]and lots of people who drink
[02:05:18.640]never perpetrate sexual assault and wouldn't ever,
[02:05:22.270]So I think really, really thinking about it in that,
[02:05:25.410]that there's again, a combination,
[02:05:28.440]a complex of factors that go together.
[02:05:30.540]And we wanna be looking at all of those.
[02:05:32.590]So when you start looking at some of those kinds of beliefs,
[02:05:35.100]that starts to move us to: Under what circumstances
[02:05:38.165]might alcohol increase the likelihood
[02:05:40.620]that somebody would perpetrate?
[02:05:43.290]So interestingly, this again is from Antonia Abbey's work,
[02:05:47.560]and by the way, I haven't quite finished it,
[02:05:49.580]but I'm putting together a list of references
[02:05:51.570]from this presentation, research references,
[02:05:53.520]and so you'll get that.
[02:05:55.000]A number of things are cited.
[02:05:56.760]A few things aren't, because I've pulled them
[02:05:58.850]from compilations, but in general I think you
[02:06:01.320]can see where I go most things.
[02:06:03.330]So this is from Antonia Abbey's work, who's at Wayne State.
[02:06:08.220]"Perpetrators who drink are similar
[02:06:10.360]"to other perpetrators in most ways."
[02:06:14.823]A few differences.
[02:06:15.656]One is alcohol expectancies, which is one of the reasons
[02:06:17.940]that I'm gonna focus on that a little bit.
[02:06:19.880]One is the amount of alcohol consumption,
[02:06:22.940]and a few things like misperception of women's friendliness
[02:06:26.560]as sexual interest on a consistent basis.
[02:06:31.242]Alcohol-involved assaults are more likely than
[02:06:35.050]non-alcohol involved assaults
[02:06:37.220]to be preceded by time spent at a party or bar.
[02:06:39.870]But that's kind of a duh, right?
[02:06:41.770]Because that's the opportunity,
[02:06:44.250]you have that just correlated with your behavior.
[02:06:49.210]So the take-home from this is that in general
[02:06:52.200]alcohol amplifies characteristics
[02:06:56.580]that are already present without alcohol.
[02:06:59.360]So we wanna be thinking about the alcohol,
[02:07:01.920]but we also wanna be thinking
[02:07:02.930]about those other characteristics.
[02:07:10.470]So taking a look at alcohol-related expectancies.
[02:07:13.560]This is one of the two areas that in this
[02:07:16.130]individual level section I'm gonna focus on.
[02:07:18.930]And here's how this is gonna work.
[02:07:20.550]I'm gonna talk about alcohol-related expectancies.
[02:07:23.260]I'm gonna talk about the issue of consent,
[02:07:25.150]and a little bit about the research there.
[02:07:27.790]And then I'm gonna have you go into groups
[02:07:30.330]and talk about, just have that conversation
[02:07:32.770]just for about 20 minutes: What does this mean for our work?
[02:07:36.210]So I want you to be thinking and there's places
[02:07:39.300]in your worksheet to take notes during this part of it,
[02:07:42.980]but start thinking about: How could I use this?
[02:07:45.690]How can this inform what I do?
[02:07:49.070]So alcohol-related expectancies.
[02:07:51.270]Do people generally know what expectancies are?
[02:07:53.530]The kind of effects that you expect alcohol to have
[02:07:57.320]that you have before you start drinking.
[02:07:59.400]The beliefs that you have about
[02:08:01.190]what the positive or negative effects of alcohol will be.
[02:08:05.679]But in general, just looking at the bottom,
[02:08:07.290]the more positive alcohol expectancies is associated with
[02:08:11.600]heavier drinking and it's also associated with
[02:08:15.640]more negative consequences from drinking
[02:08:17.600]even when you control for the person's actual use.
[02:08:21.040]So the cognitions, the beliefs that they bring in
[02:08:23.330]about the effects that alcohol will have while drinking,
[02:08:26.540]separate from how much they actually drank,
[02:08:28.520]actually are associated with negative consequences.
[02:08:30.970]So this is one of the drivers
[02:08:32.940]around alcohol-related problems.
[02:08:35.140]Ian, you can jump in at any time 'cause
[02:08:37.060]this is one of your research areas.
[02:08:39.080]But there's a subset of alcohol-related expectancies
[02:08:43.120]that have to do with sexual behavior and sociability.
[02:08:47.510]And so perpetrators are more likely to believe
[02:08:49.990]all these things that are listed;
[02:08:51.530]That alcohol has the effects of increasing sexual arousal,
[02:08:57.310]reducing inhibitions, that it's associated with risk-taking,
[02:09:02.510]They believe that alcohol
[02:09:03.700]makes women more sexually disinhibited
[02:09:06.040]and that alcohol use by a woman
[02:09:08.780]signals her sexual availability.
[02:09:10.660]And again, I'm using heterosexual language here
[02:09:12.830]'cause that's what this set of studies,
[02:09:15.220]that I'm talking about, was focused on that.
[02:09:18.180]So on your worksheet, I put in some actual data,
[02:09:22.200]just so you can see what expectancy data tends
[02:09:25.080]to look like, if you don't happen
[02:09:26.760]to have any of your own from campus.
[02:09:28.250]So you can't assume these results
[02:09:29.810]would be the same for your campus.
[02:09:33.140]So it's on page four.
[02:09:35.210]So these are just from the Core Alcohol and Drug Survey.
[02:09:40.294]It puts together three years worth of data at a time
[02:09:42.380]and you look at everybody who took the Core Survey.
[02:09:44.680]These are their compiled results.
[02:09:46.880]So lots of social types of expectancies:
[02:09:50.080]Breaks the ice, enhances social activity.
[02:09:52.680]You go down to the second pair:
[02:09:54.540]Facilitates male bonding, facilitates female bonding.
[02:09:57.690]72% said it gives people something to do,
[02:10:00.860]which is sort of interesting.
[02:10:02.110]If you look at the last set, just about half said
[02:10:07.410]it facilitates sexual opportunity.
[02:10:11.070]Which I think is a really interesting thing.
[02:10:16.007]And actually, really not a majority at all
[02:10:18.387]said that it makes women sexier, it makes men sexier,
[02:10:21.470]so that's interesting,
[02:10:22.580]that people don't necessarily think,
[02:10:24.350]so it facilitates the opportunity
[02:10:25.570]but doesn't necessarily make people more sexy.
[02:10:28.970]So that's something, just a snapshot of what
[02:10:35.070]alcohol expectancies can look like.
[02:10:37.490]Does anybody else collect other alcohol expectancy data
[02:10:40.380]that's different than that, or they ask different questions
[02:10:42.750]that they found interesting?
[02:10:45.910]Anybody looking at any of that?
[02:10:51.330]So the way that expectancies can operate,
[02:10:53.640]and again this is from Abbey's work,
[02:10:55.520]that these psychological effects: The expectancies,
[02:10:58.670]stereotypes about drinking women,
[02:11:00.170]alcohol as a sexual signal.
[02:11:01.720]So the combination of expectancies and beliefs
[02:11:05.097]combined with the physiological effects of alcohol.
[02:11:08.470]We know that it has cognitive and motor effects,
[02:11:12.270]including cognitively, the alcohol myopia
[02:11:15.570]that people talk about, it's with impaired information
[02:11:17.930]processing, you can't take in all the information,
[02:11:21.970]less ability to integrate conflicting information,
[02:11:25.810]to think abstractly.
[02:11:27.640]So the combinations, if you carry in those kinds
[02:11:30.410]of expectancies and beliefs
[02:11:31.900]and the physiological effects combined,
[02:11:33.780]it amplifies those cognitive beliefs.
[02:11:36.550]Makes you much less able to read the cues
[02:11:39.440]in the situation, and of course the cues
[02:11:41.070]that you're going with are the things
[02:11:42.340]that you already believe.
[02:11:44.190]So if your attention narrows because of the cognitive
[02:11:50.460]effects of alcohol, you're gonna focus
[02:11:52.290]on the most salient cues in the situation.
[02:11:54.210]And the most salient cues in the situation, for you,
[02:11:56.852]are your own stereotypes about drinking women,
[02:12:02.000]your own interest in what you wanna get out of there,
[02:12:05.730]get out of the interaction.
[02:12:08.400]so I wanna just be clear that this doesn't excuse it,
[02:12:14.062]excuse perpetration by saying, well the people didn't know
[02:12:16.460]what they were doing because of these physiological effects.
[02:12:18.820]Because what it's doing is amplifying their focus
[02:12:20.880]on these rape-supportive attitudes
[02:12:23.100]and makes them even less able than they were before
[02:12:27.930]to cue in conflicting information about what she wants,
[02:12:32.310]or what the other person wants and those cues.
[02:12:37.260]So they walk in with mistaken assumptions
[02:12:40.315]and those mistaken assumptions
[02:12:42.030]don't have an opportunity to get corrected.
[02:12:44.250]Does that make sense?
[02:12:45.490]Basically the idea that pre-existing beliefs
[02:12:48.160]and the distorted interpretations are key and get amplified.
[02:12:52.346]Do you know if there's any research
[02:12:53.280]done about, so that's kind of taking cues from others,
[02:12:56.620]as how people drink and in these sexual assault situations
[02:13:00.980]how the thoughts change of what they think of themselves
[02:13:04.100]and those reactions and how that might interact with that?
[02:13:07.180]Yeah, I mean I'm not sure of, kind of...
[02:13:12.895]Like some of the expectancies like,
[02:13:13.728]I think I'm funny or I think I'm smart, or I think,
[02:13:15.690]you know, some of the things that alcohol may do
[02:13:17.660]and how that changes what I think of myself and that.
[02:13:19.870]Right, yeah, yeah.
[02:13:21.120]I mean it does, I think, change.
[02:13:22.750]There's a whole set of things that interact
[02:13:24.650]with expectancies, so I'm oversimplifying
[02:13:27.790]a complex literature, but I think it does.
[02:13:31.660]There is on those list of expectancies
[02:13:34.890]and if you look back here it increases the extent
[02:13:39.380]to which I guess it would be the justifying own behavior.
[02:13:43.790]I didn't list it on the previous one,
[02:13:45.110]but it reinforces the idea
[02:13:47.410]that my approach is the right approach.
[02:13:49.310]So for Frank, it's gonna reinforce his belief.
[02:13:53.410]So do you see at the beginning he says,
[02:13:55.310]"I picked her out 'cause she was vulnerable
[02:13:56.970]"and didn't know anything."
[02:13:58.130]And by the middle of it he's saying
[02:13:59.390]she'd done this a million times before?
[02:14:01.350]I think that's what you're asking about.
[02:14:03.146]So it continues to reinforce their sense that they are just
[02:14:07.750]in the way that they're seeing the world.
[02:14:09.860]Does that help, yeah?
[02:14:12.570]Any other thoughts or questions about expectancies?
[02:14:16.260]So the part of this, so we can't change the fact
[02:14:18.890]that alcohol changes your physiology,
[02:14:21.630]that's the nature of the product.
[02:14:23.330]But I think we can really think about
[02:14:27.770]those psychological beliefs.
[02:14:31.050]And again, if you have a Frank, what is that cuing
[02:14:35.358]to everybody else in that person's peer group
[02:14:38.630]about beliefs and expectancies?
[02:14:40.940]Does it reinforce those kinds, so if you came in
[02:14:44.180]and you didn't really already have those expectancies,
[02:14:46.557]does then somebody who's more predatory
[02:14:50.820]and who's got a very unhealthy beliefs around this
[02:14:54.150]start to pull everybody?
[02:14:57.004]Because a lot of times you'll have people like that
[02:14:58.320]who are very, who are opinion leaders.
[02:15:01.730]And start to change the nature
[02:15:03.750]of what everybody else believes too.
[02:15:05.510]That's my theory.
[02:15:08.520]So this is just a diagram.
[02:15:11.515]This is from Abbey's work back in 2002
[02:15:15.600]and I've seen it in a few other older publications.
[02:15:19.300]I saw her present recently and she didn't use
[02:15:21.320]these exact diagrams, so I'm not sure if she agrees
[02:15:26.040]with every pathway anymore, but basically I thought
[02:15:28.890]that this was just a useful way
[02:15:30.290]to summarize what we were just talking about
[02:15:32.510]that there's these pre-existing beliefs
[02:15:34.990]that people bring in and then that interacts
[02:15:38.080]with what happens more in the moment.
[02:15:41.042]Then this justification, this rendering a person unable
[02:15:47.610]to resist and justifying the behavior,
[02:15:51.960]I think is the sequence here.
[02:15:55.320]So again and what she says is that these effects
[02:15:58.330]are exacerbated in peer context where the perception
[02:16:01.320]of peer norms supports heavy drinking, uninhibited behavior,
[02:16:05.110]casual sex and coercion.
[02:16:07.181]So again, we're talking about the individual level here,
[02:16:12.870]but we can preview forward to see that the group context
[02:16:16.270]and the interpersonal context
[02:16:17.360]is also gonna interact here too.
[02:16:19.740]Does that make sense?
[02:16:21.010]Everybody with me?
[02:16:22.430]So I think this expectancies piece,
[02:16:23.980]which has a long history in alcohol prevention
[02:16:26.550]and also clearly shows up in the literature
[02:16:28.660]around sexual assault prevention
[02:16:29.970]can be one place for us to maybe start talking
[02:16:31.960]about what's there for us as an intersection.
[02:16:35.590]And so I wanted to ask:
[02:16:37.200]Are any of you doing, so there's a number
[02:16:38.850]of kinds of expectancy interventions
[02:16:42.600]that exist in the alcohol literature,
[02:16:44.350]these expectancy challenge interventions?
[02:16:46.717]When they first got started they were very cumbersome.
[02:16:49.620]They had to bring people to a bar lab and simulate,
[02:16:52.330]do a whole assigning people to simulated drinking
[02:16:54.790]or not simulated drinking and get them
[02:16:56.280]to challenge their expectancies,
[02:16:58.520]what they expected the positive effects were
[02:17:00.360]and do some reality testing around the negative effects.
[02:17:03.480]People have moved into being able to do them
[02:17:05.330]in classroom settings and there's one out there
[02:17:08.660]that I found that's a media literacy version of that.
[02:17:11.920]But I just wondered if any of you
[02:17:13.440]are doing expectancy challenges or other challenges
[02:17:17.810]of some of the other beliefs that we just talked about.
[02:17:29.800]I mean it might be not.
[02:17:32.210]Again, I think that the easier expectancy challenge
[02:17:36.440]interventions are just starting to come out
[02:17:39.440]and so I think it hasn't necessarily been something
[02:17:41.970]that people have been able to adopt in a wide scale.
[02:17:45.335]But I think that's worth looking at.
[02:17:48.370]In terms of beliefs, just general beliefs,
[02:17:51.490]So if we go back to some of the beliefs
[02:17:52.960]we were talking about:
[02:17:53.793]About alcohol makes women
[02:17:56.260]more sexually disinterested, disinhibited.
[02:18:01.410]Drinking signals sexual availability.
[02:18:04.181]Has anybody set alcohol as a sexual signal?
[02:18:07.360]Is anybody talking about any of those
[02:18:08.840]in any of their interventions?
[02:18:14.870]'Cause again, I think there's some pieces there
[02:18:19.090]that we could maybe pull out and work with.
[02:18:22.380]So this is my thesis.
[02:18:23.720]This is sort of a just as a meta-comment.
[02:18:25.550]This is my thesis overall, that sometimes when we just try
[02:18:28.120]to talk about the big issues and we don't drill down at all
[02:18:31.520]it's hard to see where to get traction.
[02:18:34.330]But if we start looking at well these are validated
[02:18:36.940]risk factors and so is there way,
[02:18:39.202]and I don't actually know the answer of what you should do,
[02:18:42.700]but I think there might be some ways to really look
[02:18:44.380]at some of these specific concepts and say,
[02:18:47.120]you know, if this is actually something we can integrate
[02:18:49.280]into what we're doing.
[02:18:51.230]And I don't expect you to figure that out today,
[02:18:53.470]but I want you to start that conversation
[02:18:55.620]of what that would look like to consider these.
[02:19:00.480]So let's look at skills and knowledge around consent.
[02:19:03.990]So there's actually, interestingly,
[02:19:05.750]although consent is a very big issue
[02:19:08.227]and it's now in the Violence Against Women amendments,
[02:19:14.370]the draft amendments,
[02:19:15.600]that you have to define the legal definition of consent
[02:19:20.340]in your jurisdiction, that's all it requires.
[02:19:24.540]There's not that much research on it, interestingly.
[02:19:26.960]Some people have looked at it a little bit.
[02:19:28.350]So we know that there's wide variability
[02:19:30.310]in your legal and policy definitions,
[02:19:31.890]exactly how that's defined.
[02:19:33.700]And there's also a variety of individual's perceptions
[02:19:38.650]about what constitutes consent varies.
[02:19:41.260]So these aren't findings from a specific study,
[02:19:44.410]but I did put some findings
[02:19:46.750]about gender differences on page five.
[02:19:50.320]So there's this Borges, Banyard and Moynihan paper,
[02:19:56.650]it's a good paper on consent.
[02:19:59.150]And so men were likely than women
[02:20:01.450]to interpret no conversation as a a yes.
[02:20:04.020]So there's some gender difference findings there.
[02:20:10.610]Acceptance of rape myths affected
[02:20:11.980]student's perceptions of consent.
[02:20:13.450]So if they're more likely to believe in rape myths
[02:20:15.430]they're more likely to have expectations of consent
[02:20:19.740]that track those rape myths.
[02:20:23.160]Men more likely to assume consent
[02:20:25.590]just by alcohol consumption.
[02:20:27.500]So those are a few gender findings.
[02:20:28.750]There's some findings like that out there.
[02:20:33.008]A couple of the studies are really clear
[02:20:35.010]that students don't know what the legal definitions
[02:20:38.160]or policy definitions mean for actual behavior.
[02:20:41.760]So if we just say, here is the rule around consent,
[02:20:46.460]students will not be able to operationalize that
[02:20:48.420]into real life context.
[02:20:50.710]There is not that much intervention research at all.
[02:20:53.800]But this nice Borges study, they did a brief intervention
[02:20:59.210]on consent, educational intervention
[02:21:01.190]and consent without interactive activity and it was better.
[02:21:05.410]They knew more afterwards.
[02:21:06.790]They were more accurate in what consent meant for them
[02:21:10.010]and the definition of it
[02:21:11.330]and how to do it after an interactive activity.
[02:21:13.950]So that goes with what we know about skills building,
[02:21:16.350]that we have to teach behavior and do skills building.
[02:21:19.779]And then one study recommended, was a dissertation,
[02:21:24.050]recommended that consent be framed as sexual communication
[02:21:28.320]and be woven into a broader conversation
[02:21:30.590]about healthy sexuality, rather than being talked about
[02:21:33.540]as a contract between two people.
[02:21:36.630]So again, I'm just acknowledging that that was one study,
[02:21:41.210]it was a qualitative study.
[02:21:43.750]And so to me that raises the question,
[02:21:46.880]how best to approach consent.
[02:21:48.830]It may be a consent discussion
[02:21:50.270]so you have to define consent,
[02:21:52.790]but it may be that the real traction
[02:21:55.120]that you can gain in that conversation
[02:21:56.890]doesn't really have to do with consent per se,
[02:21:58.700]but has to do with a broader conversation.
[02:22:02.264]So I think that's just a question, it's out there.
[02:22:07.070]In terms of interventions, consent interventions,
[02:22:10.700]I think, you know I always go back
[02:22:12.430]to the idea that what is law in policy law,
[02:22:14.810]and policy is our community standards.
[02:22:17.040]Here's our expectations for your behavior in this context.
[02:22:21.372]When I think about telling people the policy
[02:22:24.200]or the law, it's about saying, these are our expectations
[02:22:28.450]for how you would act.
[02:22:29.950]But again, we wanna not just say, here's what not to do.
[02:22:32.540]You don't have sex without consent.
[02:22:34.550]But we have to answer the question for ourselves
[02:22:36.850]and design our interventions based
[02:22:38.190]on what do we expect them to do
[02:22:39.850]and what does that look like.
[02:22:43.020]So that what the behavior really looks like,
[02:22:44.640]this is a poster from The New School.
[02:22:46.930]I'm not saying again that you should go
[02:22:48.430]and have this poster.
[02:22:49.700]What I wanted to just feature on it
[02:22:51.360]is that it's got the words there that you could use.
[02:22:55.550]And so that's an example
[02:22:57.280]of contextualizing the behavior for people.
[02:23:02.364]And you know, negotiating around consent is a skill
[02:23:06.010]and so I think skills practice is appropriate.
[02:23:09.130]That middle question: What framing will appeal
[02:23:10.870]to your students?
[02:23:11.703]Is really picking up on that finding
[02:23:13.550]that I just about, about framing.
[02:23:16.440]Is the conversation that will work for our students
[02:23:18.750]more about healthy sexuality?
[02:23:21.480]You know, what's that conversation?
[02:23:23.380]And it may be that a number of you
[02:23:26.240]have the same conversation with students,
[02:23:28.280]that you approach it from a different angle every time.
[02:23:31.180]So the wellness has the healthy sexuality conversation.
[02:23:35.070]The sexual violence person really does
[02:23:36.819]go in a little bit more on the idea of consent.
[02:23:39.340]But again, if we're reinforcing that and talking,
[02:23:42.030]helping people think about how to do it,
[02:23:44.120]what that really looks like from various perspectives,
[02:23:46.290]we'll probably have better success
[02:23:47.480]than if we just do one session on consent
[02:23:49.840]and never speak about it again.
[02:23:53.570]I've seen on campuses a lot of people talking
[02:23:55.450]about the need to do consent,
[02:23:57.304]but without any kind of here's what that really means
[02:24:00.950]and helping people work through scenarios around it.
[02:24:05.260]So I wonder, are people here talking
[02:24:11.650]about consent explicitly, talking about the idea
[02:24:13.910]of consent but in some other ways?
[02:24:15.390]Have you used any research to develop those?
[02:24:19.373]Our relationship violence
[02:24:20.370]peer education group, Prevent, they got invited
[02:24:23.300]to go do a specific workshop about consent
[02:24:26.120]and so they developed, a lot of the students
[02:24:28.210]who were gonna be in the group were psychology majors,
[02:24:31.340]so they developed an IRB form,
[02:24:33.900]an informed consent form that you would pretend
[02:24:37.190]to use as a starting point for conversation for people.
[02:24:40.200]So you know how it goes through
[02:24:41.880]potential risks and benefits.
[02:24:43.820]Or if you participate
[02:24:44.653]in this sexual activity and it was just a really
[02:24:48.428]thoughtful way and it was very clever.
[02:24:51.540]It got people talking about it and then they did practice
[02:24:54.650]and they talked about potential situations.
[02:24:57.440]So I thought it was very clever of them
[02:24:59.140]'cause they had several psych majors
[02:25:01.080]who were in the group of course.
[02:25:02.240]And so they were able to develop this.
[02:25:05.000]'Cause we were in our meeting we just said,
[02:25:07.300]you know what you really need,
[02:25:09.078]and they weren't saying
[02:25:10.800]this is what you actually should use,
[02:25:12.260]but it was a really good conversation.
[02:25:13.580]Yeah, no I get it.
[02:25:14.920]Sort of a format that was familiar to their audience
[02:25:18.670]and kind of translated into this conversation.
[02:25:20.840]And if you have to ask people
[02:25:22.430]for their permission to have them do a survey,
[02:25:25.580]why wouldn't you have to ask their permission
[02:25:27.350]to do something to their body, you know with them?
[02:25:30.530]Yeah, yeah, it makes sense, yeah.
[02:25:33.610]Other people talking about this at all?
[02:25:37.180]How many of you define it at some point
[02:25:39.240]in your educational efforts?
[02:25:41.640]Yeah, so that's gonna be something you have to do.
[02:25:44.390]But I think, so what I would say about the requirements
[02:25:49.160]that are coming out of the feds around prevention
[02:25:51.060]is at this time they're quite minimal.
[02:25:54.140]So that's good news because they were,
[02:25:57.170]I know, very conscious
[02:25:58.150]of negotiated rulemaking,
[02:25:59.750]of not trying to script it out for everybody
[02:26:03.390]because of just being conscious that campuses vary,
[02:26:07.880]student bodies vary, formats vary.
[02:26:09.640]So they don't wanna say, you have to this, this and that.
[02:26:12.080]But it just means that in not doing that,
[02:26:15.460]what they require and checking the box,
[02:26:17.370]doesn't get us to effectiveness.
[02:26:19.360]And I think we wanna go beyond that
[02:26:21.590]and really equip students with skills that they need.
[02:26:26.330]So what I want you to do is begin work
[02:26:28.740]with whatever group you're here with
[02:26:30.170]or the people around you.
[02:26:31.580]And just for about 20 minutes, just look at that research,
[02:26:34.500]look at some of the specific findings
[02:26:36.570]and just start that discussion
[02:26:38.280]of what are the implications for your prevention work.
[02:26:41.143]On page six there's some example prompts,
[02:26:45.300]but you can just talk about it however you want.
[02:26:47.830]So here's the skill that I'm working on with you guys today.
[02:26:51.160]It's overwhelming sometimes to talk about data,
[02:26:53.284]so find something you can grab on to and just start there.
[02:26:59.690]Don't spend the whole time deciding what to talk about,
[02:27:01.420]just say, let's talk about, and you don't have
[02:27:04.080]to talk about both, you know, expectancy to consent,
[02:27:06.760]but just practice finding a place that you can start talking
[02:27:09.870]about that intersection and then I'd like to hear
[02:27:12.541]from a couple of you after that, what you talked about.
[02:27:17.007]What did you guys talks about?
[02:27:18.020]And project please, for the microphones.
[02:27:28.281]Trying to think how to put it into words,
[02:27:29.490]because we worked at a community college,
[02:27:31.974]but we are with the Omaha College Consortium,
[02:27:35.960]so we're working on a lot of initiatives.
[02:27:40.060]But so many of them, we can't apply
[02:27:42.660]because we don't have residence halls.
[02:27:44.400]We don't have health services.
[02:27:50.099]We have three different main campuses
[02:27:52.510]and three centers.
[02:27:53.343]So we're still working out.
[02:27:55.860]We are doing the Power Parenting website
[02:27:58.110]and we'll start the Year One CAP this fall,
[02:27:59.920]but we're just at the beginning of all of this.
[02:28:02.460]So it's kind of hard.
[02:28:03.660]It all makes sense, but it's kind of hard
[02:28:06.904]to give any kind of examples.
[02:28:09.360]And I appreciate that.
[02:28:10.970]So sounds like part of what you were doing
[02:28:13.280]is just sort of saying:
[02:28:14.140]Okay, where are our touch points even,
[02:28:16.680]where we could begin to approach some of these issues?
[02:28:19.500]And that's probably a struggle.
[02:28:20.820]I mean I think that's one of the things
[02:28:21.900]that the new federal requirements are doing,
[02:28:24.570]are putting up people's radar screens.
[02:28:27.630]From some community colleges that I've worked with,
[02:28:30.120]they're saying, okay this allows us
[02:28:31.870]to bring these issues forward to our administration
[02:28:33.990]and say, we actually have to do this now.
[02:28:38.870]We're not saying we wanna do it because it's a good idea,
[02:28:41.760]this is now a requirement.
[02:28:44.300]Although we all sometimes shudder at requirements,
[02:28:47.110]I think sometimes they give us some power
[02:28:49.070]to bring issues forward that weren't in the (mumbles).
[02:28:52.280]Right, and also just looking
[02:28:53.670]at what I found valuable about coming today was
[02:28:59.050]that I'm also working with a committee at Metro
[02:29:02.970]that's working on the Title IX,
[02:29:05.680]putting that all into place and so then I've been
[02:29:08.890]on our college consortium for a couple years,
[02:29:10.850]so I'm really looking at the overlap.
[02:29:14.958]We're supposed to put together a bystander
[02:29:17.113]training that's gonna be coming.
[02:29:18.936]So it's how to put together all these different pieces.
[02:29:23.400]So as you put together that bystander information training
[02:29:26.108]you'll be thinking about what to fold in.
[02:29:28.229]That's great, thank you and I'm glad that you're here.
[02:29:34.727]What do you folks talk about?
[02:29:36.590]Oh we had a couple of events last year
[02:29:38.790]that one focused on consent.
[02:29:41.380]And we were talking about bridging the the rest of the year
[02:29:45.163]with that information, how to go about that.
[02:29:49.370]Most of what you had that's a way to kind of take away
[02:29:52.180]through one time and getting it out there
[02:29:55.110]the rest of the time and focus on that.
[02:29:56.250]We also talked about thinking about all the things
[02:29:58.740]that we do have in place that sometimes
[02:30:01.720]one specific committee might not be doing in pulling
[02:30:04.060]that together, because there's probably more that goes
[02:30:06.750]on than we really know.
[02:30:07.583]And thinking about it from the biannual alcohol review,
[02:30:10.280]it forces you to do that.
[02:30:11.650]To think about about it this way and then they've gotta
[02:30:12.840]plug in to some of those areas
[02:30:13.820]and understand what you're doing
[02:30:15.630]instead of shrugging your shoulders
[02:30:16.618]and saying, I don't know.
[02:30:18.830]So the biannual review of alcohol, it's a great example
[02:30:23.340]of something that pulls together everything that's happening
[02:30:26.150]in the alcohol area.
[02:30:27.520]So are we doing that in the sexual violence area?
[02:30:30.350]And presumably, the Clery Report should be pulling together
[02:30:33.000]all the programs that are offered.
[02:30:35.240]I always feel like people are so exhausted completing
[02:30:37.990]the Clery Report they never actually read it. (chuckling)
[02:30:40.660]You have people by the time you can get
[02:30:41.670]all the pieces together, it's just there.
[02:30:43.710]So that may be a place to think about: Can we use this,
[02:30:47.290]but we have to create this report,
[02:30:49.010]so can we use this as an opportunity
[02:30:50.340]to actually share information with each other
[02:30:53.350]and learn what we're all doing once a year
[02:30:56.070]because it's easy to get out of touch with each other.
[02:30:58.990]So I think if you've got that requirement,
[02:31:00.680]why not try to leverage it as a planning opportunity.
[02:31:04.156]It's another way we do our work intersection,
[02:31:06.390]so I appreciate that.
[02:31:15.160]I see nobody's making eye contact now.
[02:31:19.495]What did you guys talk about?
[02:31:21.298]Oh, all right,
[02:31:23.830]I'm punished for looking at you, sorry.
[02:31:30.897]We were talking a lot about sort of developing,
[02:31:35.205]I guess, a strategic communication plan.
[02:31:37.360]We know that we have some specific messages we want
[02:31:40.620]to convey that are important for the work
[02:31:44.030]based on the problems we're seeing
[02:31:45.760]and that we need to figure out.
[02:31:48.060]And we have a lot of people doing a lot of things
[02:31:50.140]we need to coordinate and know what's happening when
[02:31:53.105]and what are our key things.
[02:31:54.590]So that's what we talked about.
[02:31:56.470]Yeah, yeah that's a great opportunity.
[02:31:57.620]So again, it's this idea of the different touch points.
[02:32:00.560]You know, when we're in contact with people,
[02:32:02.010]when somebody's in contact with students doing some kind
[02:32:05.150]of education, are we reinforcing
[02:32:07.200]that whatever those key messages and skills are?
[02:32:09.910]Taking that opportunity to have it be
[02:32:12.370]not just 101 over again, but to go to that 102 level.
[02:32:18.450]Yeah, how about one more group?
[02:32:22.320]What did you guys talk about?
[02:32:24.450]Well, we're at College of St. Mary
[02:32:27.400]and I think we kind of talked about how a lot
[02:32:29.640]of the prevention work that we do now is pretty blanketed.
[02:32:33.680]It doesn't really address the specific needs
[02:32:35.770]of the various groups on our campus.
[02:32:38.390]So we kind of talked more about creating an action plan
[02:32:42.210]of how we can identify the different populations
[02:32:44.790]and gather some data about what the specific risks are
[02:32:49.510]for those separate populations
[02:32:50.860]and then establish programming
[02:32:52.420]based upon those specific risks.
[02:32:54.540]Yeah, that sounds great.
[02:32:58.310]One thought that I had,
[02:32:59.360]and I don't really know, this was literally a thought
[02:33:01.770]that I had, a brainstorm that I had.
[02:33:03.400]So I don't wanna say this is evidence-based or anything,
[02:33:05.930]is that I wonder if it's not possible
[02:33:08.390]if you wanna do something like include expectancies
[02:33:11.270]is there some way to just elicit information
[02:33:14.320]in the session about expectancies.
[02:33:17.080]And if you can't collect data right away,
[02:33:19.780]but you wanna somehow bring that up
[02:33:21.720]and just have people do something with clickers,
[02:33:23.900]we always think about clickers for norms,
[02:33:25.890]but can we do that for some other kinds of beliefs
[02:33:29.490]or do that through scenarios,
[02:33:31.610]where we spin out scenarios
[02:33:33.320]that actually have represented positive,
[02:33:36.190]you know certain kinds of expectancies
[02:33:38.190]and just get people to talk.
[02:33:40.040]You're not gonna say, now we're going
[02:33:41.330]to talk about alcohol expectancies,
[02:33:43.714]but have that as part of the context
[02:33:46.460]of what you're presenting to people
[02:33:49.880]and have that filtered in.
[02:33:51.340]And maybe if that's a salient issue for students,
[02:33:55.460]it might be a way to kind of grab hold of it.
[02:33:58.120]So I think a lot of times we feel stopped
[02:34:00.350]if we don't if we don't have local data.
[02:34:01.630]And I think there might be a way to just bring
[02:34:03.750]that idea into the content in an interactive way
[02:34:08.180]and just experiment with that.
[02:34:11.940]Anything else that anyone wants to share?
[02:34:15.790]I'll pick on other people later.
[02:34:19.600]Okay so that was our trip through individual factors.
[02:34:24.250]Again, there's other individual factors
[02:34:26.130]you could definitely look at.
[02:34:27.410]I encourage all of you to be familiar with the,
[02:34:29.510]you know, to be looking at the research that's coming out.
[02:34:32.120]But those a couple that I grabbed on to that seemed like,
[02:34:35.140]I mean consent is obviously on our radar screen
[02:34:37.570]because it underlies some of these issues
[02:34:41.090]about the intersection
[02:34:42.040]and it's also part of the federal legislation
[02:34:44.730]and then expectancy, as the literature tells us,
[02:34:47.100]there's an overlap.
[02:34:49.550]But we know that individual isn't alone in there.
[02:34:52.840]So now I wanna move into three different issues
[02:34:55.840]that have to do with the kind of interpersonal
[02:34:57.690]or group level.
[02:34:58.760]So I think of that second level
[02:35:00.100]of the social ecological model as having to do
[02:35:05.500]with one-on-on interaction, peer interactions
[02:35:10.860]and as interactions of a person with group,
[02:35:14.170]but also the group setting itself.
[02:35:16.700]So when we're thinking about environments
[02:35:18.900]there are also group environments
[02:35:20.630]that aren't the whole.
[02:35:21.790]So the campus is an environment,
[02:35:24.140]but there's group environments within that as well.
[02:35:26.870]So I'm gonna talk about three different issues in that.
[02:35:30.420]So I mostly put this in because I love this study
[02:35:33.660]and I couldn't figure out any other way
[02:35:34.910]to really bring it in 'cause there's a lot here
[02:35:36.800]and it was just gonna be too much.
[02:35:38.140]But this is this wonderful Australian qualitative study.
[02:35:41.490]It's not college-specific.
[02:35:43.300]They interviewed women survivors of sexual assault
[02:35:47.900]and so here was the first conclusion:
[02:35:50.560]Is that sexual offending was context-dependent.
[02:35:54.030]"Offender's behaviors and decisions to offend
[02:35:56.070]"were shaped by the interpersonal, situational
[02:35:58.030]"and social contexts in which they occurred."
[02:36:00.970]And what they said,
[02:36:03.370]demonstrated that opportunities were embedded
[02:36:05.270]in ordinary, everyday contexts.
[02:36:07.430]And I think that's very deep for our, so again,
[02:36:10.030]we sometimes think, how do we keep women out
[02:36:13.700]of those risky contexts?
[02:36:15.290]And as far as the woman that Frank victimized was concerned,
[02:36:20.910]she was on a date.
[02:36:23.050]You know, like he was genuinely interested in her.
[02:36:27.180]And so his behavior would look exactly the same
[02:36:30.908]as a genuine romantic overture
[02:36:34.940]up until the point that it didn't.
[02:36:36.730]So I think in a way her risk was embedded
[02:36:41.620]in her everyday context of walking around campus
[02:36:44.220]and looking like she was a little naive.
[02:36:46.910]So when we these settings and environments,
[02:36:52.750]I think we have to really see how these factors
[02:36:54.690]are complex and they weave together.
[02:36:57.690]So I really encourage you to take a look at this.
[02:36:59.750]There's a really nice diagram that they come up with
[02:37:03.100]where they talk about that interaction between
[02:37:05.180]interpersonal, situational and social contexts.
[02:37:08.980]The interpersonal one is really the one
[02:37:12.240]that I haven't really read about a lot
[02:37:14.480]in a lot of other contexts.
[02:37:15.750]But it really has to do with flipping the script.
[02:37:18.530]So just like I just described with Frank,
[02:37:20.481]so saying, I'm interested in you romantically
[02:37:23.900]and we are following the social script
[02:37:27.045]of exploring whether to pursue a romantic relationship
[02:37:31.334]and at some point the script changed for him
[02:37:35.870]but she didn't know.
[02:37:38.160]A lot of the women in that study
[02:37:39.900]were assaulted by co-workers,
[02:37:41.890]where they were going somewhere as co-workers
[02:37:44.380]and he said, "Oh my gosh, I forgot to feed my cat.
[02:37:46.510]"Let's stop at my house."
[02:37:47.630]And he sexually assaulted her.
[02:37:49.210]So she's thinking, we're in the norms of ordinary collegial
[02:37:53.220]relationships and I have no reason to fear you
[02:37:55.700]and I know it's fine if you feed your cat.
[02:37:57.570]And suddenly he's changed the dynamic
[02:38:00.660]and she doesn't know about it.
[02:38:02.240]So I think that there's a kind
[02:38:03.220]of interesting piece going on there
[02:38:05.220]of the scripts that we follow.
[02:38:07.390]And we're not gonna say,
[02:38:08.223]don't follow those social scripts right?
[02:38:09.480]'Cause it would be pandemonium.
[02:38:10.620]We just have to go along with what we think are the norms.
[02:38:13.690]But I think it's a very interesting dilemma for this area,
[02:38:15.970]that how do we think about what the scripts are
[02:38:17.820]and how to recognize when danger's there.
[02:38:22.340]So, I'm going backwards here.
[02:38:27.630]So we're at this level, at the interpersonal level.
[02:38:32.700]That has things like, so you talked about
[02:38:34.140]your parent intervention,
[02:38:35.320]so I put that at this interpersonal level.
[02:38:39.050]I think about group cultures, bystander intervention,
[02:38:41.930]and perceived norms.
[02:38:44.770]So sort of art three A here, interpersonal contributors.
[02:38:51.076]Some of the frame of this for me is that we know
[02:38:52.870]that group culture, group dynamics can foster risk
[02:38:56.230]or foster protection and so there's a lot
[02:38:58.890]of literature about all-male group,
[02:39:01.050]kind of hyper-masculinity being reinforced
[02:39:03.160]in all-male groups.
[02:39:04.660]And so if there's a groupthink environment
[02:39:07.830]where certain kinds of rape-supportive beliefs are held,
[02:39:10.460]those can be reinforced in an all-male group context
[02:39:13.623]and the literature says that.
[02:39:16.342]I'm gonna try to unpack that a little bit
[02:39:17.740]and look for areas of intersection through three areas.
[02:39:20.640]First, there's literature that shows
[02:39:21.830]that groups aren't all the same.
[02:39:23.150]And I think that we make a mistake if we think they all are.
[02:39:25.680]Second, the idea of bystander intervention
[02:39:30.340]was really a focus again on skills.
[02:39:32.790]So we've started to do a pretty good job
[02:39:35.100]at putting out the idea of bystander intervention,
[02:39:37.500]but we have to go beyond that
[02:39:38.530]if people are gonna be able to do it
[02:39:39.910]and then to talk about social norms.
[02:39:41.660]So I think these all three are related to one another.
[02:39:43.910]And I think they're related to what we already talked about.
[02:39:46.530]But trying to just parse it out so we have
[02:39:48.470]that practice of looking at the research.
[02:39:51.790]So groups are not uniform.
[02:39:54.870]This I have to say is probably one of my favorite studies,
[02:39:57.820]when I found this out.
[02:39:59.050]At one point I was doing a review of the literature
[02:40:02.000]on sexual assault in athletes for a presentation
[02:40:04.670]at the Stetson Law and Higher Ed Conference
[02:40:06.880]and I would read these studies and people would say,
[02:40:09.890]athletes sexually assault at a much higher risk.
[02:40:12.740]And then these other studies that say,
[02:40:14.030]athletes do not sexually assault at a much higher risk.
[02:40:16.400]And I couldn't make any sense of that.
[02:40:18.400]And so then when I came upon Humphrey and Kahn,
[02:40:22.330]and it's not a very new study anymore,
[02:40:24.000]but I still think it's a good thing to inform us.
[02:40:32.054]They did a survey to ask students on campus:
[02:40:35.520]What are the athletic teams and fraternities
[02:40:37.420]that create an atmosphere conducive to sexual offenses?
[02:40:40.400]They had a way of doing that, but they basically said,
[02:40:42.553]where would you not send a young, naive woman,
[02:40:46.490]that kind of thing.
[02:40:47.400]And they nominated, they basically had them rate
[02:40:51.990]athletic teams and fraternities according to the extent
[02:40:56.000]to which they created an atmosphere
[02:40:57.300]conducive to sexual offenses.
[02:41:00.880]They might have done that in a more qualitative way,
[02:41:02.460]but then they did a survey of actual attitudes
[02:41:05.420]and behaviors and found that the peer-identified,
[02:41:07.550]high-risk groups in fact scored higher
[02:41:10.130]on the problematic attitudes and the problematic behaviors.
[02:41:14.440]So that's a very interesting thing
[02:41:18.030]and so what I would say about that is that
[02:41:21.030]that's not gonna be the same on every campus.
[02:41:22.940]So when we make these statements about athletes
[02:41:25.170]that are at higher risk or fraternities at higher risk
[02:41:27.960]we're making an overgeneralization first of all
[02:41:30.030]about those groups and the group.
[02:41:34.190]So probably there are certain groups where there's
[02:41:37.540]that combination where there are the negative norms
[02:41:40.720]and attitudes and behaviors that are reinforcing one another
[02:41:43.430]in that groupthink way that the previous slide talked about.
[02:41:47.794]But that there's other groups that aren't problematic.
[02:41:50.230]And that we can't say it might be the lacrosse team
[02:41:53.063]on one campus that's healthy,
[02:41:55.860]but very unhealthy on another campus.
[02:41:57.610]And so I think we have to not assume that.
[02:41:59.700]And that's another piece, kind of local analysis.
[02:42:03.344]But it also enables us to start thinking
[02:42:05.280]of the students in those very socially powerful groups
[02:42:09.800]who are not problematic as our allies
[02:42:13.430]and that we, I think, alienate them when we start
[02:42:15.730]to go out to them and say, well you all are rapists.
[02:42:20.562]We don't say that but that's I think sometimes
[02:42:21.770]what it comes across and they get tired of being the demons.
[02:42:28.510]So I mean the data are there.
[02:42:29.890]They're higher risk overall.
[02:42:31.360]There's more problematic attitudes overall.
[02:42:33.260]But I would just say that the point here
[02:42:34.590]is that groups are not uniform, so let's keep that in mind
[02:42:37.900]and think about how we might use that.
[02:42:40.860]Second example, groups are not uniform.
[02:42:42.900]This was an unpublished study that I happened to find.
[02:42:45.690]This happens to be about sorority members.
[02:42:48.740]What they found was that women with stronger bonds
[02:42:53.460]to the members of their community were more likely
[02:42:56.000]to conform to the prevailing views
[02:42:57.910]about rape myths over time.
[02:43:00.590]So regardless, we've moved up to the peer level.
[02:43:04.310]So wherever they came in on rape myths,
[02:43:06.950]they moved more towards the healthy
[02:43:09.200]or the unhealthy attitudes over time.
[02:43:12.310]So again, that idea of groups aren't uniform,
[02:43:15.130]if we can identify and foster the positive norms
[02:43:19.060]that exist among certain groups and then try
[02:43:22.760]to think about other interventions
[02:43:24.790]for the more problematic groups
[02:43:26.790]and to try to increase the good,
[02:43:30.160]at the same time knowing that if there's good there,
[02:43:33.360]that they'll bring other people along with them,
[02:43:35.120]they'll bring their peers along with them
[02:43:36.880]and then think in more nuanced ways about,
[02:43:38.970]how do we address the groups
[02:43:40.290]that have more problematic attitudes.
[02:43:43.574]So that's case one.
[02:43:50.730]This is just what I already said.
[02:43:52.260]So to me this really helped
[02:43:53.902]to explain those mixed prevalence findings.
[02:43:56.380]It just matters who got sampled whether they happened
[02:43:59.110]to catch some of the higher-risk groups
[02:44:01.940]or whether they caught a mix of lower or higher-risk groups
[02:44:06.300]which would mean they probably average out
[02:44:08.210]to not higher-risk to the student body overall.
[02:44:12.150]So again, risk isn't tied to being an athlete per se
[02:44:16.130]or fraternity member per se.
[02:44:19.542]I do a lot of hazing prevention work
[02:44:21.104]and it's not just those groups that haze.
[02:44:23.504]So we know that problematic organizations can be band.
[02:44:29.480]Can be Honor Society.
[02:44:30.760]Can be business fraternity.
[02:44:32.080]Can be all kinds of groups on campus.
[02:44:35.226]And might not even be organized groups,
[02:44:37.350]but might be neighborhoods or other kinds of subcultures.
[02:44:41.960]So if we start thinking of the problem as unhealthy culture
[02:44:44.650]within particular subgroups and settings,
[02:44:47.150]what does that do for us?
[02:44:48.560]So that's point one.
[02:44:50.570]Any thoughts or questions on that?
[02:44:53.520]We kind of forged through this
[02:44:54.950]and then we'll talk about them,
[02:44:57.100]then you'll have the chance to talk about them
[02:44:58.370]with each other.
[02:45:01.110]Okay, so second part of this section.
[02:45:04.940]Bystander interventions skills.
[02:45:06.770]So we know, I didn't do a bystander 101,
[02:45:10.030]'cause I'm pretty sure you're all familiar with it.
[02:45:11.710]But bystander intervention is a series of actions.
[02:45:15.170]It's not an action.
[02:45:17.300]The series of actions are all separate.
[02:45:21.779]You have to be able to notice an event.
[02:45:22.910]You have to be able to interpret it as a problem et cetera.
[02:45:26.820]So there's a skills component of that
[02:45:29.880]and I would argue the posses the necessary skills to act,
[02:45:33.420]I would argue that there's also knowledge
[02:45:35.370]and attitudes and skills that go
[02:45:36.910]into the first steps as well.
[02:45:39.520]So if we say that we have
[02:45:42.240]to conceptualize bystander intervention
[02:45:44.140]as a series of actions or a series of stages,
[02:45:47.050]then we can ask the question:
[02:45:48.200]What's the effect of alcohol at each stage?
[02:45:52.020]And what does that mean for how we're doing things?
[02:45:56.400]And I'll just remind you that Alan Berkowitz
[02:46:01.080]did two great presentations that are archived
[02:46:03.490]on the consortium site on bystander.
[02:46:05.840]So again, there's a whole wealth of information there
[02:46:10.980]that unpacks bystander much more than we're going to today.
[02:46:13.850]So I refer you back to that.
[02:46:16.390]What do we know from the research?
[02:46:19.830]We know that alcohol consumption creates barriers
[02:46:22.150]to action at multiple steps.
[02:46:25.440]Looking in your worksheet at page seven,
[02:46:29.320]this is from an article by Burn and colleagues.
[02:46:33.800]Again, this is acquaintance rape specifically.
[02:46:39.550]What they did was lay out some barriers
[02:46:41.160]to bystander intervention at different stages
[02:46:44.980]and they worded the steps
[02:46:47.000]a little bit differently than mine,
[02:46:48.070]but it's basically the same.
[02:46:49.490]What I did was put solid arrows next to the ones
[02:46:53.690]that really are clearly, to me,
[02:46:57.290]clearly directly related to alcohol
[02:46:59.930]and then the dotted ones I can see some intersection
[02:47:03.390]with alcohol, alcohol would be part of them.
[02:47:05.700]Then I just boxed the skills piece too.
[02:47:10.164]So if the purpose of bystander intervention
[02:47:17.510]is to enable people to perform skills
[02:47:19.895]and we know that alcohol feeds in as a barrier
[02:47:24.700]to them being able to perform those skills
[02:47:26.450]at multiple steps, then we have to think
[02:47:28.460]about how our interventions address that.
[02:47:33.020]In the Frank example, did his fraternity members
[02:47:39.830]notice the event, whatever you would define as the event,
[02:47:43.590]and what beliefs about alcohol would they have
[02:47:46.600]that would keep them from noticing that event
[02:47:49.420]and identifying it as a problem
[02:47:51.010]and taking responsibility for it?
[02:47:52.900]So I think we can start spinning that out and say:
[02:47:55.990]What about alcohol impairs people's ability?
[02:47:58.540]We can also devise an intervention
[02:47:59.990]around alcohol problem prevention.
[02:48:03.080]What about this scenario adding alcohol
[02:48:07.970]to the mix keeps people from noticing problematic settings
[02:48:11.740]where multiple high-risk behaviors are more likely
[02:48:14.020]to happen, interpreting them as a problem,
[02:48:16.940]taking responsibility, et cetera.
[02:48:18.670]Does that make sense?
[02:48:19.503]Just kind of trying to unpack that
[02:48:20.980]in a little bit more nuanced way,
[02:48:22.920]because if we're going in and saying,
[02:48:24.300]you should just intervene and we're giving people
[02:48:26.970]one scenario but there's this other,
[02:48:30.400]like we're giving them one example of how alcohol plays out,
[02:48:33.210]but we're not really unpacking that at each stage.
[02:48:35.900]Again, I'm not saying one intervention,
[02:48:37.650]one touchpoint has to unpack all that.
[02:48:40.370]But is there some way that we can work together
[02:48:42.140]to keep unpacking that over time?
[02:48:44.820]So that's the kind of question I would raise about that.
[02:48:47.250]So that's it, you have that table
[02:48:48.860]that goes with the first point up in that slide here.
[02:48:53.230]There's a McMahon study I really recommend
[02:48:55.537]around this particular issue.
[02:48:59.010]Greater acceptance of rape myths is associated
[02:49:02.130]with decreased willingness to intervene.
[02:49:03.960]So actually they didn't use a behavioral measure.
[02:49:07.040]They measured willingness to intervene, so we don't know.
[02:49:11.470]But I think we can presume, or it's easy to imagine
[02:49:15.720]when you look at that series of steps
[02:49:17.000]that if you believe certain kinds of rape myths,
[02:49:20.920]like women who drink are more sexually available
[02:49:25.360]are indicating their sexual willingness,
[02:49:27.500]then you're a lot less likely to notice something
[02:49:29.360]as an event interpreted as a problem
[02:49:31.360]and feel responsible to act et cetera.
[02:49:34.610]So there a tie back with some of the beliefs.
[02:49:38.519]I didn't find something that really looked
[02:49:39.930]at the expectancies and whether that would be associated
[02:49:42.180]with a decreased willingness to intervene,
[02:49:43.790]but I could imagine that that would be something to look at.
[02:49:48.260]Abbey recommends in a study
[02:49:49.680]that training should include evidence-based scenarios.
[02:49:52.110]Evidence-based meaning replicating the kinds
[02:49:54.300]of circumstances that we typically see.
[02:49:57.190]Depicting high-risk situations
[02:49:58.590]and effective ways to intervene.
[02:49:59.700]So again, that's a skills building piece,
[02:50:02.930]helping people know what to do,
[02:50:04.470]helping people know what that looks like.
[02:50:05.980]And them Banyard has a nice article about taking
[02:50:08.250]an ecological approach to bystander intervention
[02:50:10.540]where you're looking at all,
[02:50:12.110]not just what the individuals are doing
[02:50:13.750]and not just what the peer environment is,
[02:50:15.220]but all the other elements of the social ecology
[02:50:18.930]that might impede or facilitate bystander intervention.
[02:50:24.985]So again, that's a very high-level review
[02:50:27.730]of some of the key findings
[02:50:31.810]about how bystander intervention and alcohol
[02:50:34.860]in that scenario might relate.
[02:50:37.560]Comments or thoughts on that?
[02:50:43.780]Okay that's part two.
[02:50:46.330]And then we'll do a little piece here on social norms.
[02:50:48.490]It's a little bit longer.
[02:50:50.940]This'll take us up to your group work
[02:50:53.110]which will start over lunch.
[02:50:54.760]So social norms, again, there's a nice long presentation
[02:50:59.280]on this in the consortium website that I would refer to you.
[02:51:02.590]But just in brief, I think most of you know a bunch
[02:51:04.960]about social norms,
[02:51:05.793]but descriptive norms are what most people do.
[02:51:09.180]Injunctive; what people approve of.
[02:51:12.020]We wanna look at both.
[02:51:16.020]People tend to:
[02:51:16.853]Overestimate negative attitudes and behaviors,
[02:51:18.870]underestimate positive attitudes and behaviors.
[02:51:23.120]So here's some of the relevant normative findings
[02:51:27.630]around this issue.
[02:51:29.180]This is about college men and misperception,
[02:51:32.850]again, that's where most of the research has been done.
[02:51:35.770]Overestimate the extent to which other men,
[02:51:39.040]basically their actions and beliefs support
[02:51:42.360]a more active sexuality, more believe in rape myths,
[02:51:49.170]masculinity, they overestimate the extent
[02:51:52.220]to which other men drink alcohol before engaging
[02:51:54.400]in sexual activity which I think is really interesting
[02:51:57.160]and are willing to use force in sexual context.
[02:52:00.060]And then underestimate the whole variety
[02:52:02.230]of more protective behaviors: Feeling comfortable
[02:52:06.220]with degrading language, stop sexual activity
[02:52:09.570]when they're asked to, are willing to intervene.
[02:52:13.820]So again, in your worksheet what I did was pull
[02:52:16.929]Alan Berkowitz as a great social norms toolkit
[02:52:20.100]and I pulled out some data, this is from Florida State
[02:52:24.710]that's part of a larger case study
[02:52:27.580]which I really, really encourage you to read,
[02:52:29.120]it's on page eight.
[02:52:30.930]So when we try and say, well what kinds of normative data
[02:52:34.790]would really be relevant here,
[02:52:37.670]this mixes some descriptive, you know, what people do,
[02:52:41.280]some injunctive and then some kind of rape myth.
[02:52:45.230]So I'm just gonna give you a minute to scan the items
[02:52:48.850]and then we'll talk briefly about some of the findings.
[02:53:46.387]So what do you notice about these data?
[02:53:49.340]Healthy behaviors, unhealthy behaviors,
[02:53:53.140]small misperceptions, big misperceptions?
[02:53:57.490]They still seem to blame it on the woman.
[02:53:59.710]Like if you go toward the dress part,
[02:54:01.620]like where he talks about it's usually only women
[02:54:03.370]who dress suggestively that are raped,
[02:54:06.881]the data kind of agrees with that number.
[02:54:07.830]Right, so 79% and my guess is actually
[02:54:14.210]on that one that 79% might be the disagreeing with it,
[02:54:18.310]just 'cause of the way it's worded.
[02:54:20.513]You know what I mean?
[02:54:21.346]So I bet he put the disagree or strongly disagree,
[02:54:26.971]so actually almost 80% said disagree with that statement,
[02:54:29.990]but they really underestimate the extent to which.
[02:54:33.590]I'm glad you said that,
[02:54:34.423]because I should have pointed that out,
[02:54:36.140]that they really underestimate the extent
[02:54:37.610]to which other people would also disagree with that.
[02:54:40.373]I would disagree with that.
[02:54:41.750]I mean 20% don't so okay we still got some work to do there.
[02:54:46.728]But I really think a minority of my classmates
[02:54:50.450]would answer the same way.
[02:54:52.860]That was great.
[02:54:54.180]What else do you notice?
[02:54:56.574]It seems like people are more willing
[02:54:57.640]to intervene in situations that seem
[02:55:00.059]to be less gray I guess.
[02:55:02.020]With the physical violence they'd be more likely
[02:55:03.910]to intervene versus the pressuring
[02:55:06.650]or some more in the relational stuff.
[02:55:11.670]Intervene with the physical versus the relational.
[02:55:15.580]Yeah that's a good observation.
[02:55:16.780]So sort of physically mistreating somebody.
[02:55:18.760]It seems less ambiguous so they feel more comfortable
[02:55:21.875]saying that they would intervene.
[02:55:23.260]So yeah and if we look at the actual for that
[02:55:25.480]which is their own behavior,
[02:55:26.710]97% of respondents said, yes I would intervene
[02:55:30.730]if I saw a man physically mistreating a woman.
[02:55:33.816]And actually the misperception is not that huge.
[02:55:36.070]I think 85% of my peers would.
[02:55:39.544]So that's not actually a place
[02:55:40.800]where you have the biggest perception gap.
[02:55:44.540]Where do you see the actual numbers are really low on this?
[02:55:50.944]There's a big difference between
[02:55:52.370]how people said that they would intervene
[02:55:54.980]versus the ones that said they actually had intervened.
[02:55:58.650]So there's a really large, if you look at the top set
[02:56:01.210]and the bottom set, tons of people said they were willing
[02:56:04.040]to intervene, but almost nobody is.
[02:56:07.850]The misperceptions are small, because there's no room
[02:56:11.644]to misperceive, I guess they don't think their friends,
[02:56:15.200]their pretty accurate about their perceptions
[02:56:18.030]of what's going on because both numbers are so low.
[02:56:21.360]How were those numbers taken from some,
[02:56:22.822]like on the 12 months was it asked,
[02:56:25.030]did you see this and did you intervene?
[02:56:27.440]Or was it, have you intervened in the last 12 months?
[02:56:29.919]The question, look right above it for the question stem.
[02:56:33.340]In the last 12 months how often
[02:56:34.590]have you frequently done this.
[02:56:37.810]So it might have been less frequently.
[02:56:39.340]But did they ask them before?
[02:56:40.740]Did you run into this situation?
[02:56:42.180]Because if they didn't run into that situation,
[02:56:44.116]then they wouldn't have.
[02:56:44.949]Yeah and actually I'm really glad you said that
[02:56:47.920]because and I love, let's be that critical consumer
[02:56:51.340]of the data, because that's a deficit with a lot
[02:56:56.500]of times that when we ask people about bystander,
[02:56:59.370]we ask them on too short of a time frame,
[02:57:01.520]where they wouldn't have had an opportunity
[02:57:03.100]or we don't find out whether they had an opportunity.
[02:57:05.750]So that's something if we didn't think to ask that
[02:57:08.240]we could then try to followup in some focus groups.
[02:57:11.720]But I think that's a great point.
[02:57:15.575]So what does that tell us though in terms
[02:57:18.060]of the steps?
[02:57:18.893]What also it doesn't tell you
[02:57:20.671]is that did you know it's one of those situations.
[02:57:22.770]There's a whole bunch behind that.
[02:57:25.573]So we wanna try to unpack that and say,
[02:57:27.690]if we do know that they said
[02:57:29.670]that they're not having an opportunity
[02:57:31.030]is that 'cause they're not noticing the event.
[02:57:34.063]Because if you've been able to get at there's problematic
[02:57:36.450]behavior all around them,
[02:57:38.418]then try and unpack that enough to figure out where.
[02:57:45.270]On it's face one of the places I would go with this
[02:57:48.070]is I wonder if they need more skills training.
[02:57:50.960]But I would check that out.
[02:57:52.370]I would try to do some focus groups
[02:57:53.790]or have my peer educators go ask their friends
[02:57:57.330]or try to do something.
[02:58:00.260]Ask my psychology professor to talk about it
[02:58:02.331]in their class and find out what's going on.
[02:58:07.798]So anyway, again, having this kind of normative data
[02:58:11.430]I think is really useful to start giving us
[02:58:13.490]really concrete opportunities for figuring out
[02:58:16.740]what's going on in a more specific way.
[02:58:18.950]And then thinking about,
[02:58:19.840]where does our work intersect around that.
[02:58:22.430]So that's the FSU data.
[02:58:23.430]And I really do, I put the link right at the top
[02:58:25.500]to the toolkit and it's a great toolkit.
[02:58:27.650]And it also works through this as a case study
[02:58:30.940]and talks about the possibilities
[02:58:34.300]to do social norming based on this
[02:58:36.520]and then what they actually did.
[02:58:38.080]So it kind of tells the story of that
[02:58:39.840]and I found that really useful.
[02:58:43.890]So why do these kinds of perceptions,
[02:58:45.970]these normative perceptions, matter?
[02:58:50.200]Because norms shape behavior.
[02:58:53.270]Because in another survey 2/3 of men engaged
[02:58:56.430]in unwanted sex because of perceived pressure
[02:58:58.440]from other men.
[02:59:00.030]They're acting on a perceived norm
[02:59:02.870]that may be a misperception.
[02:59:06.793]A lot of us have heard about interventions
[02:59:10.540]that talk about the difficulties
[02:59:12.502]of the conventional sense of masculinity
[02:59:16.265]and feeling the need to conform with that.
[02:59:21.298]But we know that male peer support
[02:59:22.810]facilitates coercive sexuality.
[02:59:24.710]So if there's misperceived norms
[02:59:26.180]and people are acting on misperceived norm
[02:59:28.120]and then people are saying, well this is what's normal
[02:59:30.590]and now I'm gonna do that too,
[02:59:32.580]it all goes back to a misperceived norm.
[02:59:36.527]Not completely, but that we could maybe unpack some more.
[02:59:40.440]And I thought that this was interesting.
[02:59:42.200]In one city, the strongest predictor
[02:59:43.510]of whether a man would intervene
[02:59:44.690]is what he thought other men would do.
[02:59:48.470]So helping them to know that they are by and large
[02:59:53.260]very willing to intervene I think is useful.
[02:59:57.990]So this slide I stole from a New Directions PowerPoint
[03:00:01.270]from years ago, but I think it's helpful
[03:00:03.420]to remind ourselves that there's gonna be some people
[03:00:07.170]who don't wanna do the right thing.
[03:00:09.430]There's gonna be some people who are always
[03:00:11.457]on the right side of things,
[03:00:12.690]but there's a whole lot of people
[03:00:14.410]in our environments who are gonna,
[03:00:16.870]just like the sorority example,
[03:00:18.620]who are gonna conform to what they see around them
[03:00:21.492]and I think we have a lot of power there
[03:00:23.170]to try to make visible those helping one that do exist.
[03:00:30.740]So this is a little sidebar
[03:00:32.860]that I thought was really important.
[03:00:33.920]But this sometimes gives me an opportunity
[03:00:36.479]to think about things that I've been
[03:00:38.710]thinking about for awhile.
[03:00:40.110]So since we're talking about social norms,
[03:00:42.050]what does it mean when we label something as a culture?
[03:00:44.680]When we do, you know, the faculty, staff, administrators.
[03:00:51.880]And you see a lot about the hookup culture
[03:00:54.370]and a lot about the drinking culture.
[03:00:56.690]But I wanna look at the hookup culture for a minute.
[03:01:01.748]Here's my frame for it, that I have seen prevention efforts
[03:01:06.670]that inadvertently norm the problematic behavior.
[03:01:09.350]And I made up this little message,
[03:01:10.800]but it's from a real study.
[03:01:13.890]But this is what we would do with this behavior.
[03:01:16.660]If we found out that 91% of college students
[03:01:20.570]were texting while driving
[03:01:21.750]and we didn't want them to do that,
[03:01:23.140]we should not tell them that 91% of them are doing it.
[03:01:28.525]This is the wrong approach,
[03:01:30.170]because don't text and drive is gone.
[03:01:35.338]Well, because partly their gonna say,
[03:01:37.270]well most people aren't getting killed,
[03:01:38.780]we'd hear about that.
[03:01:40.250]So it can't be that dangerous.
[03:01:42.077]So what's the reality of today's sexual culture?
[03:01:46.680]I pulled these out of newspaper articles
[03:01:48.800]'cause they were doing a nice job summarizing
[03:01:50.350]some of the studies that have come out.
[03:01:51.720]So the studies, I gave you both the citation
[03:01:57.290]and the news article.
[03:01:59.720]So if you look at, this is hookup culture then and now
[03:02:02.910]88 to 96 and then 2002 to 2010.
[03:02:07.390]Had a regular partner, a little bit lower.
[03:02:10.210]Had more than one sexual partner in the past year,
[03:02:14.020]exactly the same.
[03:02:15.460]One of the partners was a friend, a little bit higher.
[03:02:18.520]But again, some people talk about how people
[03:02:20.810]are marrying later in life.
[03:02:22.250]And so there's some change in the way
[03:02:26.490]that people are thinking about dating,
[03:02:28.270]because it's less that you date somebody
[03:02:29.920]that you have to marry.
[03:02:31.490]So there's some you could get a result that.
[03:02:34.380]And then one of them was the casual pickup,
[03:02:38.030]an uptick there to some extent.
[03:02:40.360]But then if you look under the hood of that
[03:02:42.360]it's different than what people think.
[03:02:44.710]What wasn't shown on this little table
[03:02:46.160]is that students were actually, in terms of frequency,
[03:02:48.390]less sexually active than a decade ago.
[03:02:51.070]So this whole idea that there's this kind
[03:02:52.630]of rampant, you know, hanging onto the chandeliers
[03:02:56.570]kind of thing going on is,
[03:02:59.928]a lot of it's the media I gotta say.
[03:03:03.760]This is from UNL, this particular study.
[03:03:07.770]And big misperceptions in frequency of sexual hookups
[03:03:14.590]for self and perceived.
[03:03:16.340]So they thought that 96% of their peers had hooked up,
[03:03:23.270]when 46% had never, thought 96% had hooked up
[03:03:29.380]because only only four, they said 3.7%,
[03:03:31.920]hooked up zero times.
[03:03:33.990]But the real percent who had hooked up zero times was 46%.
[03:03:39.220]One time, get another chunk of the self there.
[03:03:42.320]So when you get it to five or more times,
[03:03:44.170]you start to get to a pretty small number.
[03:03:46.670]A much smaller proportion.
[03:03:50.860]So I think that's really interesting.
[03:03:53.250]So that connects together the social norms piece
[03:03:56.650]that we were just looking at.
[03:04:00.470]This is a summary from the researcher, Lisa Wade's research.
[03:04:06.750]So median number of hookups in college,
[03:04:09.100]including kissing only, so that's the other thing,
[03:04:11.480]that hookups in most student parlance,
[03:04:16.220]and this probably varies from campus to campus a little bit
[03:04:18.570]can include kissing, so median number of hookups
[03:04:22.120]in college including kissing only is seven, not 107.
[03:04:27.910]Mean number of sexual partners during college, two.
[03:04:30.900]25% virgins at graduation.
[03:04:34.070]More than 70% would like to be in a committed relationship.
[03:04:37.330]Prefer dating to hooking up 95%, 77% of men.
[03:04:42.700]Percentage that will be in a long-term relationship
[03:04:44.540]during college, 75%.
[03:04:47.370]Pretty interesting right?
[03:04:49.660]I was so fascinated with this so I put in more slides
[03:04:52.140]than I should have, but you'll indulge me right?
[03:04:54.750]And I encourage you to go look
[03:04:56.080]at this lecture by Lisa Wade who really impacts
[03:04:58.400]a lot of these that's in the slideshare.
[03:05:00.590]She goes through step-by-step,
[03:05:02.240]are they getting these things:
[03:05:04.750]Do the research show that students from hookups
[03:05:07.690]are getting validation?
[03:05:09.080]The answer is yes and no.
[03:05:10.330]Status, yes and no.
[03:05:12.280]Pleasure, it's complicated.
[03:05:14.520]Empowerment, overwhelmingly no.
[03:05:17.240]Right, but that's the narrative a lot
[03:05:18.540]of times that you hear.
[03:05:21.670]Many relationships come out of hookups.
[03:05:25.300]And again, hookups of different you know.
[03:05:27.230]Connection, definitely no.
[03:05:29.110]So again, I think we wanna just be careful
[03:05:32.160]of so then when we bring in the program to our campus
[03:05:36.400]about the hookup culture, like what have we just done
[03:05:39.770]and especially for students who are choosing not
[03:05:42.460]to be, not to have sex in college.
[03:05:44.910]You know, I get a little afraid
[03:05:47.380]of these orientation programs that are like,
[03:05:49.180]welcome to hookup culture.
[03:05:51.510]What are we doing for students
[03:05:53.810]who are making a different decision.
[03:05:55.900]We are saying, man you are behind the eight ball
[03:05:58.550]and you better catch up.
[03:06:00.360]Again, if you think about creating a interpersonal climate
[03:06:04.210]in which more problematic behavior can occur,
[03:06:09.060]what kind of cover does that provide
[03:06:11.130]for more predatory behavior and are we doing a disservice
[03:06:16.250]because we're not really have more values conversations
[03:06:20.160]and encouraging people to make their own decisions.
[03:06:24.390]So yeah, it's very interesting to read some
[03:06:26.820]of the research on this because there's a lot
[03:06:29.830]of qualitative work out there where students talk about
[03:06:31.900]what it's really like for them.
[03:06:33.540]And a lot of them are like, I just don't have time
[03:06:35.200]for a boyfriend, but I like to hang out with people
[03:06:37.440]and it's not that big of a deal.
[03:06:38.690]But a lot of times those slowly turn into relationships
[03:06:41.990]or they call it hooking up, but it is a relationship.
[03:06:44.971]It's like, oh yeah we're hooking up
[03:06:46.010]and we do it every weekend
[03:06:46.843]and we're not seeing anybody else,
[03:06:47.940]but it's not a relationship
[03:06:48.830]'cause I don't have time for that.
[03:06:50.450]So there's sort of a lot going on there.
[03:06:54.680]Anyway, so I just throw that in as a piece
[03:06:57.330]of the normative puzzle because I think sometimes,
[03:07:00.730]and there's that not just about hooking up
[03:07:03.340]that's about lots of other ways that we do prevention
[03:07:06.500]that might inadvertently make it seem like,
[03:07:11.130]anytime we pay more attention to a problem
[03:07:13.190]we risk making it seem more prevalent than it is
[03:07:16.040]and I think we wanna just be careful about that.
[03:07:19.590]So just curious to hear from some of you.
[03:07:23.290]We heard a little bit that some of you are doing
[03:07:27.140]bystander intervention, but I'm just curious
[03:07:29.720]to have you talk a little bit about what
[03:07:30.740]that looks like on your campuses,
[03:07:32.100]so you can hear from a few others about
[03:07:34.730]how you thought about putting that together.
[03:07:36.450]Have you done anything based on the research?
[03:07:41.260]I know a lot of you are starting out
[03:07:42.770]with a 101 and you're gonna build from there.
[03:07:45.890]But you said that you were doing
[03:07:47.650]bystander intervention right?
[03:07:49.400]So what's that look like right now.
[03:07:51.290]Well right now it's kind of targeting
[03:07:53.905](mumbles) of student organizations.
[03:07:55.120]I think that's kind of going back to 2016
[03:08:01.583]is trying to get at some of that.
[03:08:03.880]There's a gal on our campus who's kind of in charge
[03:08:06.160]of that and she's also instituting
[03:08:07.950]some booster session type training
[03:08:11.260]for some of the leaders as well,
[03:08:14.836]'cause we don't want that to wear off so to speak.
[03:08:16.570]Yeah, it does wear off.
[03:08:17.740]So booster sessions are a very evidence-based idea.
[03:08:20.250]Yeah, I think we're still struggling
[03:08:22.880]quite a bit though with one of the videos
[03:08:26.470]that Allison and Taylor on our campus has brought
[03:08:28.890]into the training is the John Stossel,
[03:08:33.082]What Would You Do series.
[03:08:33.945]What Would You Do series.
[03:08:34.980]Do other people use that What Would You Do series?
[03:08:37.760]Yeah 'cause even when you went though
[03:08:41.410]the, you know, steps of bystander,
[03:08:43.260]you know, there's a motivation
[03:08:45.620]not breaking the bro code, especially for men right?
[03:08:51.240]'Cause I, even noticing that question from FSU,
[03:08:54.810]it's easy to say strongly disagree when I see sexual assault
[03:08:59.002]When you're talking about, well uses words
[03:09:00.540]that are abusive, am I gonna step in?
[03:09:02.720]Well my guess is that 93 goes back down to 23 now
[03:09:06.890]at least for a lot of men.
[03:09:09.680]Because that's the lower level.
[03:09:11.360]And I think getting at some of that where students
[03:09:14.590]see that as leadership if they'll intervene,
[03:09:17.738]I think we struggle with that.
[03:09:20.312]Yeah, that makes sense.
[03:09:22.230]And so I think it's great to use multimedia
[03:09:25.590]and it's sort of this boon to bystander intervention
[03:09:29.070]that there's this TV show
[03:09:31.128]that has bystander intervention stories.
[03:09:32.520]But then we also wanna ask, are these the scenarios
[03:09:34.680]that our students will face in their actual lives on campus?
[03:09:38.360]So maybe that's a way to step them into the conversation
[03:09:40.950]and have them realize that lots of people
[03:09:43.220]don't intervene, 'cause I think that's also like we don't
[03:09:45.930]wanna do shame-based,
[03:09:47.000]like, you don't intervene you bad people.
[03:09:49.430]But that might be a way to step them into that,
[03:09:52.530]but are we including scenarios
[03:09:54.760]that they realistically will encounter?
[03:09:56.320]Where they have to figure out
[03:09:57.540]what their options are in a campus scenario?
[03:10:02.970]If I can just add.
[03:10:04.733]The only thing that I think
[03:10:05.566]that we're trying to add
[03:10:06.399]is that's a key piece of leadership.
[03:10:08.620]'Cause a lot of our campuses were worried about
[03:10:11.210]trying to teach leadership
[03:10:12.560]and bystander intervention should not be,
[03:10:15.300]oh and by the way there's this other thing over here.
[03:10:17.540]If you wanna be a good leader,
[03:10:18.670]that is a cog in that.
[03:10:20.680]Right, and that's, I mean a lot of fraternities
[03:10:24.020]and sorority life programs are really focused
[03:10:27.360]around the idea of leadership.
[03:10:28.430]And so bringing that into some of the things
[03:10:33.000]that people don't normally think of
[03:10:34.480]as maybe a bystander intervention training,
[03:10:36.230]but infusing bystander ideas into leadership training.
[03:10:41.316]One campus that I've worked with has a very large
[03:10:44.660]everybody goes off campus and does outdoor things,
[03:10:49.025]a pretty large, a quarter or something
[03:10:50.530]of the incoming first-year students go off
[03:10:54.240]and do these outdoor things.
[03:10:56.640]And there's a whole group of leaders that are trained
[03:10:59.950]around crisis response and emergencies
[03:11:02.250]and all kinds of other things.
[03:11:03.710]And tying in a bystander piece into that
[03:11:06.490]is completely logical, but they just didn't think
[03:11:08.700]to do it and call it that.
[03:11:10.580]So there's a way to make the bridges over.
[03:11:12.730]So I appreciate that.
[03:11:14.963]Just a thought about the leadership piece,
[03:11:16.880]because I really believe that that's a great place
[03:11:19.110]to start, but I'm hoping that we frame it
[03:11:23.201]as being good role models for the rest of their membership.
[03:11:27.010]I've also seen times when
[03:11:29.440]then people abdicate only to the leaders.
[03:11:33.710]Because it's their job.
[03:11:35.870]And so how can we make sure they understand
[03:11:38.440]it's really that they need to sort of serve it
[03:11:41.190]as a trickle down effect for their membership.
[03:11:43.280]So I think it's a great place to start
[03:11:45.280]it's just how to make sure --
[03:11:47.283]Right how to be a good follower. (chuckling)
[03:11:50.570]Yeah and think that's a great point.
[03:11:52.170]The other thing about training students
[03:11:56.440]who have positional roles as interveners
[03:11:59.870]is that you're expecting them to respond
[03:12:02.420]to incidents in their positional role.
[03:12:04.560]So do those skills translate over to something
[03:12:07.440]that doesn't require them to intervene by the rules?
[03:12:10.680]And so I think that we also have to be clear
[03:12:13.250]about broadening, that as a student leader,
[03:12:17.890]part of your role is to be that role-model
[03:12:20.670]and to be proactive in other areas of your life,
[03:12:23.820]not just when you're on duty with your hall
[03:12:25.950]or with your team, or with your, you know, sort of thing.
[03:12:28.940]So I think that's a great point, thank you.
[03:12:31.880]And UNL's been doing, our relationship
[03:12:33.870]violence group started in 1998 and it's always been
[03:12:38.060]based on bystander intervention, that kind of a model.
[03:12:42.580]But over the years we've expanded and been more overt
[03:12:46.720]about talking about using that language
[03:12:48.610]because people are more aware of it now.
[03:12:51.170]And so we've tried to do the trainings
[03:12:54.730]with everyone who might be first contact kind of thing.
[03:12:58.650]We always say, I'm not invited to the parties,
[03:13:01.670]you know, they don't call me up and say,
[03:13:02.840]I need a 58-year-old woman to come to this party,
[03:13:05.160]you're there, so we're training you
[03:13:06.910]to know what's happening.
[03:13:08.450]And so we do it with the residence halls
[03:13:11.420]and with the student athletes.
[03:13:14.020]The group started as a collaboration between
[03:13:16.200]the athletic department and the Women's Center.
[03:13:18.100]So that's some of the stuff.
[03:13:20.110]Well that's interesting.
[03:13:20.943]Yeah, so sometimes just even having it be
[03:13:23.520]a collaborative effort can kind of
[03:13:25.300]change the frame of it all.
[03:13:26.530]And again, being able to talk
[03:13:28.487]about most people are not in favor of violence.
[03:13:30.966]Most of you are not that guy.
[03:13:33.890]And so let's be a guy who stands up and says,
[03:13:36.350]you know, what you really are standing (mumbles).
[03:13:39.580]And what's the format of that?
[03:13:41.080]Like so where and when do you do that?
[03:13:43.020]We have a peer education group
[03:13:45.000]that gets invited and does presentations
[03:13:46.860]to smaller groups.
[03:13:47.770]Sometimes we do it for big groups.
[03:13:49.570]So like for the Nu Greek Summit, Nu Greek members,
[03:13:54.490]they just recently, last year they divided it
[03:13:56.760]into fraternity and sorority separate times.
[03:13:59.880]And so we do presentations, both groups.
[03:14:02.730]We did it with the new student enrollment hosts
[03:14:04.910]who are the people who meet people throughout the summer
[03:14:07.230]and they're a small group so they have the opportunity.
[03:14:11.681]So we do the framework about what is bystander intervention
[03:14:14.010]and then we give them some real specific scenarios
[03:14:16.040]of what are the situations you might actually be in
[03:14:18.700]And we had them develop some for us
[03:14:20.700]and talk about, what are the things that are most common.
[03:14:22.580]That's a good idea.
[03:14:23.413]You're an NSC host walking backwards
[03:14:24.670]on campus and somebody hoots at a woman who's sunbathing.
[03:14:28.206]What do you do?
[03:14:29.820]What's your role there?
[03:14:30.653]What might you do?
[03:14:31.830]Those kinds of things.
[03:14:32.770]Yeah, so that's good.
[03:14:35.048]So we know that one-time programs don't work.
[03:14:38.880]We know that probably giant-room presentations
[03:14:42.630]where you just talk about it,
[03:14:43.940]that there's no scenarios or skill-building,
[03:14:46.580]probably aren't as effective as they could be.
[03:14:48.480]But again, it doesn't mean that you have
[03:14:50.340]to transform that entirely.
[03:14:51.880]There can be a way of introducing ideas
[03:14:54.570]and by working together the practice happens
[03:14:59.000]in residence hall groups or new student orientation groups.
[03:15:01.890]So you can think about where could we build
[03:15:03.930]in that skills practice where they can really
[03:15:07.980]leave a introductory session like you're talking about
[03:15:11.330]and have a chance to start playing that out
[03:15:13.850]and start using their own words,
[03:15:15.630]figuring out what their strategies would be
[03:15:17.800]in using their own words.
[03:15:18.633]And I wanna say too,
[03:15:20.001]one of the most important things that we're doing now
[03:15:21.100]is we are trying to create this broader base
[03:15:23.700]of people who have that language,
[03:15:25.480]and we understand that
[03:15:27.019]and so even if they're not the person
[03:15:27.990]who's doing a training, they can say,
[03:15:29.990]you know, I was in this conversation
[03:15:31.930]and here's a thing and let's talk about that.
[03:15:33.960]So we have more people on campus using
[03:15:36.240]the same language and thinking about
[03:15:38.490]that's a goal for us.
[03:15:39.990]Yeah, that's a great thought.
[03:15:41.800]And the Green, you said you were using Green Dot right?
[03:15:43.750]You guys, yeah, so part of that
[03:15:45.010]is that when people get trained
[03:15:48.067]part of what they're asked to do is pass it on
[03:15:50.220]in different way to be that person who's acting
[03:15:53.680]ethically, but also to kind of carry
[03:15:55.060]that message that message.
[03:15:56.920]Who else is doing, so let's hear a little bit
[03:16:00.600]about any social norms work.
[03:16:02.210]So you guys, was it you guys who are doing social norms?
[03:16:04.940]Or you guys?
[03:16:06.310]Somebody just said they were doing posters,
[03:16:08.310]social norms posters?
[03:16:09.850]We do posters.
[03:16:10.683]UNL does them.
[03:16:13.180]We don't do a lot around sexual violence.
[03:16:14.680]Most of ours are just geared around alcohol,
[03:16:16.750]but one of the norms that we did put out
[03:16:19.220]is that the majority of students at our college
[03:16:22.430]don't believe that getting drunk on a date
[03:16:24.720]is cool or normal behavior.
[03:16:27.431]You know, some protective behavior too.
[03:16:29.900]You know, watch your drink, you know.
[03:16:31.950]Go in pairs, you know.
[03:16:35.170]Inform folks where you're going.
[03:16:38.279]Yeah, so I worked with a campus
[03:16:41.150]that back when I was with the Higher Ed Center
[03:16:43.520]who I think did one of the first social norms
[03:16:46.180]marketing campaigns around sexual violence
[03:16:47.820]that I'm familiar with.
[03:16:49.150]And so I'll just give you a few lessons
[03:16:51.340]from that, 'cause they we're a little bit like:
[03:16:53.140]Whoa what just happened?
[03:16:54.470]So they put up a stat that was something like
[03:16:58.550]80% of men stop the first time their date says no.
[03:17:04.880]And so a bunch of students went and made their own posters
[03:17:08.370]that said, 20% of people on this campus are rapists.
[03:17:11.430]So I'm gonna say,
[03:17:15.150]any publicity is good publicity. (laughing)
[03:17:20.137]When you think about even when it's a huge majority norm,
[03:17:25.050]if there's 15% of people who aren't doing it
[03:17:27.670]and it's clearly a sexually assaultive
[03:17:30.250]or coercive behavior, I don't even say it's a reason not
[03:17:34.630]to do that, but I think just be ready for it.
[03:17:37.510]Get your stakeholders ready and start to try
[03:17:40.800]to parlay that into the right conversation around:
[03:17:45.640]So why are people answering that way?
[03:17:47.300]Is that how they're behaving?
[03:17:49.880]'Cause it seems like the outreach means
[03:17:51.380]that's not in concert with our values as an institution.
[03:17:55.674]But I would just be ready to pivot on that kind of thing,
[03:17:59.240]because poor Nancy Wahl
[03:18:00.900]at UCSC started sending me,
[03:18:03.110]she was scanning and sending me these.
[03:18:05.355]So people put up spoofs and they did counter-advertising.
[03:18:10.530]It actually turned into this great campus-wide conversation.
[03:18:14.420]But you don't really want your administrators to get
[03:18:17.050]that blown up in the student paper
[03:18:18.820]without them having had a heads up at that.
[03:18:21.280]Could be a discussion that occurred.
[03:18:23.100]So I would just say, be thoughtful
[03:18:25.060]about the data that you use
[03:18:26.380]and go ahead an use it,
[03:18:28.680]especially you can try it out
[03:18:30.150]in small group interventions
[03:18:31.610]and see how that goes.
[03:18:33.050]But I think that could be a great conversation.
[03:18:35.090]To have students look around and go: Who's 20%?
[03:18:37.980]Who's not stopping?
[03:18:41.099]And that's another way of students seeing
[03:18:42.580]that there are other people's values.
[03:18:45.890]And again, the Frank guy, is he gonna care
[03:18:48.670]about our social norms marketing campaign?
[03:18:52.500]But if everybody else changes around him,
[03:18:56.510]he is gonna look odd.
[03:18:58.460]He's gonna look like a pretty sociopathic guy,
[03:19:02.460]which is appropriate.
[03:19:05.890]Any other, anybody doing some group norming,
[03:19:10.120]anything like that?
[03:19:13.740]We work a lot
[03:19:14.896]with the residence halls and the RAs.
[03:19:16.976]I'm doing programming around a lot of different ones.
[03:19:21.300]Like we did one around consent in February
[03:19:24.230]and called it, What is Love?
[03:19:25.910]That was just a conversation
[03:19:27.440]that turned into healthy relationships
[03:19:29.430]which turned into how do you consent to sex
[03:19:32.170]and if you aren't getting consent
[03:19:34.120]then what does that mean.
[03:19:36.100]So a lot of the conversations can play into
[03:19:38.972]to sexual assault, healthy relationships, consent.
[03:19:40.893]We base a lot the programs on.
[03:19:42.519]So we've had a lot good success keeping it smaller
[03:19:45.677]and going into the halls.
[03:19:47.787]Yeah, so University of Central Missouri
[03:19:51.630]is a good example that used a small group model.
[03:19:55.782]Kind of like what you're describing.
[03:19:57.200]But they actually did with fraternity and sorority chapters
[03:20:00.360]where they collected, this was an alcohol intervention,
[03:20:03.450]they collected social norming data on,
[03:20:05.735]they started asking them what alcohol-related behaviors
[03:20:11.450]are others in your organization doing
[03:20:14.840]that bother you a lot or a little bit?
[03:20:18.620]So they went in and did chapter-specific organization,
[03:20:22.010]so then you get that peer group.
[03:20:23.520]And the same is true I think in a lot of residence halls
[03:20:26.520]and said, here are the behaviors
[03:20:27.800]that are already bothering you
[03:20:29.490]and we're gonna teach you how to intervene
[03:20:30.800]in those behaviors.
[03:20:32.230]So it was a way of combining social norming
[03:20:33.850]and bystander intervention
[03:20:35.140]at a meet-you-where-you're-at place.
[03:20:37.710]It's called the EPIC program.
[03:20:39.240]And so I think that that's also a potentially powerful way
[03:20:42.410]to put together some of the data that we're looking at.
[03:20:45.287]And the list of the group-specific norms,
[03:20:47.740]'cause then you can have that conversation that's relevant.
[03:20:50.960]What I'll tell you is that she said after
[03:20:53.410]sort of a year and a half that what didn't happen
[03:20:56.490]is they didn't change the number,
[03:20:58.120]they didn't change the scenarios that bothered them.
[03:21:00.670]It didn't increase.
[03:21:02.940]So it was very effective in getting
[03:21:04.190]them engaged in the idea of learning bystander skills.
[03:21:06.830]But they weren't talking to them about what other things
[03:21:10.080]besides the ones you name are actually risky scenarios
[03:21:12.960]for your organization.
[03:21:14.320]So they didn't have changes in that area,
[03:21:16.160]just because they didn't address it.
[03:21:17.830]So Amy said you know I would sort of do,
[03:21:20.290]I think that's a great 101
[03:21:21.600]and then you gotta do a 102
[03:21:23.080]that says, and by the way here's some of the problems
[03:21:24.870]that you didn't identify as problematic,
[03:21:26.720]but are actually quite high-risk for your organization.
[03:21:28.880]But I think once you've engaged
[03:21:30.670]and how could you intervene in those.
[03:21:33.460]So I think there's a potential
[03:21:35.010]to do some norming and bystander work together
[03:21:40.580]Does that make sense?
[03:21:43.230]They do with me.
[03:21:45.080]So here's what we're gonna do.
[03:21:47.080]Lunch is in the overflow room I think.
[03:21:51.830]And so what I had after this section
[03:21:56.530]was for you to work together in your groups
[03:21:58.910]to talk about this whole last group
[03:22:02.370]of, oops that was, okay here we go.
[03:22:08.160]To discuss the research related to the group differences,
[03:22:12.270]that groups are not uniform,
[03:22:13.390]the bystander intervention skills, the social norms,
[03:22:16.120]which included the data on hooking up
[03:22:18.620]and to really, again, explore that question:
[03:22:20.980]What are the implications for your prevention work?
[03:22:25.300]There's the same thing on page nine that you saw.
[03:22:27.820]I gave you a big page to write on.
[03:22:29.680]There's some example prompts
[03:22:30.830]but you don't have to use them.
[03:22:31.990]Feel free to weave in expectancies and consent,
[03:22:35.080]if that makes sense to you from this morning.
[03:22:37.120]But I think it's just an opportunity to look
[03:22:38.390]at some of the data.
[03:22:39.223]And again, try to work from the research findings,
[03:22:41.930]and say: What do these findings mean?
[03:22:44.830]And there's a lot of different things you could talk about
[03:22:46.650]so kind of practice that skill of,
[03:22:48.650]let's try to find something that we can go with for awhile
[03:22:51.150]and that doesn't mean we're gonna talk about every issue.
[03:22:53.060]But I think it is when you sit down
[03:22:55.850]and look at a lot of data that there's too much of it,
[03:22:58.510]you have to make some choices.
[03:22:59.970]And I think that's a group skill
[03:23:01.470]that we all need when we're looking at data together.
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