Debugging Misconceptions about Arthropods
The United States public has profound misconceptions about insects and terrestrial arthropods. These misconceptions are often learned at an early age and may be linked to poor practices like the overuse of pesticides and unnecessary fear and disgust of insects. Golick will share some of his lab’s research on arthropod misconceptions and share teaching and interventions that have been developed to improve knowledge and conservation practices about insects. He will also share how you can scale up learners’ understanding of larger complex issues through “tiny” misunderstandings about arthropods.
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[00:00:00.780]The following presentation is part of
[00:00:02.790]the Agronomy and Horticulture Seminar Series
[00:00:05.820]at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln.
[00:00:08.340]All right, good afternoon, everyone.
[00:00:10.050]Thank you so much for joining us.
[00:00:11.910]I appreciate seeing you all here this afternoon.
[00:00:15.000]So it is my great honor to welcome Dr. Doug Golick.
[00:00:21.210]So, Dr. Golick is an entomologist and science educator
[00:00:23.850]at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln.
[00:00:26.040]He earned his PhD in education
[00:00:28.080]from the University of Nebraska-Lincoln in 2005.
[00:00:31.170]He worked in Faculty Instructional Improvement for six years
[00:00:35.010]at the University of Kansas
[00:00:36.390]before returning to Nebraska in 2012.
[00:00:39.390]Can't get enough of this place.
[00:00:41.856]Can't get enough
[00:00:42.689]of this place.
Oh yeah, no,
[00:00:43.522]they can't get rid of me, I guess.
[00:00:44.355]I know, I love Nebraska, too.
[00:00:45.840]I've been here for 15 years and can't get myself to leave.
[00:00:49.080]So currently Doug is an Associate Professor of Entomology
[00:00:51.900]at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln,
[00:00:53.340]where he teaches courses
[00:00:54.480]on Science Presentation and Communication Methods,
[00:00:57.180]Using Insects in Science Instruction,
[00:00:59.760]and developing distance-delivered courses.
[00:01:03.300]In addition to teaching,
[00:01:05.370]he conducts educational research on using beneficial insects
[00:01:08.820]to teach and promote science literacy,
[00:01:11.340]pollinator conservation education,
[00:01:13.140]and science learning in formal and informal environments.
[00:01:17.250]So Doug strives to connect
[00:01:18.780]his teaching and research activities
[00:01:21.210]to K through 12 classrooms
[00:01:23.070]through sustained educational programming.
[00:01:25.740]For a semester he served as a scientist in residence
[00:01:29.040]in an elementary art classroom.
[00:01:31.530]I would encourage you to ask him more about that.
[00:01:34.500]And he also co-created several large scale
[00:01:36.960]and immersive educational programs
[00:01:38.700]like the Milkweed in the Classroom program
[00:01:40.950]that has engaged over 2000 elementary students
[00:01:44.340]across nine Midwestern states.
[00:01:47.670]Dr. Golick has 34 publications,
[00:01:49.650]19 of which are peer-reviewed journal articles,
[00:01:52.590]and he received the UNL CASNR College
[00:01:55.380]Distinguished Teaching Award in 2020.
[00:01:58.020]He also serves as the Chair
[00:01:59.460]of the Education and Outreach Committee
[00:02:01.110]of the Entomological Society of America.
[00:02:04.050]And he has served as President and board member
[00:02:07.560]of the Nebraska Academy of Science.
[00:02:10.770]So, without further ado, thank you so much, Doug,
[00:02:13.410]for joining us today.
[00:02:14.243]We're very excited to hear what you have to share with us.
[00:02:17.029]Great, thanks for your introduction.
[00:02:18.433]I think I grabbed that from some award
[00:02:21.210]I was up for last year.
[00:02:22.890]They asked for bio.
[00:02:23.790]It's like I don't have these laying around,
[00:02:25.590]so you always have to grab something you already have.
[00:02:28.470]Well, thank you for the invite, Christine,
[00:02:30.540]and for the department here.
[00:02:33.480]Every time I'm invited I have this anxiety like,
[00:02:35.250]what am I gonna present that's new.
[00:02:37.050]What am I gonna do that is interesting?
[00:02:39.420]And I was just telling a student that I met here today,
[00:02:43.650]why can't I just present something
[00:02:44.940]I've already presented on before?
[00:02:46.080]So I was literally finished up the last little bit.
[00:02:49.680]I'm not gonna guarantee there are no mistakes
[00:02:53.070]in anything here, anything that's written up here,
[00:02:55.500]'cause I finished up about 2:45 today,
[00:02:59.340]right before I came over,
[00:03:01.080]'cause I was trying to think of, okay,
[00:03:02.040]what story do I wanna tell today?
[00:03:04.890]'Cause when you agree to do this (indistinct)
[00:03:06.060]you're like, okay, what is gonna be
[00:03:07.200]interesting to my audience?
[00:03:10.920]Here's the outline today.
[00:03:11.880]And I think I am gonna try to tell a story
[00:03:14.880]through some chapters of research
[00:03:16.290]that I've been involved with
[00:03:17.670]that are along the line of this
[00:03:18.810]misconceptions around insects.
[00:03:21.090]And I have a few different research lines,
[00:03:23.280]but I think this is probably one of the more interesting
[00:03:25.530]and more recent ones.
[00:03:27.240]And I'm gonna try to relate to what you're doing.
[00:03:29.760]I think what we all are trying to do,
[00:03:31.080]especially as it's relates to current events in the world
[00:03:35.940]that we've kind of all faced.
[00:03:36.960]And as we think about our value as a university,
[00:03:40.500]and as our departments, as we face these budget challenges,
[00:03:43.980]and I'm gonna try to tie it together at...
[00:03:48.150]I've put this together at 2:40,
[00:03:49.260]finished putting together at 2:45.
[00:03:51.750]And I like humor.
[00:03:52.920]I like to make fun of myself a little bit.
[00:03:54.420]So you're gonna get a little bit of that today.
[00:03:55.530]We'll have, hopefully, a little bit of time for discussion.
[00:03:57.990]Thank you for being here at 3:30 on a Friday
[00:04:00.690]on a cold day.
[00:04:01.800]I think I wanna be home sleepin' on a day like this.
[00:04:04.830]Oh, my animations didn't work.
[00:04:06.180]Of course they didn't.
[00:04:07.470]All right, so that was my first joke
[00:04:08.520]that this is gonna bomb,
[00:04:09.353]but we're gonna do the joke anyway.
[00:04:13.800]For me, I don't know if anybody's a Gen Xer,
[00:04:16.200]but I remember this other night,
[00:04:17.580]a lot of my stuff is messy,
[00:04:19.260]and I go to my office, it's messy,
[00:04:21.390]if anybody's been in my office.
[00:04:23.130]I just thought the other night,
[00:04:24.225]what's my story gonna be?
[00:04:25.830]How am gonna tie this all together?
[00:04:27.120]Mr. Messy, there's this little series of white books
[00:04:29.280]when I was a kid.
[00:04:30.113]Jeff, did you ever those books?
[00:04:31.560]My wife had a name for 'em.
[00:04:32.897]I don't know what the name was,
[00:04:34.353]but I thought of this last night.
[00:04:35.186]This was my favorite version of the book.
[00:04:37.050]After 40 years I haven't thought of this book series,
[00:04:39.510]but this was my favorite book.
[00:04:41.160]I remember last night when I was puttin' this together,
[00:04:43.020]I was like, of course it was.
[00:04:44.340]This probably negatively influenced me, Mr. Messy,
[00:04:47.040]about how messy this guy was.
[00:04:49.650]I have a lot of different things goin' on,
[00:04:51.270]and I think for me it's always about
[00:04:52.710]tyin' the story together for my promotion committee,
[00:04:55.320]for what I do in my field
[00:04:57.420]to tell a story about sort of the importance of
[00:04:59.730]teaching and learning with insects,
[00:05:00.960]but also our science.
[00:05:02.730]So I'll attempt to do that today.
[00:05:05.940]I think it was mentioned earlier that I served
[00:05:07.710]as a scientist resident art classroom.
[00:05:10.560]My journey here at UNL, I started as undergraduate in 1995.
[00:05:14.400]That'll give you a sense of how old I am
[00:05:15.900]or how old I am not, for some people,
[00:05:18.570]but I came to UNL to be an art teacher,
[00:05:20.790]and that's actually what my undergraduate degree is in.
[00:05:23.220]I got snagged by Leon Higley,
[00:05:25.260]who's still in SNR,
[00:05:26.340]but he was in the Department of Entomology at the time.
[00:05:28.603]I took his I Society course, and he said,
[00:05:30.817]"Why are you one of the few students
[00:05:32.617]"that show up every week to my class,
[00:05:34.537]"even on Friday afternoons and never ditch the class?
[00:05:38.407]"And you sit in the front row."
[00:05:40.860]I said, well, "I'm an art education major,
[00:05:42.907]"and I'm also paying for my classes.
[00:05:44.857]"I wanna learn, so I'm here."
[00:05:46.567]"Oh, I've got a project.
[00:05:48.637]"I need somebody to do some scientific illustration."
[00:05:50.220]He had a grant, he needed some help,
[00:05:51.960]do some scientific illustration.
[00:05:53.070]Happened to be with teaching with insects.
[00:05:55.193]He said, "Why don't you come work for me?"
[00:05:56.026]So he convinced me to come work with him.
[00:05:57.480]Many years later I started doing
[00:05:58.530]some research with his grad students.
[00:06:00.570]I got snagged up by the entomologists
[00:06:02.100]and did for my masters some citizen science
[00:06:04.920]with bumblebees with high school students
[00:06:06.300]around the state of Nebraska.
[00:06:08.610]And I was more, I've always been interested to be a teacher.
[00:06:11.160]Age 12 we did our talent.
[00:06:14.340]In sixth grade you all show your talent of teaching
[00:06:17.910]and showing people how to teach drawing.
[00:06:20.130]And my sixth grade teacher,
[00:06:21.420]I never thought I was great at anything
[00:06:22.710]other than maybe doing artwork.
[00:06:24.270]She said, "You're a great teacher."
[00:06:25.380]And that really stuck with me.
[00:06:27.090]And so I knew from age 12
[00:06:28.666]I wanted to do something with teaching or talking at people.
[00:06:32.460]Like all professors, we like to share our information.
[00:06:35.130]We get excited about the work.
[00:06:37.050]But this is I did this at Calvert Elementary.
[00:06:40.020]Art has always been a big part of what I've done in my life.
[00:06:42.720]It's what's kept me in school, was always good at science.
[00:06:44.820]Never had anybody, science teacher said,
[00:06:46.057]"Oh you should do science,"
[00:06:48.270]until I sort of met up with Leon
[00:06:50.250]and started working for him and got...
[00:06:53.430]I never wanted to be a professor of entomology,
[00:06:55.650]but I wanted to teach, I wanted to learn things.
[00:06:58.740]I wanted to do research in this area.
[00:07:01.470]And I was called back about 12 years ago
[00:07:04.020]to apply for this job at UNL
[00:07:05.430]to do this discipline-based educational research.
[00:07:08.970]There was finally a home for me
[00:07:10.200]to bring an education person in do research
[00:07:12.530]in science in the college ag.
[00:07:14.730]And so I was a hire for that and came back to entomology,
[00:07:17.382]come back from Kansas.
[00:07:19.200]Well a few years ago,
[00:07:21.105]I don't know how my name got mentioned,
[00:07:22.440]but somebody knew that I had done stuff with art
[00:07:24.510]and STEM education and said,
[00:07:26.527]"We've got some funding to bring you out to Calvert
[00:07:28.860]and work with the fifth graders at the time.
[00:07:31.710]And they had a artisan residence
[00:07:33.420]when they were fourth graders,
[00:07:34.380]and they wanted a scientist residence
[00:07:36.330]with all the fifth graders in the art classroom.
[00:07:38.880]So I got to work with Amy Aller Helligan,
[00:07:41.640]and then worked with the whole semester with the kids there,
[00:07:45.749]incorporating science concepts in the art.
[00:07:48.810]We did Suminagashi.
[00:07:51.150]So I worked with the teacher
[00:07:51.983]figuring out how do we incorporate science and insects
[00:07:54.270]into the classroom.
[00:07:55.590]Suminagashi is paper marbling.
[00:07:58.320]And I said, "Hey, that's just like water striders.
[00:08:00.457]"Why don't we do something with the water striders?"
[00:08:01.740]Found some MIT videos.
[00:08:03.600]So that's the surface tension,
[00:08:04.950]taught those concepts to kids.
[00:08:06.090]We incorporated that.
[00:08:07.080]Kids did the artwork,
[00:08:08.340]and then we did collages at the end
[00:08:09.690]from all the different science concepts
[00:08:11.460]we'd incorporated in the classroom.
[00:08:13.170]A bunch of other things with insect.
[00:08:15.000]And this is the final project.
[00:08:16.230]They had an art show.
[00:08:17.063]These are my kids, but not my wife.
[00:08:18.570]That's the art teacher.
[00:08:20.142]I'll have to tell my wife
[00:08:20.975]that I didn't include her in the picture there,
[00:08:23.040]but this is a few years ago,
[00:08:24.810]but I keep finding these opportunities
[00:08:26.790]to think creatively in my teaching.
[00:08:28.620]And for me, from small interactions
[00:08:33.300]from where you get started
[00:08:34.200]can lead to many different things.
[00:08:35.277]And that's part of the discussion today.
[00:08:37.110]I always like to share these stories because
[00:08:38.790]many of us have started...
[00:08:40.290]Some of you have always known you wanted to be
[00:08:42.390]where you are now,
[00:08:43.590]but for many other people they didn't know
[00:08:46.551]the path, where your choice is by accident,
[00:08:50.190]by who you are inspired by,
[00:08:52.260]you end up in different places, right?
[00:08:53.910]And especially with students in the audience,
[00:08:56.640]I think it's always important story to tell.
[00:08:58.500]So for me, I've always thought differently about science.
[00:09:00.360]I'm coming from a different angle.
[00:09:02.430]And I've always been kind of fascinated
[00:09:05.040]by this idea of how do people,
[00:09:06.840]where do people mess up in their thinking about science?
[00:09:10.140]I've done a lot of work with pollinators over the years.
[00:09:11.820]Bumblebees are my insect.
[00:09:13.800]I've loved bumblebees since I was a masters student here
[00:09:15.990]working with the high school students.
[00:09:17.880]And it always fascinated me.
[00:09:18.990]People have so many misconceptions about bumblebees.
[00:09:22.440]I did when I was first asked to come on the project.
[00:09:24.307]"Hey, do you wanna work with bumblebees?"
[00:09:25.560]Marian Ellis many years ago asked me, I said, "Nope."
[00:09:27.930]Because the first thing I thought is,
[00:09:29.010]who the heck wants to get stung?
[00:09:29.940]Actually didn't think it,
[00:09:31.170]I think I was thinking double hockey sticks in the end.
[00:09:33.537]Who the heck wants to work with bumblebees?
[00:09:35.546]Who wants to get stung many times?
[00:09:36.930]Bumblebees don't have a behavior sting away from the nest.
[00:09:41.010]They will, if you're bothering their babies,
[00:09:43.170]bothering the nest.
[00:09:44.250]They have this instinct to go after you
[00:09:48.240]if you're threatening the nest and you disturb them.
[00:09:51.030]Otherwise, guess what?
[00:09:52.020]They're not come gonna come sting you away from the nest.
[00:09:53.640]They don't have that behavior.
[00:09:54.930]But people are fearful of things like stinging insects.
[00:09:57.690]That's a learned behavior.
[00:09:58.920]And guess what?
[00:09:59.753]There are 4,000 species,
[00:10:00.990]known species of bees in North America,
[00:10:03.210]and only a few of those have a defensive behavior.
[00:10:05.040]'Cause there's only a few of those living colonies.
[00:10:06.810]Most bees are solitary or live in small aggregates
[00:10:09.570]and they don't defend the nest.
[00:10:12.090]Only females have a stinger.
[00:10:13.740]Males, they're drones.
[00:10:15.660]They don't have a stinger.
[00:10:17.010]The stinger is a modified egg-laying device,
[00:10:19.260]also doubling as a stinger.
[00:10:22.350]So only the women are dangerous.
[00:10:24.210]Females are dangerous.
[00:10:28.350]My daughter says I can tell that joke.
[00:10:31.140]So I'm fascinated by these misconceptions,
[00:10:33.720]where'd we go wrong?
[00:10:34.560]And sometimes I think the challenge today is
[00:10:38.430]where we are in the world people don't understand science.
[00:10:41.490]They have these long-standing beliefs
[00:10:44.778]about what we do as scientists, what we understand,
[00:10:49.320]where we go wrong in science,
[00:10:50.760]why we have two studies that say the exact opposite
[00:10:53.910]with different results.
[00:10:54.810]They don't understand how science works.
[00:10:57.300]I pulled up some, and there's,
[00:10:59.220]this is some old literature,
[00:11:00.270]but I pulled this up for a reason,
[00:11:01.620]because it's really easy to understand.
[00:11:03.030]This is a literature done by the NRC
[00:11:08.040]on science teaching reconsidered for undergraduates.
[00:11:11.340]And this is an older publication,
[00:11:12.810]but I like this one 'cause it's kind of easy to understand.
[00:11:15.120]Here are the types of misconceptions,
[00:11:17.550]categories of misconceptions they came up with in 1997.
[00:11:20.670]Now this has been updated,
[00:11:22.380]but I think we can figure these out.
[00:11:26.370]You start with something, hey,
[00:11:27.870]you got it wrong from something you already know before.
[00:11:34.950]So non-scientific beliefs would be
[00:11:37.080]things that aren't science-based, right?
[00:11:39.270]That's not how science works.
[00:11:40.650]It's more like a myth.
[00:11:44.070]totally got it wrong, that's how that concept works.
[00:11:46.230]Vernacular, that's language based type things, right?
[00:11:49.470]Misuse of language.
[00:11:52.770]I think this one in modern times is pretty much dropped.
[00:11:55.860]They call it somethin' else.
[00:11:56.820]It's just a barrier to understanding of the concept.
[00:11:59.190]No longer exists.
[00:12:01.980]You might argue that these two
[00:12:03.210]are more similar than different.
[00:12:06.180]But totally wrong.
[00:12:07.013]That's completely nonfactual.
[00:12:10.560]Now we call that misinformation today.
[00:12:13.800]But that's a way of categorizing misconceptions.
[00:12:19.080]The question I wanna pose to you,
[00:12:22.920]one of the questions I wanna pose to you today is
[00:12:24.120]do misconceptions matter?
[00:12:33.660]Jeff, you're gonna appreciate this.
[00:12:35.340]A common misconception is that we swallow 1,000 spiders
[00:12:39.320]in a year or 100 spiders or 50 spiders a year in our sleep.
[00:12:44.436]This picture is pulled from the Reader's Digest.
[00:12:46.620]It's a great story.
[00:12:47.700]Reader's Digest doesn't exist in paper form,
[00:12:49.500]but it exists online.
[00:12:50.430]'Cause guess what?
[00:12:51.630]People have TV guide.
[00:12:53.760]I put this source up for you.
[00:12:56.100]This is an old...
[00:12:57.720]This rumor, this myth of you swallow spiders
[00:13:01.500]was put together in 1954 from an article,
[00:13:04.740]journal article someone put together,
[00:13:06.570]I don't know where they got it from,
[00:13:07.470]probably some old tale,
[00:13:09.810]and it was brought back up when email,
[00:13:12.390]internet was really young in 1993, by somebody,
[00:13:15.330]to see if they could spoof people on the internet.
[00:13:17.880]That's where this originally comes from, 1993.
[00:13:19.920]And this has been spread since 1993.
[00:13:22.746]And the person that originally wrote it,
[00:13:24.840]and that they wrote this article in Reader's Digest,
[00:13:27.210]and this person helped write the article.
[00:13:28.830]Yeah, I came up with it just to see
[00:13:29.940]if people would be fooled.
[00:13:31.500]Do we know anything in modern times
[00:13:32.730]where people wrote fake stuff to fool people?
[00:13:37.470]You know there are government agencies
[00:13:38.970]that actually do that as well?
[00:13:40.170]CIA does it all the time.
[00:13:41.310]They get on there.
[00:13:42.143]I'm not a conspiracy theorist, but it happens.
[00:13:44.160]Even our government agencies do that as well.
[00:13:46.710]So this happens all the time, 'cause people are gullible,
[00:13:49.260]or they don't understand something.
[00:13:50.640]They don't investigate things on the surface.
[00:13:53.220]Does that logically make any sense
[00:13:55.200]that you would swallow thousands of spiders every year?
[00:13:58.380]You've heard that one before.
[00:13:59.213]Anybody heard that one before?
[00:14:00.960]Yeah, and it grosses people out.
[00:14:03.870]That one has done more to make people afraid of insects,
[00:14:06.420]spiders, and probably a lot of other things
[00:14:08.340]you would think of.
[00:14:11.460]So maybe that matters.
[00:14:13.350]But are people gonna die from that misconception?
[00:14:17.880]So my question to you, another question to you,
[00:14:19.590]is which misconceptions matter if they do matter?
[00:14:22.860]Which ones matter in your field of study?
[00:14:26.700]In your courses?
[00:14:28.800]And in your community?
[00:14:29.700]And when I mean community,
[00:14:30.600]think locally and then broadly, or global community as well.
[00:14:34.470]Country, global community, regional community.
[00:14:38.580]Those are our questions today.
[00:14:40.049]We're gonna come back to these.
[00:14:40.882]So be thinkin' about those.
[00:14:43.646]I'm gonna show some old work, about six years old,
[00:14:46.470]but it's gonna lead up to this.
[00:14:47.310]I'm gonna run through this pretty fast.
[00:14:49.260]Keep us on time.
[00:14:50.303]'Cause I got several studies to show
[00:14:51.570]that are kinda interlinked.
[00:14:53.310]So I've done work with pollinators.
[00:14:54.750]I've always been really fascinated
[00:14:55.890]about how people learn different aspects
[00:15:00.150]about pollinator conservation.
[00:15:01.320]It's a lot of work that I do.
[00:15:03.510]And in my field of entomology, believe it or not,
[00:15:06.990]until very recently, very little work has been done,
[00:15:09.810]rigorous good work has been done
[00:15:12.600]on thinking about conservation,
[00:15:16.380]pollinator conservation from the human dimension side.
[00:15:18.810]A lot of the work has been borrowed from other fields,
[00:15:22.080]or somebody like me, like an entomologist,
[00:15:24.960]might do a pre-post study,
[00:15:26.490]but not look at it as far as doing a,
[00:15:30.360]doing what a cognitive scientist would do
[00:15:32.130]as far as testing items,
[00:15:33.750]looking at the cognitive science behind those items,
[00:15:36.720]and doin' reliability and face validity on those,
[00:15:44.340]or even beyond, constant validity
[00:15:46.890]on those actual test items.
[00:15:49.800]We don't even know where people start,
[00:15:52.200]or didn't a few years ago,
[00:15:53.250]on their basic knowledge of pollinators,
[00:15:57.900]how pollination works, and pollination systems.
[00:16:01.560]So I've been kinda interested in this question
[00:16:03.690]for quite a bit of time,
[00:16:04.523]because I've been doing work with pollinators
[00:16:06.013]for over 20 years.
[00:16:07.860]We know that for a lot of people,
[00:16:11.100]when they're dealing with conservation of anything,
[00:16:13.470]whether it's plants, pollinators, animals, wildlife,
[00:16:18.570]there's different aspects that matter.
[00:16:20.880]We've got societal pressures.
[00:16:22.020]We've got basic biology.
[00:16:24.300]We've got understanding of science
[00:16:25.800]and what you need to do to conserve 'em.
[00:16:27.000]We've got basic conservation principles, economics.
[00:16:30.540]There's all kinds.
[00:16:31.373]It's a systems approach in order to help
[00:16:34.470]deal with that issue of conservation.
[00:16:36.540]And depending upon your role, and this guy's gone now.
[00:16:38.263]I can tell you this is slides a few years old.
[00:16:41.100]He's now Florida, I think.
[00:16:42.600]Florida, Florida, right?
[00:16:43.530]University of Florida.
[00:16:44.363]One of the Floridas, and they've kept him there.
[00:16:48.150]In your brain, so I do, my training's
[00:16:50.280]in educational psychology,
[00:16:52.830]cognitive science, from that side of things,
[00:16:55.050]you've got, in your brain right now,
[00:16:56.067]you have to imagine somewhere in there
[00:16:57.840]in your neural networks,
[00:16:58.770]you have these neurons that are connected.
[00:17:00.360]You've got a sliver, whatever it is, I don't know.
[00:17:04.110]I like to think of things as like this
[00:17:05.700]pea size thing of pollination knowledge.
[00:17:08.010]I don't know what it is in your head,
[00:17:09.660]but everybody has something there.
[00:17:12.420]I have a good idea.
[00:17:13.290]We're gonna get that in a minute what most people's is.
[00:17:15.960]But you have that there.
[00:17:17.580]In order for somebody to deal with pollinator conservation
[00:17:20.610]or deal with pollinators in their roles,
[00:17:23.010]they need different,
[00:17:24.390]they need different bits of information.
[00:17:25.800]Maybe a policymaker needs to know
[00:17:27.969]who do I need to get involved in this
[00:17:30.480]in order to do a good job of pollinator conservation?
[00:17:32.340]Who do I need to give money to?
[00:17:35.340]A family, there's my kids from several, several years ago.
[00:17:38.370]Maybe a mom needs to know what do I need to do
[00:17:41.528]to not spray my yard
[00:17:43.050]to kill the pollinators or hurt my kids?
[00:17:45.630]Farmer, what do I do to also protect my plants
[00:17:49.560]to produce my crop but also not harm the environment
[00:17:51.780]and pollinators also?
[00:17:54.150]what are pressures from EPA and other agencies
[00:17:57.870]that I need to do to protect wildlife
[00:18:01.740]and also make a profit?
[00:18:06.390]We don't quite know...
[00:18:08.550]There are different bits of knowledge for everybody.
[00:18:09.750]We don't quite know what everybody's situation is.
[00:18:12.120]But that differs by occupation and by situation.
[00:18:16.050]But we know all that information
[00:18:20.160]might involve many of these things and more.
[00:18:22.410]And there's different interactions to each of these things.
[00:18:25.260]It's super duper duper complex.
[00:18:28.740]I don't know if any of you work in the human dimensions
[00:18:30.360]of any of your fields,
[00:18:32.370]but it is a lifetime of work,
[00:18:34.020]and it's been going on for over
[00:18:35.790]a couple hundred years, actually.
[00:18:37.230]And recently has it been a hot topic in all of your fields.
[00:18:41.400]That's why USDA, for example,
[00:18:43.830]every project has an extension component
[00:18:46.410]and/or education component along with the research.
[00:18:48.810]'Cause they recognize doesn't do any good
[00:18:50.520]to do the research if you can't get to people
[00:18:52.260]and also investigate some of these aspects.
[00:18:54.990]So, my point here is
[00:18:58.620]this is a super complex issue.
[00:19:01.650]So we, in my experience, when you ask people about bees,
[00:19:09.240]especially when the Colony Collapse Disorder
[00:19:10.830]started about 2008.
[00:19:12.120]Anybody familiar with Colony Collapse Disorder?
[00:19:13.800]Bees were dyin'.
[00:19:15.400]When I asked people,
[00:19:17.670]people would ask me the question,
[00:19:20.250]how are the bees doin'?
[00:19:22.440]They would say, "How is the bee doin'?"
[00:19:23.910]And you know what bee they were talkin' about?
[00:19:29.190]You ask people would bee they're imagining,
[00:19:30.780]it's the honeybee.
[00:19:32.280]Since we did this study, I'm gonna show you next,
[00:19:34.866]there's a lot of work to be done this area.
[00:19:36.420]And usually they're thinkin' exactly of the honey.
[00:19:38.460]Honeybees are a managed bee
[00:19:39.630]brought over from Europe in the 1600s.
[00:19:42.330]It's been here a long time, it's already done its damage,
[00:19:46.110]Done all the good things it's doin', too.
[00:19:47.400]It does a lot of good things,
[00:19:49.088]associated with their crops as well.
[00:19:50.724]What do they think of this thing?
[00:19:51.557]There's missing out on a lot of the other insects.
[00:19:53.250]So we know people on the surface
[00:19:55.500]don't know a lot about pollinators,
[00:19:56.820]don't know a lot about pollination.
[00:19:58.890]But we need a baseline.
[00:20:00.390]For the work I was doin', hey,
[00:20:01.350]we don't know where people are starting.
[00:20:03.030]How do we even develop an instrument
[00:20:04.590]that measures pre-post change in extension
[00:20:07.080]if we don't know where people are starting at baseline?
[00:20:09.330]How do I even know what questions to ask
[00:20:11.310]if we don't know where people are starting?
[00:20:13.230]What is even a framework of pollination knowledge look like?
[00:20:15.990]So we decided Jenny Dauer who's over at SNR,
[00:20:19.860]myself, and a couple grad students at the time,
[00:20:22.853]who's now in the Department of Entomology faculty,
[00:20:25.440]and Erin Ingram, who's over in BSE,
[00:20:27.840]who's Dr. Erin Ingram,
[00:20:30.330]who was a grad student of mine at the time as well,
[00:20:33.300]decided to do this study
[00:20:34.470]and look at pollination systems knowledge.
[00:20:36.720]And what we did,
[00:20:37.770]interview undergraduate students.
[00:20:40.500]And we interviewed 16 undergraduate students
[00:20:44.190]and two experts and actually added a third.
[00:20:46.440]16 doesn't sound like a lot,
[00:20:47.850]but when you do interviews
[00:20:49.440]and do pretty thorough interviews, it's a lotta data.
[00:20:51.870]We do what's called saturation,
[00:20:53.220]as we do as many interviews we think we need
[00:20:55.500]until we get similar answers or the same answers.
[00:20:57.660]So I'll show you the study here.
[00:20:58.620]This study's a few years old.
[00:20:59.580]We were able to publish it,
[00:21:01.140]Journal of Environmental Education Research,
[00:21:04.770]and we came up some questions in talking to experts
[00:21:07.290]that we thought would ask questions about pollinators,
[00:21:10.950]how pollination works, without being biased,
[00:21:14.610]and telling 'em how pollination works.
[00:21:16.620]How do you ask a question about pollination?
[00:21:19.050]Without asking, hey, how does...
[00:21:21.630]You know, pollen helps a plant pollinate.
[00:21:24.240]How does that work?
[00:21:25.710]We don't even know if people know what the characters
[00:21:28.020]or what the features are of pollination,
[00:21:29.163]what the actors are of pollination.
[00:21:31.440]So we asked the question,
[00:21:32.400]how's an apple tree produce an apple?
[00:21:35.430]So you have to think and and experiment.
[00:21:37.380]We tested this.
[00:21:38.213]Think, well, what's a good question to ask?
[00:21:39.120]How do we not give it away?
[00:21:40.470]The answer away in these interviews?
[00:21:43.200]So we thought we'd use undergraduate students,
[00:21:46.680]'cause they're easier access
[00:21:48.870]to maybe a higher than average public.
[00:21:50.310]So supposedly our students know a lot,
[00:21:51.960]because they're taking your classes
[00:21:53.610]in Agronomy and Horticulture,
[00:21:55.200]they're taking our classes in Entomology, maybe.
[00:21:57.300]They're taking SNR classes,
[00:21:58.500]so that's where some of the students came from.
[00:22:01.050]And then we decide to do this interview process.
[00:22:02.940]Maybe you can't see this here very well on the screen,
[00:22:04.380]but this is kind of the,
[00:22:05.213]formulate interview question, interviews.
[00:22:06.840]We did transcription and verification.
[00:22:09.000]We read through them,
[00:22:10.080]did group discussion, we coded them blind,
[00:22:12.390]many sessions, to figure out if we could
[00:22:14.190]make sense of their responses.
[00:22:16.860]Are they saying this?
[00:22:17.730]What do they mean?
[00:22:18.563]Are they being biased here?
[00:22:19.440]They do not understand this question?
[00:22:21.750]That kind of thing.
[00:22:22.710]We came up with themes.
[00:22:23.880]Came up with the framework and the formulated management.
[00:22:26.070]I'll show you what we came up with.
[00:22:29.010]We decided, and actually Jenny Dauer
[00:22:30.540]was kind of instrumental in this, in this part,
[00:22:33.210]structure behaviors and functions.
[00:22:34.590]How do we explain their answers?
[00:22:35.910]We use an SBF.
[00:22:37.080]So talking about structures of the plants,
[00:22:41.280]of the pollinators, of the system itself.
[00:22:44.100]The behaviors of pollinators, the mechanism.
[00:22:46.170]This has been used quite a bit in other fields,
[00:22:48.510]in environmental science and biological sciences.
[00:22:50.930]And the functions, roles or outputs of the systems.
[00:22:53.280]Sort of hanger hat on their responses and see if that fit.
[00:22:58.410]And it did seem to fit for this particular framework.
[00:23:02.400]And so here's some of the questions.
[00:23:03.570]I mentioned that how does an apple tree produce an apple?
[00:23:05.820]So we sat these students down in interviews,
[00:23:07.950]conducted about a half hour to 45 minute interviews.
[00:23:11.100]You mentioned pollination.
[00:23:11.970]Can you describe that process?
[00:23:12.960]We had sort of followup questions
[00:23:14.400]if they talk about pollination.
[00:23:16.380]What do you think the purpose of pollination is?
[00:23:18.660]Sometimes they wouldn't mention pollination,
[00:23:20.190]so we wouldn't have followup questions for that.
[00:23:23.280]List some kinds of plants that need pollination.
[00:23:25.140]Those kinda things.
[00:23:25.973]That's a string of one particular question.
[00:23:27.450]These are semi-structured interviews.
[00:23:28.920]So if they went off a little bit,
[00:23:30.180]can you tell me more about it
[00:23:31.348]maybe is the response.
[00:23:34.200]You're gonna love some of the response here in a minute.
[00:23:35.550]What do bees need to survive.
[00:23:37.620]We wanna know about what bees need to survive.
[00:23:39.180]What are the actors here?
[00:23:40.530]What other things might pollinate?
[00:23:42.450]Do pollinators have an impact on the environment?
[00:23:44.730]Is there anything that you can do to help pollinators?
[00:23:47.160]Can you think of any ways that having
[00:23:48.270]less pollinating insects might influence humans?
[00:23:50.520]You know any policies or laws?
[00:23:51.750]This is one I wanted in here,
[00:23:53.040]'cause it's a societal thing, right?
[00:23:55.740]You go a little bit further above,
[00:23:58.290]people we are involved,
[00:23:59.370]we do things beyond just planting plants.
[00:24:02.730]Number one I knew from experience,
[00:24:04.380]and even from our future research,
[00:24:06.210]number one thing people mention
[00:24:07.080]if they wanna help pollinators.
[00:24:07.913]What do they respond to?
[00:24:10.770]People get that,
[00:24:11.603]but they don't even know what kind of plants to plant.
[00:24:13.740]I'm planting flowers.
[00:24:15.900]Anybody deal with prairies or flowers here?
[00:24:19.620]It isn't just about planting plants, right?
[00:24:21.120]And not every plant's good for pollinators.
[00:24:23.550]They know they plant flowers,
[00:24:24.870]and that's about all they know.
[00:24:27.360]We also gave 'em a crop and said
[00:24:28.560]here's some conservation actions
[00:24:29.760]including things in your yards.
[00:24:32.130]So here's one, spray pesticides at dusk only
[00:24:35.160]is an often-mentioned practice
[00:24:38.040]for reducing risk to pollinators.
[00:24:39.630]If you need to spray pesticides
[00:24:42.090]in your lawn or garden or crop system.
[00:24:45.030]And again, it's more complex than that.
[00:24:46.890]Some are persistent.
[00:24:48.060]Some of 'em provide more toxicity to certain pollinators.
[00:24:52.650]We didn't go that far,
[00:24:53.640]but we wanted to see if they knew anything about that.
[00:24:55.650]Water your yards so your long grass is healthy
[00:24:57.330]for pollinators to eat and live in.
[00:24:59.010]Is that a right one?
[00:25:01.020]This is sort of a distractor here.
[00:25:02.620]We wanna see what people said about that.
[00:25:04.001]That isn't gonna do it.
[00:25:05.880]Long grass has nothing to do with pollinators,
[00:25:07.620]unless your long grass is clover
[00:25:09.390]or something really good for pollinators.
[00:25:11.190]And most of that stuff doesn't need that much water anyway,
[00:25:12.960]around here anyway.
[00:25:14.190]Put a bee box or plant hedgerows.
[00:25:16.800]We don't really have hedgerows around here,
[00:25:18.300]but a bee box would be great.
[00:25:19.320]I do work with that area.
[00:25:20.250]So I want a bee box.
[00:25:22.230]Plant less agricultural crops.
[00:25:25.920]Wanted to see what they said about that.
[00:25:28.680]All right, here's some of the interview responses.
[00:25:30.810]All right, so I'm gonna read these off to you.
[00:25:32.100]I don't expect you to read 'em.
[00:25:32.933]These are funny.
[00:25:33.810]They can be funny.
[00:25:34.920]All right, so our first question is,
[00:25:36.187]"How does an apple tree produce apple?"
[00:25:37.680]This is literally from the transcripts.
[00:25:39.487]"Oh gosh, I have no idea.
[00:25:41.017]"I've never been educated on that.
[00:25:42.427]"The most I've probably been educated
[00:25:43.777]"is like going to the apple tree,
[00:25:45.907]"and I would assume something with seeds
[00:25:48.037]"from within the apple and the tree grows."
[00:25:52.230]Didn't get the, right, seeds?
[00:25:56.843]They're not getting the purpose of pollination.
[00:25:57.787]"Okay, so do you think that pollination,
[00:25:59.287]"yeah, with bees is needed for pollination?"
[00:26:00.453]This is a different one.
[00:26:02.557]"I've never learned anything about how those correlate,
[00:26:04.593]"but I suppose there could be correlation,
[00:26:06.457]"because actually I really don't know."
[00:26:08.610]You see this with people that aren't sophisticated
[00:26:10.620]and understand anything that use words are scientific,
[00:26:12.480]but really don't match.
[00:26:14.580]Very common in sciences.
[00:26:18.360]Maybe I'm doing that today a little bit.
[00:26:20.190]If you're not prepared.
[00:26:22.470]They're just totally thrown off.
[00:26:23.970]They're using correlate when...
[00:26:25.410]That isn't the right word here.
[00:26:27.180]I don't really get it.
[00:26:28.860]Okay, here's another one.
[00:26:29.693]"Can you list some of the kinds of creatures
[00:26:31.177]"that pollinate plants?"
[00:26:32.347]"I think there's been a lot of insects.
[00:26:33.967]"I mean I guess any creature,
[00:26:35.767]"obviously would be more like wildlife out there
[00:26:37.627]"with fur that can transport."
[00:26:39.840]Okay, this is great.
[00:26:40.673]"But I think any creature walks through
[00:26:41.917]"is gonna collect pollen and be able to transfer it.
[00:26:44.197]"Smaller creatures that are,
[00:26:45.030]"I guess if you wanted specifics like bunnies
[00:26:48.217]"or maybe like deer and foxes that have fur,
[00:26:51.247]"are going through fields and flowers."
[00:26:53.970]Now believe it or not, this response is very common.
[00:26:57.240]And I'm gonna show you some studies throughout...
[00:26:58.740]Future studies we do, this is a very common thing.
[00:27:01.987]This one blew us away.
[00:27:04.590]Bears, foxes, deer, those kind of things,
[00:27:06.450]anything with fur can transfer pollen.
[00:27:08.160]Why is that wrong?
[00:27:09.570]Because bees are specialized pollinators.
[00:27:11.730]It doesn't accidentally happen.
[00:27:13.590]There's this fallacy of pollen is,
[00:27:17.280]hey, pollinators aren't specialized.
[00:27:19.560]Anything can transfer pollen.
[00:27:21.630]We'll get to that in a second.
[00:27:23.550]This one blew me away,
[00:27:24.720]'cause I would, as an entomologist,
[00:27:26.370]somebody that was close to bees never get that.
[00:27:28.170]This is why you do studies like this.
[00:27:31.011]"Can you think of any ways that having
[00:27:32.190]less pollinating insects influenced humans?"
[00:27:33.547]"Oh yeah, maybe plants.
[00:27:34.897]"Plants have to self-pollinate.
[00:27:35.917]"Their genes won't be as diverse."
[00:27:37.860]This is a pretty good one so far.
[00:27:39.697]"You could have all the plants that all same genes
[00:27:41.947]"and then disease comes along and affects the plant,
[00:27:44.797]"and then you have all genotype
[00:27:46.417]"that wipe out a lot more plants.
[00:27:47.583]"And if you would have varied genotypes
[00:27:49.117]"and cross pollination, so what was the question again?"
[00:27:52.110]So there's parts of it that's better, right?
[00:27:54.390]I mean it's not as...
[00:27:55.320]I mean the general idea, you want some diversity there,
[00:27:58.260]but (laughing) we're talking to undergraduates,
[00:28:01.320]a little bit of pressure.
[00:28:02.550]So, you can get some varied responses.
[00:28:05.250]So what do we do with all this?
[00:28:06.330]Well we also asked 'em to draw the process of pollination.
[00:28:09.180]Here's an unsophisticated response, right?
[00:28:13.590]And they don't have to be great.
[00:28:14.423]We said you don't have to be great artists.
[00:28:15.540]You don't have to be Doug Golick, great artist.
[00:28:18.150]Not great artist.
[00:28:19.470]Pollen, and then we said...
[00:28:22.410]Some people actually drew the parts.
[00:28:23.640]So we got a little more sophisticated drawings.
[00:28:26.700]Some of 'em were quite detailed,
[00:28:28.200]like they had taken a class recently
[00:28:29.520]or remembered it or maybe into it.
[00:28:35.280]Some got types of plants, plant structures,
[00:28:37.020]purpose of pollination for the plant, types of pollinators.
[00:28:39.420]These are general things
[00:28:40.253]we started originally coding in here.
[00:28:42.120]What are we seeing?
[00:28:43.620]Purpose of pollination for the animal,
[00:28:44.670]pollinating insect survival needs and influences.
[00:28:46.560]So we just open code this stuff.
[00:28:47.880]Said, okay, what are we seeing here generally?
[00:28:50.160]And then we started looking a little more closely
[00:28:53.160]and looking at a little more deeply.
[00:28:56.430]There's a lot of stuff on relation
[00:28:58.350]between humans and animal pollinators,
[00:29:01.200]the role of pollination environmental systems,
[00:29:03.630]like what's the purpose of it?
[00:29:04.500]A lot of fallacies in there,
[00:29:05.580]but also some correct students as well.
[00:29:07.740]And then a lot here on action-oriented conservation.
[00:29:11.280]Like I can do things to help pollinators
[00:29:13.920]or someone else do something, or societally can help things.
[00:29:16.290]There's different levels of that we found.
[00:29:18.390]And so I'm gonna share these out here in a second,
[00:29:20.940]but we were able to sort of think of
[00:29:22.500]these different 16 student responses.
[00:29:24.960]And again, across the interview,
[00:29:26.250]students would come back to these concepts
[00:29:27.750]throughout the questions sometimes, and they'd be in a race.
[00:29:30.090]So imagine we're parsing through all the responses,
[00:29:32.100]trying to figure out are they saying this here?
[00:29:33.930]And in different places they might mention
[00:29:35.670]some things are related to these different themes.
[00:29:40.710]So overall, relatively good understanding
[00:29:43.250]of how pollinators benefit from pollination.
[00:29:45.240]They get food.
[00:29:46.950]They get shelter, those kind of things in some cases.
[00:29:50.460]Bees need food, habitat, water,
[00:29:55.050]different needs for different species.
[00:29:57.510]Confusion about the purpose of pollination.
[00:29:59.490]Many students, this comes back to the fur,
[00:30:01.530]conflate seed dispersal with reproduction.
[00:30:05.100]Process of reproduction.
[00:30:06.300]Makes sense, right?
[00:30:08.040]They don't understand how pollination works.
[00:30:09.630]It has something to do with seeds, right?
[00:30:10.980]'Cause they're small.
[00:30:12.210]You can think of that.
[00:30:14.790]So it's gotta be something to do with pollination.
[00:30:16.920]So, yeah, they're moving seed around.
[00:30:19.920]And I've got some other work here.
[00:30:22.770]I'll show you a little bit of that.
[00:30:23.730]That continues on with in other studies as well.
[00:30:26.280]And we found pretty high levels
[00:30:27.900]of low to high sophistication.
[00:30:30.030]Also this idea of non-specialized pollinators.
[00:30:33.870]They just don't...
[00:30:35.250]They think anything replacing the other pollinator.
[00:30:40.920]This cracked me up so much.
[00:30:43.470]Humans could be pollinators, too.
[00:30:44.670]That's also mentioned here.
[00:30:45.810]Yeah, you can just walk through.
[00:30:46.643]You can be a pollinator.
[00:30:49.117]Just blow me away.
[00:30:50.040]This idea of self-centric to higher systemic
[00:30:53.520]or societal impacts on pollinators
[00:30:57.180]that we make decisions to help pollinators and can.
[00:30:59.700]So some students have a pretty sophisticated idea,
[00:31:02.070]like we make laws to help pollinators.
[00:31:04.080]We as community can do things.
[00:31:05.400]There is a different level.
[00:31:07.620]And I'll show you how these track with students
[00:31:09.120]here in a little bit.
[00:31:11.490]But there's pretty limited understanding
[00:31:12.660]of existing laws in place at the time.
[00:31:14.400]There are more laws now,
[00:31:15.330]but a few years ago there were a pretty limited number laws,
[00:31:17.430]but they were pretty, I mean if you knew 'em,
[00:31:19.380]they were in the news quite a bit.
[00:31:22.710]And the lowest sophistication
[00:31:24.360]is action-oriented conservation practices,
[00:31:26.730]things you could do to help pollinators,
[00:31:28.590]actually go out and do.
[00:31:29.970]So they knew to plant flowers again,
[00:31:31.740]but didn't have a high level beyond that.
[00:31:34.500]We did heat maps across all the students.
[00:31:36.270]These are aliases.
[00:31:37.170]So don't go back, look 2018 or '17
[00:31:39.606]and try to find the students here at the university.
[00:31:41.130]They're here at the time.
[00:31:41.963]I won't tell you whether they're hort students or not
[00:31:44.010]or agronomy hort students.
[00:31:45.180]Some of 'em were, but I won't tell you which ones.
[00:31:46.890]But they tracked pretty well.
[00:31:48.030]We wanted to know, is this all over the place?
[00:31:50.640]And we've scored their responses
[00:31:53.130]for each of these types of themes.
[00:31:55.170]Pollination knowledge, pollination related to plants,
[00:31:57.060]pollination knowledge of systems and conservation.
[00:31:59.760]Their thematic responses, their knowledge areas.
[00:32:02.760]On a level of 1, 2, 3.
[00:32:03.600]We blind score scored these,
[00:32:04.890]came back and said, okay, does this seem to make sense?
[00:32:07.170]Are you interpreting this the same way
[00:32:09.450]I'm interpreting this?
[00:32:10.530]And we didn't come up with this 'til the very end.
[00:32:12.720]This heat map tracks individual students.
[00:32:14.340]So obviously, students seemed to track
[00:32:17.940]a lot of the questions the same.
[00:32:19.560]So these are high-level understanding of students,
[00:32:21.450]according to their response in that framework, to low level.
[00:32:25.920]That seems to make sense.
[00:32:26.910]So that's our check here, right?
[00:32:28.770]Tells me that we did something right.
[00:32:32.040]So the output of this is this framework
[00:32:34.190]we were able to publish that describes
[00:32:36.120]what low and high level is,
[00:32:37.590]kinda like a rubric of the responses on our example.
[00:32:41.070]And this provides a guide for people
[00:32:43.320]to develop future theory
[00:32:47.010]and also instruments to evaluate
[00:32:49.050]under pollination knowledge understanding,
[00:32:51.060]because this didn't exist before.
[00:32:52.950]And so we gave examples of quotes from interviews,
[00:32:55.440]and then what a 1, 2, and 3 level,
[00:32:58.020]which could be interpreted low, medium, high,
[00:32:59.910]for purpose of pollination for the plants, and so on.
[00:33:06.900]Knowledge of plant structures
[00:33:07.980]limited to simple, visible observable structures.
[00:33:10.440]So what that actually means for low level versus high
[00:33:12.900]in our particular study.
[00:33:18.750]And I won't go too much.
[00:33:21.030]You can read the paper.
[00:33:24.549]what we decided in our paper here is
[00:33:26.340]we need to focus more on students,
[00:33:27.720]'cause they don't understand what they can do
[00:33:28.830]to help pollinators.
[00:33:29.663]So if you're teaching a class on grassland studies
[00:33:32.760]and a module or two is,
[00:33:35.130]or a week or two is on conservation wildlife in that course,
[00:33:39.450]students, it isn't just about
[00:33:41.100]they get they need to plant plants or flowers
[00:33:42.593]to help pollinators,
[00:33:43.680]but they don't go beyond that.
[00:33:45.150]So if you're gonna teach on that subject at all,
[00:33:47.400]you need to go further than that.
[00:33:48.960]You need to go, what can you do as an action?
[00:33:50.310]What can we do as a society?
[00:33:51.690]How does it affect people in that community
[00:33:54.390]to do those actions for help pollinators?
[00:33:56.850]What are good actions?
[00:33:58.440]You gotta teach that 'cause students don't get it.
[00:34:01.140]This framework is helpful, because it didn't exist before.
[00:34:04.290]Lot of the work I'm interested in entomology,
[00:34:05.790]the stuff doesn't exist.
[00:34:07.050]It doesn't exist in our field.
[00:34:08.190]So I'm really interested in that foundational work,
[00:34:10.500]because it allows us to then do things
[00:34:12.240]like development an instrument to test
[00:34:14.190]pre- and post-knowledge like in an extension program.
[00:34:16.860]'Cause I can't do interviews on people
[00:34:18.570]that come to my extension program,
[00:34:19.874]and say, "Hey wait with me for five hours,
[00:34:21.127]"and do these interviews with me before you take off."
[00:34:23.790]And I can't analyze 'em enough time to give to Charlie
[00:34:26.550]in extension on an annual report.
[00:34:28.050]No way I'm gonna do that.
[00:34:28.883]So I mean it's...
[00:34:30.360]Oh my gosh, what did I do?
[00:34:33.222]Did I do anything?
[00:34:35.100]Oh, my fault.
[00:34:36.660]All right, whatever.
[00:34:38.610]I got boring, and it said you're gettin' boring, go on.
[00:34:41.846]It helped us tell what gaps of knowledge in,
[00:34:43.740]which is super important.
[00:34:44.573]What do we need to focus on?
[00:34:46.200]It raised questions about these crazy,
[00:34:48.540]I dunno what else to call it.
[00:34:49.770]That's what I was doing here at 45,
[00:34:51.890]an hour saying what do I call this stuff?
[00:34:53.430]Crazy ideas about pollination and pollinators.
[00:34:55.770]And does some of these things matter?
[00:34:57.420]Do I care if they conflate pollination and seed carry?
[00:35:01.170]Does that matter in the scope of conservation?
[00:35:05.280]And if it does, then when does it matter?
[00:35:08.220]That's the question I was raised.
[00:35:09.210]This stuff is,
[00:35:10.043]this is cool work, 'cause it's neat, interesting,
[00:35:11.700]but does it matter on the scope of affecting what we do?
[00:35:15.540]Why don't you hold onto that for a second?
[00:35:17.520]Okay, so good work, I think.
[00:35:20.880]I don't know how you,
[00:35:21.780]my dad would always say parlay.
[00:35:24.810]I lived a misspent youth with my dad.
[00:35:26.490]He would take me to the bars and the racetracks.
[00:35:30.300]So parlay was the word he used
[00:35:32.670]to do the betting at the track.
[00:35:34.410]But how do you make work go beyond what we do?
[00:35:37.170]So Citlaly Jimenez, who worked with Jenny Dauer,
[00:35:44.384]in SCIL101, she taught that course for a while,
[00:35:45.657]and they decided to include a module for a couple years
[00:35:47.880]on pollinators, as far as a conservation topic
[00:35:51.060]to teach in that course.
[00:35:52.650]And she, as part of her dissertation, developed,
[00:35:56.640]she took our framework and said,
[00:35:57.990]how can we make this multiple choice or true and false
[00:36:00.090]actually do what we're saying?
[00:36:01.440]How to make it a testable thing.
[00:36:02.787]And I said, great, let's do that.
[00:36:04.386]I'm interested in.
[00:36:05.820]Let's take that topic and teach it
[00:36:07.620]and see if we could make an instrument
[00:36:09.360]that actually does this.
[00:36:10.193]So we came up with true false questions with Citlaly,
[00:36:13.170]and tested it.
[00:36:15.537]She just got this published,
[00:36:16.710]this was last year, and did all the item analysis for it.
[00:36:22.110]And the reason...
[00:36:23.490]So here's one question, the process of pollination,
[00:36:25.797]and so we had these different questions,
[00:36:28.020]and it'd be true false statements.
[00:36:29.400]And false is the actually correct answer to this one.
[00:36:31.170]Includes the process of when sperm fertilizes the egg.
[00:36:34.110]That's seems like it's the right answer, but it's not.
[00:36:36.750]It's not sperm.
[00:36:37.830]Not quite right.
[00:36:39.750]True, might only include one plant for pollination.
[00:36:46.650]Includes dispersal seed by the elements wind or water.
[00:36:49.980]There's our seed question.
[00:36:50.940]That comes right from a research,
[00:36:51.960]'cause students conflate that a lot, right?
[00:36:54.660]Occurs in all plants.
[00:36:56.100]So the idea is they respond to these,
[00:36:57.570]and we have a scoreable thing.
[00:36:59.460]So we tested...
[00:37:00.780]I think she had 15 questions with sub-questions like this.
[00:37:03.866]She did an item discrimination
[00:37:05.730]and difficulty analysis there.
[00:37:07.080]Did some pretty cool work with that.
[00:37:09.180]Because I'm interested in work to actually
[00:37:11.760]see if this stuff makes sense.
[00:37:12.810]Not just develop and go, okay,
[00:37:13.643]well it seemed to kind of work.
[00:37:15.178]We're wanting to see if this works.
[00:37:16.890]It seemed to work pretty well, the questions,
[00:37:18.630]so you can't really see this.
[00:37:19.740]But the higher score, when you get to 0.5,
[00:37:23.250]you get pretty even discriminatory analysis.
[00:37:25.710]So a few of these questions you get 0.63, 0.45,
[00:37:28.590]means from high performing and low performing students,
[00:37:31.500]lower 25%, upper 25%,
[00:37:34.110]it discriminates between those students better.
[00:37:36.510]So those are better questions.
[00:37:39.000]And if you get too high, too much close to one,
[00:37:41.700]that means everybody, it's too good.
[00:37:43.350]So it's too hard.
[00:37:46.811]It's killing everybody.
[00:37:48.840]So, we did analysis all those sub-questions
[00:37:51.630]and figured out which questions really matter here
[00:37:53.520]for these different areas.
[00:37:54.870]So some of 'em were horrible.
[00:37:56.490]Some of 'em were great.
[00:37:58.200]And that was one of her chapters here.
[00:38:00.210]This is the kinda work that I like,
[00:38:01.043]'cause then we could take these and figure out
[00:38:02.820]with true false student extension thing and go,
[00:38:04.590]here's some questions you're gonna ask
[00:38:05.550]if you're teaching on this subject.
[00:38:07.350]Now how much work is this?
[00:38:08.580]A ton of work.
[00:38:09.810]I'm not suggesting we do this for everything extension,
[00:38:11.580]everything that we do in our fields,
[00:38:12.720]'cause it's a ton of work.
[00:38:13.920]But it's kinda cool that someone can take this
[00:38:15.600]and go with it.
[00:38:16.980]Believe it or not,
[00:38:18.060]some of these misconception questions here, and guess what?
[00:38:20.070]The students that were the hardest,
[00:38:21.000]here's one of 'em right here.
[00:38:21.960]I think if I can find it real quick.
[00:38:23.700]Duh duh duh duh duh.
[00:38:25.560]Movement of pollination seeds.
[00:38:28.333]0.45, close to that 50%.
[00:38:30.120]That's one of those that show that we talked about.
[00:38:31.440]Dispersal of seed by fur, that same thing.
[00:38:33.660]So some of the misconceptions we saw in the framework
[00:38:35.850]were the ones that discriminate really well here.
[00:38:37.830]So pretty cool.
[00:38:39.420]Those misconceptions matter.
[00:38:41.040]I run an REEU...
[00:38:42.810]We got one more year left on the grant,
[00:38:44.070]it's our fourth year, Beneficial Insects REEU.
[00:38:48.960]We bring students in from around the country.
[00:38:50.460]You guys have one in agronomy and horticulture,
[00:38:51.960]REEU, Research Extension Experience for Undergraduates.
[00:38:56.010]I've had two students work with me.
[00:38:57.840]I co-direct that program.
[00:38:59.880]And I've had two students work me on the issue
[00:39:03.450]of misconceptions in pollinators
[00:39:05.520]and other beneficial insects.
[00:39:07.260]Jenny Dauer, Citlaly, have worked
[00:39:10.290]to help co-mentor those students for a couple years here.
[00:39:14.010]And Xavier Mack and Audrey Harrod,
[00:39:16.560]what's awesome is Xavier's now at Oklahoma State University
[00:39:19.200]and got placed here in the
[00:39:20.033]Plant Science and Entomology Department.
[00:39:22.170]And Audrey just got,
[00:39:23.610]she'll start her assistantship this summer at,
[00:39:26.670]she was at Penn State, now she's gonna be at Georgia,
[00:39:30.060]University of Georgia, in entomology.
[00:39:32.220]So great students.
[00:39:33.960]Those programs are awesome.
[00:39:35.150]I know you've had one here.
[00:39:35.983]We get the best students.
[00:39:36.973]I know you all do, too, so it's great.
[00:39:39.020]So they wanted to work in that area a little bit.
[00:39:41.280]Say hey, I've got this project,
[00:39:42.480]maybe you wanna explore that.
[00:39:43.540]I'll, I'll show you just briefly some of Xavier's...
[00:39:45.780]We haven't published on this yet,
[00:39:46.860]but we're kind of trying to work on that.
[00:39:48.780]We wanted test some of Citlaly's questions
[00:39:50.850]and see if we could use them as the true false questions
[00:39:52.990]to do some teaching in between, some prompts online,
[00:39:56.250]to help reteach.
[00:39:57.420]'Cause misconception, how do you...
[00:39:58.590]So who cares if you know misconceptions
[00:40:00.597]and you can't reteach on those,
[00:40:02.460]and do it in a manner that affects understanding.
[00:40:06.120]So we wanted to take Citlaly's questions.
[00:40:08.040]She had not published on this yet.
[00:40:09.280]She was workin' on it.
[00:40:10.370]We said let's test a couple of these questions
[00:40:11.880]and see if they will work and get you some extra data.
[00:40:14.340]But also see if Xavier can do something with it.
[00:40:17.040]They come here for 10 weeks.
[00:40:18.150]They had to write an IRB QIP.
[00:40:19.470]How do you gather 300 people you need
[00:40:21.780]to get the end you need to do this?
[00:40:23.490]You do it through Mechanical Turk,
[00:40:25.290]which is an Amazon product where you hire people,
[00:40:27.124]pay 'em a buck or two or three bucks to do your survey.
[00:40:29.820]We do distractor questions.
[00:40:31.230]I pay 'em.
[00:40:32.190]You get pretty good results.
[00:40:33.960]You figure out how to kick people out that aren't any good,
[00:40:36.750]that are just doing it for money
[00:40:37.920]and not answering questions right.
[00:40:39.900]You can talk to me more after how you do that later.
[00:40:42.584]380 people with high school education degree
[00:40:46.290]here in the U.S.
[00:40:47.430]Four of Citlaly's questions with 15 sub-questions,
[00:40:50.250]true false questions that were
[00:40:51.420]the big misconception questions,
[00:40:54.210]like pollen is regularly transferred between flowers
[00:40:56.580]by hair on a bee's body, bodies of butterflies,
[00:40:58.770]fur on a bat's face, a cow's nose as they're eating flowers,
[00:41:02.610]which came up in some of our student responses
[00:41:04.590]from our framework paper.
[00:41:07.050]Cow's nose is sticky.
[00:41:08.490]'Cause it transfers everything.
[00:41:09.750]You know that.
[00:41:11.490]What is true about pollination and plants?
[00:41:13.020]Some pollinators have special structures,
[00:41:14.550]all that kind of stuff.
[00:41:15.720]And then we asked them, they did it,
[00:41:17.220]activity between that is a scenario,
[00:41:20.100]and then this is a reflection activity.
[00:41:21.660]We had two between two sets of questions.
[00:41:24.870]Here's one of 'em.
[00:41:25.703]Do all creatures need to have
[00:41:26.640]this type of relationship with plants?
[00:41:28.440]We said bees pollinate, that kinda thing,
[00:41:30.563]as one of our questions.
[00:41:31.620]That happened over many generations
[00:41:33.210]in order to be a pollinator.
[00:41:36.390]And that's related to these two questions.
[00:41:38.068]So we gave 'em these reflective prompts
[00:41:39.090]after they answer questions,
[00:41:40.200]and then we ask 'em the same question post.
[00:41:42.180]So it's over a little bit of time,
[00:41:43.740]over an hour, and we have 'em come back to do it.
[00:41:46.949]And so here are the results.
[00:41:49.020]So McNemar Test,
[00:41:50.190]you look at correct and incorrect answers pre-post.
[00:41:53.100]You wanna see movement here.
[00:41:54.540]You want this to go up.
[00:41:55.557]And if you see a change then you get significant.
[00:42:04.860]Pollen is regularly transferred by a cow's nose
[00:42:06.480]while eating flowers.
[00:42:08.010]Look how many is wrong both times.
[00:42:13.110]You think that misconceptions persistent?
[00:42:20.970]Wrong first time, correct only 21 movement.
[00:42:23.340]So it tells us two things.
[00:42:24.960]That type of teaching, the reflection, isn't gonna do it.
[00:42:27.780]But also that's very persistent.
[00:42:30.060]Same with all these others here, too.
[00:42:32.190]We had six of these that came out of the 15 sub-questions.
[00:42:35.190]And these are ones we've already talked about.
[00:42:36.330]Species from following groups function as pollinators.
[00:42:38.580]Dogs, there's your fur question again.
[00:42:41.910]Is it possible that they're
[00:42:44.108]looking at things like transfer,
[00:42:46.189]different definition than you are.
[00:42:48.390]Yeah, we explained that-
[00:42:49.410]Pollen does get-
[00:42:52.064](voice cutting out)
[00:42:54.893](voice cutting out)
[00:42:56.340]Yes, they fundamentally don't understand how that works.
[00:42:58.830]They don't understand what pollination is,
[00:43:00.210]what pollen is, absolutely.
[00:43:01.830]And so I'll show you how-
[00:43:10.203]But, well, okay, but we'll talk about that in a second, yes.
[00:43:14.220]If pollinator species disappears,
[00:43:15.570]another pollinator species can always takes it place.
[00:43:18.120]Jeff, this should disturb us.
[00:43:19.890]Disturb anybody that does conservation.
[00:43:23.610]Wrong both times, 212.
[00:43:25.620]Why are we doin' what we're doin'?
[00:43:28.350]You care about any species?
[00:43:30.510]Look we can talk about whether some species
[00:43:33.270]are gonna make a difference in the world,
[00:43:35.310]but I can tell you the public doesn't get it.
[00:43:39.360]Anything can take its place.
[00:43:42.090]You look at other literature,
[00:43:42.923]that is a persistent thing in other areas.
[00:43:47.520]We also asked him to justify their response.
[00:43:50.430]This is coming back to your question.
[00:43:52.740]I don't have all his responses up here,
[00:43:54.360]but here's some examples of...
[00:43:56.040]We actually analyzed the response and said,
[00:43:57.607]"Why'd you answer each question this way?"
[00:43:59.820]We had 'em do it for every sub response.
[00:44:01.830]This is why we haven't published this yet,
[00:44:03.300]'cause this will take a lot of time to do it.
[00:44:04.470]Here's an example of species from the following group's
[00:44:06.990]function as pollinators in the ecosystem, dogs.
[00:44:08.940]Wrong, but incorrect justification.
[00:44:10.680]And had incorrect justification.
[00:44:12.270]We asked them to justify their response.
[00:44:13.603]All can move pollen from place to place.
[00:44:16.350]Pollen can be carried on the body of the dog
[00:44:18.000]from one place to another,
[00:44:18.900]allowing pollen to reach the target.
[00:44:20.370]Also dogs can eat fruit,
[00:44:21.840]then spread seeds for their feces,
[00:44:23.130]which could make pollination.
[00:44:24.060]There you go.
[00:44:27.120]Correct, incorrect justification.
[00:44:28.620]They got it right, but the answer's right,
[00:44:30.180]but the incorrect justification.
[00:44:31.020]Dogs aren't in the flowers enough to be a pollinator.
[00:44:33.840]So they're saying there,
[00:44:34.920]well they're just not in there enough,
[00:44:36.180]but they think they can transfer like a good pollinator.
[00:44:39.960]No, they got the answer right, but that's not right.
[00:44:42.030]So's the answers correct with correct justification.
[00:44:44.130]I still don't think dogs are like a pollinators.
[00:44:45.420]They'd have to purposely provide
[00:44:46.620]direct flower to flower contact,
[00:44:47.880]sticking their faces up in the flowers.
[00:44:49.530]That's just not a thing dogs do.
[00:44:50.910]Yeah, that's right.
[00:44:51.750]That's not things they do, not specialized either.
[00:44:54.000]That kind of stuff.
[00:44:54.833]So we did it for all these things.
[00:44:55.740]And so my point here is the kind of work we're doin'
[00:44:58.620]is we're askin' 'em to justify what (indistinct).
[00:45:00.549]And they gave us pretty understandable responses
[00:45:02.220]in many cases.
[00:45:03.210]'Cause I really wanna know what they're thinking here.
[00:45:04.950]Cause that's a part of this.
[00:45:05.783]You can't do this kind of work without
[00:45:07.860]figuring out what people think.
[00:45:08.790]It's really difficult to do.
[00:45:10.260]So we're doing it at the time of the answer.
[00:45:12.510]And try to get that 300 some people to do it, it's tough.
[00:45:15.870]So we had to limit the number of questions,
[00:45:17.910]that kinda thing.
[00:45:18.743]So my point is that's why you do it (indistinct)
[00:45:21.630]so you can understand kinda
[00:45:22.463]why they're exactly what you're...
[00:45:23.910]Are they getting it?
[00:45:25.380]Yeah, technically they can.
[00:45:26.850]But those justifications to me really help a lot.
[00:45:38.580]With people or?
[00:45:46.920]Yeah, yeah, I haven't asked that question yet.
[00:45:48.780]That's a good question.
[00:45:49.613]We're all allergy...
[00:45:50.547]I mean I had a bloody nose earlier today,
[00:45:51.630]so I had a spewing bloody nose.
[00:45:53.700]More than we wanna know here, but,
[00:45:55.290]I was questioning whether it's gonna happen
[00:45:56.760]while we're doing it today, from allergies.
[00:45:58.170]My whole house is that way.
[00:45:59.003]My kids are.
[00:45:59.910]Two of my kids are that way.
[00:46:00.900]But yeah, it's a problem, right?
[00:46:02.190]People wanna avoid being outside.
[00:46:04.320]Audrey did Bewildering Misconceptions:
[00:46:06.210]Examining Erroneous Thinking.
[00:46:07.170]Did some of the work,
[00:46:08.003]looked at Xavier's work from the previous year,
[00:46:12.210]previous two years.
[00:46:13.043]We had COVID year in the middle.
[00:46:14.490]And wanted to look at,
[00:46:16.350]we found a paper on cognitive construals,
[00:46:18.270]erroneous ways of thinking,
[00:46:19.320]underlying ways of thinking.
[00:46:22.560]And a lot of work has been done
[00:46:23.640]even since Aristotle's time, anthropocentric thinking,
[00:46:27.090]thinking that animals think like humans.
[00:46:28.620]We're all anthropocentric thinking.
[00:46:31.770]So people tend to think different ways.
[00:46:33.600]So I said we found this paper and said
[00:46:35.940]this might apply to what we've been doin' here.
[00:46:38.010]Let's look at Xavier's response,
[00:46:39.180]and see if there's anything
[00:46:40.013]in their justifications that track that way.
[00:46:42.570]And then she also was interested in,
[00:46:44.730]'cause we try to let students, as you do probably here,
[00:46:47.430]find their own pathway that interests them.
[00:46:49.050]She was interested in conservation attitudes
[00:46:51.870]and how it impacted some of these things.
[00:46:56.057]And we found a scale of conservation attitudes
[00:46:58.290]and modified that for pollinators a little bit.
[00:47:00.630]Some things were done on pollinators,
[00:47:01.590]but we kinda modified it a little bit for our situation.
[00:47:05.010]And then we did, like Xavier did run some things
[00:47:07.140]through Mechanical Turk.
[00:47:08.940]And so we applied cognitive construals,
[00:47:12.791]and there's three cognitive construals.
[00:47:14.364]And this is from biological sciences
[00:47:15.630]and psychology as well for misconceptions.
[00:47:18.750]Teleological thinking, causal reasoning based on a goal,
[00:47:21.300]purpose of function of whatever thing you're thinking about.
[00:47:23.820]So an example of this would be
[00:47:27.690]pollinators exist solely for the purpose
[00:47:30.450]of making more plants.
[00:47:31.890]So you have misconceptions
[00:47:33.480]or conception about something existing for an end goal.
[00:47:37.440]That's essential thinking.
[00:47:38.310]Instead of assumptions underlying about a concept,
[00:47:41.220]a lot of times in animals and other species,
[00:47:43.560]all species are alike because they're of the species.
[00:47:46.680]So you apply traits or aspects of one thing you already know
[00:47:50.460]to something else.
[00:47:51.990]Or, for example, in our society, all white people,
[00:47:55.470]all black people, all whatever people are this way
[00:47:57.660]because I know it from something else,
[00:47:59.310]which gets us in biases all the time.
[00:48:01.890]And gets us in trouble all the time.
[00:48:03.690]Anthropocentric thinking, we know what that is.
[00:48:06.090]Believe it or not, this exists.
[00:48:07.680]We can think of cases all what we do.
[00:48:09.515]Oh, my cat does this.
[00:48:11.310]He's thinkin' like I'm thinkin'.
[00:48:12.870]People do this all the time for fun.
[00:48:14.100]But we know they don't think like people.
[00:48:17.520]Jeff, this ever happened with insects?
[00:48:20.027]The bee's mad at me, he's chasing me.
[00:48:21.960]Yeah, first of all, he's not a he most of the time
[00:48:23.700]and he's not thinking he's chasing me.
[00:48:25.710]Not thinking that process through.
[00:48:27.960]So, this, we looked at the responses,
[00:48:30.630]looked at the justifications,
[00:48:32.850]and we gave this survey back out.
[00:48:36.420]She tracked and said, yes, these responses
[00:48:38.670]seem to track these justifications from Xavier's work,
[00:48:41.280]seemed to track teleological and it's essential responses.
[00:48:46.080]So what we had,
[00:48:46.950]instead of having everybody write the justifications out,
[00:48:49.140]we gave the same survey on a few of these questions,
[00:48:52.290]And then we gave them multiple choice responses.
[00:48:54.750]Did you choose for a justification
[00:48:57.090]because of this type of thinking?
[00:48:59.040]And here's why.
[00:49:00.000]So we actually went through and and categorized those
[00:49:02.130]in the background.
[00:49:03.690]So we took other people's response from previous year
[00:49:05.490]and their justification and put it there
[00:49:06.780]for why they answered they way they did.
[00:49:07.860]Make it a little bit easier.
[00:49:09.300]We reran it.
[00:49:10.380]And the first thing we did,
[00:49:11.213]she was interested in that conservation attitude instrument.
[00:49:13.530]And guess what?
[00:49:15.840]From 11 of the questions,
[00:49:17.400]and so of the 17 questions we chose to run from the work,
[00:49:21.120]they had a factor analysis that we could use only,
[00:49:24.870]from those 17 questions 11 of those were the ones
[00:49:27.240]that actually tracked well.
[00:49:28.290]So we only need to use 11 of the questions.
[00:49:30.300]So we're able to take Citlaly's questions
[00:49:31.710]for conservation attitudes and boil 'em down to 11.
[00:49:34.920]That really made a difference here.
[00:49:36.750]The first step.
[00:49:38.610]And then we ran,
[00:49:39.960]and we wanted to see if misconceptions were due
[00:49:42.230]to teleological thinking
[00:49:44.280]for the answer justifications,
[00:49:45.750]that the people that took this mechanical survey tracked.
[00:49:50.280]Flat line, is a flat line good?
[00:49:52.500]For seeing here differences?
[00:49:56.640]Most of the justifications from their misconception scores
[00:50:01.050]and conservation attitude score were not due.
[00:50:05.310]So was there better conservationists,
[00:50:06.720]better conservation responses on the misconceptions
[00:50:09.300]and nothing to do with teleological misconceptions.
[00:50:15.060]However, we did find a difference
[00:50:18.120]on existential questions.
[00:50:22.035]As their misconceptions went down
[00:50:24.907]and the conservation scores went up,
[00:50:28.110]or they were correlated that way.
[00:50:29.460]So the point here is
[00:50:31.140]that a higher conservation attitude score
[00:50:33.330]that was associated with fewer incorrect
[00:50:36.591]or fewer essential misconceptions
[00:50:40.470]or incorrect answers due to those kind of misconceptions.
[00:50:45.990]Kinda makes sense, right?
[00:50:46.830]And the literature, after we did this study,
[00:50:48.930]is now showing this a little bit.
[00:50:50.100]A lot of these misconception,
[00:50:50.970]biological sciences conservation are due to those things.
[00:50:55.800]preconceived understanding about a category of things
[00:50:57.900]to other things, very common.
[00:51:00.390]These are the type of questions
[00:51:01.710]we chose from Citlaly's work.
[00:51:05.040]Oh my gosh.
[00:51:06.090]We are at...
[00:51:07.140]We started a little late.
[00:51:08.550]We're about 50 minutes in.
[00:51:10.620]How do we make sense of all this stuff?
[00:51:11.790]That's why this is here.
[00:51:13.380]And that's actually, this is an old slide from,
[00:51:15.540]I was trying to find one.
[00:51:16.373]That's why I was doing hour before.
[00:51:18.450]How do I make this make sense?
[00:51:19.350]Okay, old Victorian slide.
[00:51:23.040]So, film slide.
[00:51:25.830]Yeah, so we got misconceptions.
[00:51:28.551]Got all these issues goin' on.
[00:51:33.750]Do they matter?
[00:51:36.150]They're conflating pollinator, seed dispersal, pollen.
[00:51:39.750]Do you think that happens in your field?
[00:51:41.199]Does anybody know any misconceptions in your field?
[00:51:43.770]Probably some ones you teach every year, if you teach.
[00:51:45.900]Or if you do extension, probably the same ones every year.
[00:51:49.380]We got a problem.
[00:51:51.660]Okay, so I grabbed it.
[00:51:54.540]For my talk today I grabbed the title
[00:51:55.890]from a recent paper we put.
[00:51:56.910]So our society, Jeff Entomologist Society of America.
[00:52:00.240]How do I tell our audience that this stuff is important?
[00:52:03.900]Wyatt Hoback from Oklahoma State University.
[00:52:05.640]Wyatt did his doctorate degree here.
[00:52:07.200]I've known Wyatt for years.
[00:52:08.490]Worked in Leon's lab when I started working there
[00:52:09.960]as an undergrad.
[00:52:11.220]Wyatt's an interesting character.
[00:52:12.330]Wyatt always comes to me and go,
[00:52:13.177]"Hey, we collected data from my students.
[00:52:15.787]"I wanna publish on this."
[00:52:16.980]And my response is, "Well yeah,
[00:52:18.157]"you didn't do it the right way."
[00:52:19.830]So the only way I'm gonna be involved
[00:52:20.970]is if you do it the right way.
[00:52:21.990]It's usually my response back,
[00:52:23.340]and Wyatt either takes off the other direction
[00:52:25.290]or goes, "Okay, I wanna do it the right way."
[00:52:26.640]So Wyatt contacts me and said,
[00:52:28.147]"I collected data from my students on ticks.
[00:52:29.510]"I have 260 students.
[00:52:30.847]"I did this survey.
[00:52:32.167]"How do I publish on it?
[00:52:33.000]So I go, "Well, yeah, you could publish on that,
[00:52:35.107]"but I'm not interested in publishing on all that stuff."
[00:52:36.930]I'm interested in this misconception thing,
[00:52:39.390]'cause one of his questions about misconception about ticks.
[00:52:42.060]The common misconception is ticks jump.
[00:52:44.340]Common misconception is ticks fall out of trees.
[00:52:47.391]Did anybody think that ticks fall out trees to get you?
[00:52:51.170]Jeff, do you think ticks follow out trees to get you?
[00:52:54.413]Oh, you're shaking your head yes.
[00:52:56.010]That's why I was going, Jeff,
[00:52:56.880]do you think that really?
[00:52:58.950]That is not true.
[00:53:00.060]Common misconception is spiders crawl outta your sink.
[00:53:02.790]Did anybody believe that before.
[00:53:03.780]People (indistinct) spiders in the sink.
[00:53:06.383]They fall in there.
[00:53:07.216]They don't come outta your sink all the time.
[00:53:08.580]Cockroaches maybe if you have a major cockroach problem.
[00:53:12.030]Entomology hall, they do crawl over drains (indistinct).
[00:53:15.930]So Wyatt tells me he's got this great data.
[00:53:17.670]I looked at, I go, "Yeah, it's pretty good,
[00:53:18.503]"but you only have a few questions
[00:53:20.195]"I'm really interested in."
[00:53:21.171]I said, What I'm really interested in
[00:53:22.004]"is misconceptions that are persistent in entomology."
[00:53:24.270]Everybody tells us us, we know what they are as entomology,
[00:53:26.730]but nobody's done a study on this.
[00:53:28.290]So I said, "Wyatt, let's look and see what's been done.
[00:53:31.237]"Let's see what these misconceptions are.
[00:53:33.667]"And I wanna look at the worldwide web
[00:53:36.697]"and look at some papers
[00:53:38.557]"and do a meta-analysis on this."
[00:53:40.410]So we looked at sources and gathered
[00:53:42.360]all these misconceptions.
[00:53:44.190]And what I was really interested in
[00:53:45.420]is doing a thematic analysis and misconceptions
[00:53:47.340]about where are the misconceptions are.
[00:53:48.990]Where are they comin' from?
[00:53:50.190]I did not wanna look at these
[00:53:51.180]cognitive construals at this point.
[00:53:52.830]I said where are these misconceptions found?
[00:53:56.250]And who's sayin' this?
[00:53:58.650]So we did that, looked at worldwide web,
[00:54:01.080]looked at all these sites,
[00:54:01.913]and then here's some of Wyatt's tick studies
[00:54:03.480]we published on this a couple years ago.
[00:54:07.290]I'm gonna explain this to you.
[00:54:08.370]I don't like Wyatt's table,
[00:54:09.870]'cause that doesn't make any sense to me.
[00:54:10.770]I would not say he asked a question, is it true?
[00:54:14.190]And it's not true here.
[00:54:15.540]Ticks reside up in trees.
[00:54:16.830]Pre his class, and he teaches insect society course,
[00:54:20.700]and he teaches a lot on risk of different animals.
[00:54:23.100]And he teaches on this topic is direct instruction.
[00:54:26.550]He's poundin', hey ticks do not fall out of trees.
[00:54:29.370]This is stuff we all do in lectures.
[00:54:30.990]Hey, they don't fall out of trees.
[00:54:31.823]Lemme show you they don't fall out of trees.
[00:54:32.760]Here's how you protect yourself.
[00:54:33.750]Over and over again.
[00:54:35.160]They get from grass blades.
[00:54:36.780]They don't jump.
[00:54:37.770]They wait for you to come by,
[00:54:38.610]and their four legs grab you.
[00:54:40.620]They're just waiting for months at a time,
[00:54:41.850]or even a year at a time.
[00:54:45.014]He has some improvement, but guess what?
[00:54:47.130]He still has 40% of the students in his class of 200 some
[00:54:49.470]by the end of the semester that don't get it,
[00:54:52.440]which is still high.
[00:54:54.030]So you know what people do?
[00:54:55.290]They wear hats going under trees.
[00:54:57.000]It's a common thing people do.
[00:54:57.870]I'm gonna protect myself from ticks by wearing a hat.
[00:55:00.174]It ain't gonna work.
[00:55:01.007]'Cause you know what they do?
[00:55:01.840]They come up on your leg and they crawl upwards,
[00:55:03.120]to your head.
[00:55:04.320]That's not protective.
[00:55:05.670]You know we have tickborne disease even in Nebraska now?
[00:55:07.680]Like Lyme disease?
[00:55:08.640]Yeah, not gonna work.
[00:55:09.720]That's a bad thing.
[00:55:11.580]So I was interested in this part, too.
[00:55:12.750]I said that's great, that's cool,
[00:55:13.890]but where are we getting these misconceptions from?
[00:55:15.570]I wanna do analysis.
[00:55:16.403]We thematically analyzed the root of misconceptions.
[00:55:20.100]'Cause I wanna be able to work from this in the future
[00:55:22.620]and go, okay, where are these coming from?
[00:55:24.870]Look at all these (indistinct).
[00:55:26.340]I found a hundred or so misconceptions.
[00:55:28.530]And then we categorized reliable ones.
[00:55:30.330]A lot of these were repeated different places.
[00:55:31.770]We couldn't find a source of them.
[00:55:33.330]They had to come from a faculty member,
[00:55:34.440]had to come from somewhere, university, or paper.
[00:55:36.750]And then we did kind of a categorical analysis.
[00:55:40.920]There's our categories that came up.
[00:55:42.450]Nine of 'em.
[00:55:43.650]Biology and life history misconceptions
[00:55:45.480]about what an insect does.
[00:55:46.530]What (indistinct) what life history is.
[00:55:48.360]Risk to humans.
[00:55:49.560]We had some that were multiple categories.
[00:55:51.510]Here's risk to humans.
[00:55:52.620]Like we were both dual risk,
[00:55:54.540]dual misconceptions about biology and life history
[00:55:56.940]and risk to humans.
[00:55:58.230]Example of that might be
[00:56:00.990]all male mosquitoes feed
[00:56:03.510]and transfer disease.
[00:56:05.040]They don't because they don't feed,
[00:56:07.620]Only females do.
[00:56:08.460]That might be a dual risk there.
[00:56:10.470]And a number of these.
[00:56:11.303]Why is this important?
[00:56:12.401]'Cause it tells us a way to sort of categorize these things.
[00:56:18.480]So, many misconceptions in the bios and life history.
[00:56:22.950]And many of those were dual,
[00:56:24.537]and human health.
[00:56:25.590]Why does that matter?
[00:56:26.970]If you don't understand the biology,
[00:56:28.230]don't understand risk to you in human health,
[00:56:30.570]you got a problem.
[00:56:35.040]Going back in a minute to why misconceptions are important.
[00:56:38.370]Allows us to see patterns in misconceptions
[00:56:39.630]and discuss later the root in entomology.
[00:56:42.390]It reinforces that misconceptions are persistent.
[00:56:44.547]And Wyatt's case with ticks,
[00:56:46.200]even with direct instruction,
[00:56:47.970]because of direct instruction, maybe even.
[00:56:50.760]And we proposed in our paper, here's a need,
[00:56:53.550]we gotta be teaching this.
[00:56:54.570]And not all misconceptions are created equal.
[00:56:57.600]Jeff, what's an important...
[00:56:58.433]What's a misconception entomologists hate about insects?
[00:57:01.890]Give me one.
[00:57:04.110]Are you even listening?
[00:57:05.272]What's a misconception about insects
[00:57:07.140]that all entomologists hate?
[00:57:10.740]That common one.
[00:57:12.450]Well, yeah, what's a misconception about insects?
[00:57:17.100]That common one.
[00:57:18.300]That entomologists correct people on.
[00:57:25.170]Insects have six legs, spiders have eight.
[00:57:29.640]I mean, we care, but in the purpose of
[00:57:31.920]compared to like ticks, risk for ticks,
[00:57:35.209]it doesn't make a difference.
[00:57:36.690]Why are we teaching about that?
[00:57:37.523]That's one we posed.
[00:57:38.670]We also bring up this idea of cognitive construals.
[00:57:39.907]And these are based in probably more persistent...
[00:57:43.590]Understand, the idea of cognitive construals are,
[00:57:45.134]they are ways of understanding the world,
[00:57:48.150]but often they get in our way
[00:57:49.350]of persistent misunderstandings.
[00:57:52.320]Imagine if you misapplied a category of things,
[00:57:56.220]because you think everything,
[00:57:57.570]like existential thinking applies
[00:57:59.070]to all categories of things.
[00:58:00.990]Oh, I learned cows do this, so horses must do this.
[00:58:04.126]Or all insects suck blood,
[00:58:05.700]so every mosquito is bad.
[00:58:08.354]Or mosquitoes are bad.
[00:58:10.530]It's like, well it's any insect
[00:58:11.790]that sucks blood transfers disease.
[00:58:13.380]It's not the case.
[00:58:16.470]So those are important.
[00:58:18.090]Okay, I'm running at the end of my time,
[00:58:19.830]but I do wanna show...
[00:58:21.330]I wanna go to this question.
[00:58:28.770]I'm gonna give you one here.
[00:58:29.730]Why are misconceptions important?
[00:58:30.990]Misconceptions matter when they involve high risk.
[00:58:33.540]That's our argument here, behaviors really matter.
[00:58:39.870]Tick is one great question.
[00:58:40.980]Mosquito behavior in our field.
[00:58:43.170]What's another one?
[00:58:44.130]Anybody else in your field?
[00:58:50.160]This is not gonna work,
[00:58:51.025]'cause I don't have any money in here.
[00:58:53.910]Cost you a lot of money, right?
[00:58:59.160]What national thing did we have happen
[00:59:01.500]that we maybe are over with?
[00:59:04.662](indistinct) I hate to say?
[00:59:08.910]How much misinformation was out there? (laughing)
[00:59:12.240]How many crazy things did you hear?
[00:59:14.310]I mean from all sides.
[00:59:15.810]I mean it's just nut case.
[00:59:17.310]I mean talk about psychological stress on everybody,
[00:59:19.500]besides all the health risks.
[00:59:22.230]Everybody was an expert.
[00:59:23.760]I dunno if you were an expert.
[00:59:24.750]I think we all were experts for a little while.
[00:59:26.190]Then we weren't experts.
[00:59:27.023]Then nobody was an expert.
[00:59:27.856]Then everybody's an expert.
[00:59:30.300]This stuff matters in a lot of cases.
[00:59:33.720]In your field, when you're teaching students,
[00:59:35.880]you probably have persistent things
[00:59:37.626]that get in the way of students learning.
[00:59:41.250]All the time.
[00:59:42.300]Things that come up every year.
[00:59:43.710]Some of those matter a lot.
[00:59:45.150]Some of those matter less.
[00:59:48.390]Understanding the world, to me,
[00:59:49.830]is a tragedy for our young kids.
[00:59:52.770]Tragedy with future decision making.
[00:59:55.170]You don't understand the world,
[00:59:56.190]if you don't have a desire to understand the world
[00:59:58.020]because you think you know it all.
[01:00:00.750]It's a human flaw.
[01:00:01.583]We all are that way to some extent.
[01:00:04.860]Teenagers are all that way.
[01:00:05.693]I have a 13-year-old who now I was awesome and now I'm not.
[01:00:08.760]I'm still pretty awesome, but he knows more than I do.
[01:00:11.310]I did at 13 through 18, maybe even 24, maybe even 30.
[01:00:17.520]But this is super important stuff.
[01:00:23.490]I looked up tick hat, tick protection hat.
[01:00:26.490]This is what I got off Amazon.
[01:00:27.990]First picture came on Amazon.
[01:00:29.460]That is not gonna protect from ticks.
[01:00:30.810]That's a mosquito hat that actually came up from Amazon.
[01:00:32.640]I just grabbed it.
[01:00:33.473]That's what I was doing.
[01:00:34.306]Another thing I was doing right before I came over here.
[01:00:36.300]Might've been the last image I put in today.
[01:00:37.980]Yeah, that's not gonna protect you from ticks.
[01:00:39.180]Look at how much gap is at the bottom.
[01:00:41.310]That came up from Amazon.
[01:00:43.080]Great marketing, but it's not gonna work.
[01:00:45.120]But you know somebody bought it for that purpose.
[01:00:49.500]There are a lot of barriers to this.
[01:00:50.760]I don't wanna go too much further with you today,
[01:00:54.030]'cause the process of changing misconceptions,
[01:00:58.080]called conceptual change.
[01:00:59.370]And there's a lot of debate on how this happens.
[01:01:02.190]I think the common thing now is
[01:01:04.830]you don't ever really get rid of, or throw out these.
[01:01:07.860]One of the old theories was
[01:01:09.660]you get rid of your old knowledge,
[01:01:11.370]the wrong way of thinking.
[01:01:12.300]You just toss it in a bin, you nuke it,
[01:01:13.770]it never comes back.
[01:01:15.450]That's gone forever.
[01:01:16.283]You delete it from your mind.
[01:01:17.400]Mine doesn't work that way.
[01:01:18.390]It hangs out there.
[01:01:19.223]That's why Mr. Messy showed up after 40 years.
[01:01:21.287]Didn't even think about that guy.
[01:01:23.070]It still hangs out there,
[01:01:24.450]and these misconceptions you can tamp 'em down,
[01:01:28.350]you can build new neural pathways and reconfigure things.
[01:01:32.307]And you can help your students do that.
[01:01:33.780]But it's really hard to do.
[01:01:34.890]It still lies there all the time.
[01:01:37.020]There are times when you can learn somethin' new
[01:01:38.640]and shut that off forever.
[01:01:40.290]There are cases with that.
[01:01:41.340]You can be presented with things that help you do that.
[01:01:43.785]But it's hard to do.
[01:01:45.390]Motivation is some of that.
[01:01:46.740]There's all these ways of doing that.
[01:01:51.780]I'm gonna just show you
[01:01:55.620]one you don't wanna do.
[01:01:56.910]One you can do.
[01:01:57.743]People do it all the time.
[01:01:58.775]It doesn't work most of the time.
[01:01:59.608]That deficit model.
[01:02:00.441]Why Wyatt's thing didn't work for 40% of the students.
[01:02:02.850]He was doing the deficit model.
[01:02:04.110]This is a model that most of us choose.
[01:02:06.570]I get in so many grants so many times,
[01:02:07.920]and you know what the people go to?
[01:02:08.850]We'll just teach people.
[01:02:09.750]If they only knew how this works.
[01:02:12.420]COVID, do you know how many times I heard, Christine,
[01:02:14.580]you were on some project with me, right?
[01:02:16.077]And we just need to teach people.
[01:02:17.280]They just need to understand science.
[01:02:18.870]Yeah, 50% of people get it.
[01:02:21.213]The other 50% don't.
[01:02:22.590]There's other barriers to this.
[01:02:24.090]There's beliefs, there's emotions, there's thoughts,
[01:02:26.460]there's preconceived notions
[01:02:28.800]that just teach and telling people isn't enough.
[01:02:31.950]That's the deficit model.
[01:02:32.783]That usually doesn't work.
[01:02:35.190]We've been doin' that.
[01:02:36.856]It works for some people.
[01:02:37.689]It doesn't work for a lot of people.
[01:02:39.570]Challenging existing frameworks.
[01:02:41.220]This is one a lot of people use, like this analogy,
[01:02:43.830]reasoning, bridging analogies.
[01:02:45.960]You present something that relates to something greater.
[01:02:49.770]Do a new situation that tries to
[01:02:52.200]get rid of the misconception you wanna get rid of.
[01:02:54.600]So I do stuff with bumblebees to try to ramp up.
[01:02:57.330]This is what I've told you I would talk about today
[01:02:59.310]a little bit.
[01:03:00.450]I present bumblebees.
[01:03:01.590]Everybody wants to help pollinator.
[01:03:03.090]I teach 'em how science works, how to help 'em.
[01:03:05.100]And they go great, we'll help pollinators.
[01:03:06.540]Okay, now we can do that with climate change.
[01:03:08.010]It's like ramping it up.
[01:03:09.570]So I'm working on a model for these easy situations,
[01:03:11.910]then how we bring it up to more complex issues.
[01:03:14.010]'Cause nobody wants to touch those other issues.
[01:03:17.310]Go talk to people about COVID.
[01:03:18.143]Go talk to people about climate change
[01:03:18.976]and then get these looks.
[01:03:20.070]Have 'em go, yeah, I'm into it,
[01:03:21.633]'cause they're already into it.
[01:03:23.299]I don't even wanna talk to you.
[01:03:24.132]You're some whackadoodle professor.
[01:03:25.320]You know why I tell 'em I'm from Hastings, Nebraska?
[01:03:27.390]You know why I tell people that?
[01:03:28.560]And I'm a normal person,
[01:03:29.700]'cause they don't think I'm a crazy professor up here.
[01:03:32.081]'Cause they instantly have a perception of who we are here,
[01:03:36.090]good or bad.
[01:03:39.330]Cognitive conflict, that's another one.
[01:03:42.000]Show 'em the data that conflicts their knowledge.
[01:03:45.390]And that's one that's commonly used.
[01:03:46.950]Here's something that shows you that you aren't right
[01:03:48.930]or is against what you believe is true.
[01:03:52.020]It's more confrontational.
[01:03:53.190]Case studies, theory, but commonly used.
[01:03:55.860]In SCIL101 they uses quite a bit
[01:03:57.870]in some of the case studies there.
[01:03:59.040]It can work pretty good.
[01:03:59.873]Depends on the student, depends on the situation.
[01:04:02.640]Here's a model, and you walk 'em through the model
[01:04:04.710]to evaluate things.
[01:04:07.830]In all cases, anybody know what metacognition is?
[01:04:10.230]Thinking about your own learning,
[01:04:11.190]thinking about your own thinking.
[01:04:13.500]Reflection needs to happen.
[01:04:14.700]You gotta allow people to do that.
[01:04:15.750]If you aren't thinking,
[01:04:16.583]if you aren't allowing students to do that,
[01:04:18.120]if you aren't allowing people to do that,
[01:04:19.170]forcing them to do it in this process,
[01:04:21.600]they're not gonna get it.
[01:04:23.280]So we often do our extension programming, our teaching,
[01:04:26.190]and we don't allow time for people to reflect on this.
[01:04:29.070]It doesn't do us any good
[01:04:30.030]if you go, okay, I'm gonna teach this model
[01:04:31.530]and then walk away.
[01:04:32.670]You need to walk them through that and go,
[01:04:34.050]I want you practicing.
[01:04:34.883]How's this make you feel?
[01:04:35.716]How is it helping you counter what you know
[01:04:38.460]or is congruent with what you already know?
[01:04:41.490]How does it make you feel?
[01:04:42.323]If you don't walk 'em through this process
[01:04:43.530]it doesn't do any good.
[01:04:44.970]You gotta give people time and train them
[01:04:46.740]how to think about their own thinking.
[01:04:50.760]All right, I think I'm at my time,
[01:04:53.040]but here's some thanks.
[01:04:54.270]I've done a lot of work with great people over the years.
[01:04:56.850]Some former students are now faculty.
[01:04:59.520]We talk about some of these folks,
[01:05:00.690]but I've got a bunch of good collaborators.
[01:05:02.700]A lot of people have challenged my thinking over the years,
[01:05:05.190]and I'm very grateful for that.
[01:05:07.500]I don't always agree.
[01:05:08.790]A lotta times I think I'm right.
[01:05:09.810]Sometimes I still think I'm right with things.
[01:05:11.880]After the faculty do some of these studies.
[01:05:13.290]But they're great collaborators.
[01:05:14.490]Jenny Dauer's been really a great collaborator.
[01:05:17.070]Wyatt has been good.
[01:05:18.360]Wyatt is always a challenge, 'cause I go,
[01:05:19.403]"Wyatt, we can't do that."
[01:05:20.760]But we seem to get along pretty good in that sense,
[01:05:23.490]and he's a good worker.
[01:05:26.070]And some of my colleagues, Louise and Erin,
[01:05:28.620]who were former students and now doing great work here
[01:05:30.810]are just awesome.
[01:05:32.070]As well as REEU students.
[01:05:33.000]I can't say enough about that program,
[01:05:34.107]the REEU students, they're doing great,
[01:05:35.907]and I love to see that they're placed,
[01:05:37.530]and thank you today for tolerating me
[01:05:39.150]another five minutes longer.
[01:05:40.470]We get started a little bit later.
[01:05:42.060]And last person, Tom Weissling.
[01:05:43.620]I'm on CASNR Recruitment Committee,
[01:05:46.110]and Tom did it for me today
[01:05:47.790]so I could come do this talk and finish a little bit later.
[01:05:50.400]So that's it.
[01:05:51.930]I'll put the references up,
[01:05:52.890]and I'll take any questions or you guys can take off
[01:05:55.350]at five o'clock, almost, on a Friday.
[01:06:07.890]Give me a moment, so, (indistinct).
[01:06:15.450]In Wyatt's class, you mentioned there was,
[01:06:19.710]even given the direct learning, a lot of mistaken responses.
[01:06:24.510]So did Wyatt's class have a lab?
[01:06:27.660]Was there any-
It does not have a lab.
[01:06:29.130]Remember it's a survey course for,
[01:06:31.170]he has a ton of students in the course.
[01:06:33.293]And they do a lotta hands-on things.
[01:06:34.950]They don't do that work.
[01:06:36.420]In this particular case,
[01:06:37.253]I asked him sort of what they did, and it's a lot.
[01:06:40.080]We talk about it.
[01:06:41.340]They do activities, they do papers,
[01:06:43.470]they show up and do like,
[01:06:44.880]they have a cultural entomology lesson
[01:06:46.530]where they do cakes, and,
[01:06:47.730]I mean, I've actually observed this class.
[01:06:49.140]It's a cool class.
[01:06:50.580]So I'm just curious,
[01:06:51.870]there's something generalizable about classroom learning
[01:06:55.620]combined with experience-
[01:06:57.750]There is and those techniques I was talking about
[01:06:59.840]at the end is sort, challenging what you know.
[01:07:02.520]Like if I were gonna do it,
[01:07:03.420]I'd take 'em outside and actually have 'em go
[01:07:05.490]walk through those areas or do a tick drag,
[01:07:08.370]and show 'em where the ticks really are,
[01:07:10.110]and actually have 'em shake (voice cutting out)
[01:07:11.790]and they figure out really fast.
[01:07:13.110]You ever go to Pioneers Park?
[01:07:14.850]That place is crawlin' with ticks.
[01:07:16.410]Like my kids come home, I'm like, "Tick check."
[01:07:18.420]My wife's like, "Oh, farm kid."
[01:07:20.310]She's like, "You're an idiot."
[01:07:21.143]I'm like, "No, tick check."
[01:07:23.070]I mean there's ticks on my house, dog.
[01:07:25.110]I mean it's just this, I mean I hate ticks.
[01:07:28.230]But on the other hand, if you challenge someone,
[01:07:31.200]like show 'em, I think they'd do it right away.
[01:07:33.060]They don't have time to do that on OSU's campus.
[01:07:35.550]I mean it's...
[01:07:37.020]I don't know if you've ever been there.
[01:07:38.034]I'm not sure (indistinct) where the building is.
[01:07:39.961]I don't think there's any close to anywhere like that.
[01:07:41.130]But anyway, that's probably what I'd have 'em do.
[01:07:43.050]And talk about a compelling argument,
[01:07:44.850]if you can see where they are and see where they're not.
[01:07:50.252]Again, I don't know if those 212 didn't show up to class
[01:07:52.290]those two days either.
[01:07:53.970]So there's always things that are there.
[01:07:56.070]But direct instruction,
[01:07:57.120]literature says that is kind of the worst way
[01:07:59.580]to do this kind of thing.
[01:08:01.320]Especially overturn a persistent misconception,
[01:08:04.140]which is a common misconception.
[01:08:07.080]And it showed up in our search, too, as well,
[01:08:10.050]I did of the...
[01:08:10.883]It was one of the big ones.
[01:08:16.080]We talk about the misconception
[01:08:17.460]of ticks coming from trees.
[01:08:20.280]First question is, why do people think that?
[01:08:25.889]That's one I heard as a kid, too.
[01:08:27.810]I think it's what I've heard, and which I kind of believe,
[01:08:30.450]is from woody areas.
[01:08:31.462]Lot of people will be in the woody areas, pick up ticks.
[01:08:35.700]And so especially, if you are doing any hunting
[01:08:38.520]or mushroom gathering, you pick up a lot,
[01:08:41.357]'cause it's brushy under a lot of those trees.
[01:08:44.190]So I think that's probably some of it.
[01:08:46.410]Do ticks prefer shade?
[01:08:51.270]No, I don't think so.
[01:08:52.680]I think they're around, no?
[01:08:54.660]Where the animals are.
[01:08:55.920]So especially deer trails.
[01:08:57.720]I think that's probably some of it.
[01:08:58.553]You go in the woods, and deer and mice,
[01:09:02.220]wherever mammals are.
[01:09:03.210]So you walk through woods,
[01:09:04.530]you don't typically walk through...
[01:09:06.750]I don't, anyway, you go through
[01:09:08.070]these paths of least resistance.
[01:09:10.680]It's usually the animal trails.
[01:09:12.420]And so guess what's walking along.
[01:09:13.950]Animals, and ticks are fallin'.
[01:09:15.240]Animals after they shed.
[01:09:16.260]So it's usually pretty brushy
[01:09:17.700]and usually pretty narrow in those cases.
[01:09:20.550]So my guess is that's where it is.
[01:09:23.340]But I was told that as a kid.
[01:09:24.420]My mom grew up in Iowa and my grandma would say,
[01:09:27.097]"Oh, you get ticks out there under the trees,
[01:09:28.627]"watching the trees."
[01:09:29.460]Remember my grandma, 90, she'd be 110 now.
[01:09:32.790]That was persistent thing that she said
[01:09:34.593]when we went to her house.
[01:09:36.030]Go under the tree, you'll get ticks on you.
[01:09:37.560]They were never...
[01:09:38.393]They wouldn't fall from the tree.
[01:09:42.540]Well there are different tick species.
[01:09:49.016]Do we have any other questions?
[01:09:51.480]Any questions online?
[01:09:56.880]All right, well-
[01:09:57.919]Thank you all so much for being here today.
[01:09:59.670]Thank you, Doug.
[01:10:02.640]You're too easy.
[01:10:03.567]You just talk a long time, they don't have any questions.
[01:10:06.467]Have a good weekend, everybody.
[01:10:09.360]That's our last seminar of the year.
[01:10:14.130]Thanks for staying a long time.
[01:10:21.252]Yeah, I think you just...
[01:10:23.482]Thank you so much.
[01:10:24.315]Have a good weekend, everyone.
Yep, I do.
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