Universal Design for Learning - Representation
The Center for Transformative Teaching | Student-Faculty Collaboration Grant | Department of Special Education and Communication Disorders |
College of Education and Human Sciences | University of Nebraska-Lincoln
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[00:00:05.520]The second area of
[00:00:06.820]Universal Design for Learning
[00:00:10.020]Representation is the
[00:00:11.187]"what" of learning.
[00:00:12.623]This refers to what the students are,
[00:00:14.940]seeing, how they're perceiving it and
[00:00:17.464]how they comprehend the information.
[00:00:19.770]The way content is represented has a
[00:00:21.771]massive impact on the ability of students
[00:00:23.910]to encode that learning
[00:00:25.050]into long-term memory.
[00:00:26.700]Now let's start with a quick exercise.
[00:00:28.762]What do you see?
[00:00:30.480]Do you see
[00:00:31.122]an older woman
[00:00:31.800]or a younger woman?
[00:00:33.240]What if I told you that there's both,
[00:00:35.657]I'll give you a moment to look.
[00:00:37.777]Well, how about now?
[00:00:38.852]Can you see it?
[00:00:40.035]If we add some shading,
[00:00:41.177]how about now?
[00:00:42.390]The way you represent your content is
[00:00:44.554]one of your strongest accessibility
[00:00:46.110]features as a teacher,
[00:00:48.000]you might not have been able to visually
[00:00:49.691]access one or more of the images until
[00:00:51.480]we used a different means of
[00:00:53.164]representation to show it to you.
[00:00:56.040]Utilizing diverse representation in a
[00:00:58.633]Universal Design for Learning framework is
[00:01:00.150]focused on three different domains:
[00:01:03.930]which is how we perceive information
[00:01:05.370]that's conveyed to us.
[00:01:06.781]Language and Symbols,
[00:01:08.130]how we gain access across
[00:01:11.130]normally occurring within-subjects
[00:01:12.853]specific vocabulary and symbols,
[00:01:14.700]commonly found in mathematics.
[00:01:18.600]which is the ability to recall
[00:01:20.318]previously learned information.
[00:01:23.790]Using diverse representation
[00:01:25.456]to improve perception
[00:01:27.000]is about having diverse
[00:01:28.410]modalities for instruction.
[00:01:30.420]While there has been
[00:01:31.381]a longstanding myth
[00:01:32.828]that students learn best in
[00:01:34.170]one format or another,
[00:01:35.674]commonly referred to
[00:01:36.722]as a learning style,
[00:01:38.250]the practice of teaching
[00:01:39.444]content in one sensory domain,
[00:01:41.280]such as primarily
[00:01:42.333]auditory or kinesthetic
[00:01:44.085]has been widely discredited.
[00:01:47.226]we learn using all of our
[00:01:48.729]senses at the same time.
[00:01:50.520]It is true
[00:01:51.273]that some students do not have
[00:01:52.555]access to all of their senses equally,
[00:01:54.870]but generalizing that students are
[00:01:56.772]primarily tactile or visual learners
[00:01:59.400]tends to lead to stale instruction
[00:02:01.332]that does not allow students enough
[00:02:04.771]and other sensory areas
[00:02:06.329]to fully encode knowledge into
[00:02:07.560]their long-term memory,
[00:02:09.120]nor the ability to recall and use
[00:02:11.092]that information when appropriate.
[00:02:13.301]While most instructors
[00:02:14.536]use some sort of visual or
[00:02:15.832]auditory information to
[00:02:18.146]they frequently prioritize
[00:02:19.745]one over the other.
[00:02:21.400]Think to yourself,
[00:02:22.770]am I the kind of teacher that's
[00:02:24.000]going to use a lot
[00:02:24.500]and a lot of videos?
[00:02:26.674]Or am I the teacher
[00:02:27.484]that's going to use
[00:02:28.706]PowerPoints and lectures to
[00:02:29.795]students while they write notes?
[00:02:31.710]While neither of these are harmful
[00:02:33.069]practices to student learning.
[00:02:35.843]only uses one of these formats,
[00:02:38.340]students become disinterested,
[00:02:39.900]which hurts engagement
[00:02:40.831]as we talked about before,
[00:02:42.450]but it also dampens their
[00:02:46.034]So again, I can talk from it about
[00:02:48.497]it from two different perspectives.
[00:02:50.250]Cause I teach for my online courses.
[00:02:52.340]I do incorporate lecture,
[00:02:54.300]I do narrated
[00:02:58.080]and so I have that aspect,
[00:03:00.000]but then I also, you know,
[00:03:02.050]these are graduate students.
[00:03:03.490]So a lot of learning is on them in
[00:03:05.606]terms of reading, you know, the,
[00:03:07.470]the textbook, the articles,
[00:03:10.280]watching the PowerPoints.
[00:03:13.720]I also include some
[00:03:15.460]webinars or podcasts that
[00:03:18.700]present the content in different ways.
[00:03:20.920]My classes are more collaborative
[00:03:23.792]because I'm teaching
[00:03:27.000]and you can't, it's a
[00:03:28.448]subject that if you don't do it,
[00:03:33.196]you, you have to be able to do it.
[00:03:35.080]And so I think it totally
[00:03:36.662]depends on the content.
[00:03:38.230]There's some classes that I've
[00:03:39.727]taught that are very content-heavy.
[00:03:42.040]This is how you do something.
[00:03:44.145]So I can teach through a lecture,
[00:03:45.970]this is how you do it.
[00:03:47.470]But then if we don't practice that
[00:03:49.592]there isn't that translation from,
[00:03:51.820]this is what you do to how you do.
[00:03:53.470]And I think that is
[00:03:54.440]really important that
[00:03:56.053]you have to teach it in more of a
[00:03:57.850]collaborative application method
[00:04:00.302]for students to really understand it.
[00:04:02.740]But there are times
[00:04:03.832]where you have to lecture
[00:04:04.893]and you have to teach
[00:04:06.910]But again, it goes to the front-loading.
[00:04:08.380]What does my planning look like?
[00:04:10.395]To really think about that content,
[00:04:12.850]to know what is the best way to get that
[00:04:15.588]knowledge across to the students and
[00:04:17.590]then, you know, act accordingly.
[00:04:20.000]What I've been able to do more is,
[00:04:23.170]and it's not as much as others because
[00:04:25.142]I'm not a technologically-based person.
[00:04:28.210]I'm more a relational-based person.
[00:04:31.420]But being able to use video
[00:04:33.000]clips a lot more
[00:04:35.890]being able to,
[00:04:38.860]being able to have students
[00:04:41.051]in certain activities
[00:04:43.690]use certain types of technology
[00:04:46.873]to look things up
[00:04:48.102]and to be able to communicate,
[00:04:49.510]depending on the class that it is.
[00:04:51.670]But I am not the greatest
[00:04:53.063]one at being technologically
[00:04:56.320]advanced or necessarily
[00:04:59.950]I tried to do. There could be videos.
[00:05:04.450]So YouTube videos
[00:05:06.707]that's talking about it,
[00:05:07.787]somebody else's voice.
[00:05:09.190]There are articles to read,
[00:05:11.650]there's a textbook to read,
[00:05:13.607]there's me talking.
[00:05:15.280]So I think it comes across
[00:05:17.421]those different ways.
[00:05:20.706]And again, it,
[00:05:21.770]it kind of depends on the content of
[00:05:23.546]what's going to be the best match for it.
[00:05:26.230]But those would be the different
[00:05:27.332]ways that I incorporate media.
[00:05:30.040]I try to break up the sound of my
[00:05:34.450]voice with video when possible.
[00:05:38.530]I like real people,
[00:05:42.430]so if a class is talking about a
[00:05:44.275]content area and there's a fit for a
[00:05:47.050]guest speaker, I like a guest
[00:05:49.095]speaker to come in, cause I can,
[00:05:50.770]I can speak from second hand
[00:05:54.670]but I feel like if there's someone who
[00:05:56.521]could be sort of a primary source for
[00:05:58.730]something I like that
[00:06:00.516]and it breaks it up and
[00:06:04.430]is a nice, you know.
[00:06:06.590]I guess viewing a person as multimedia
[00:06:08.910]is a little strange, but I do,
[00:06:10.100]I view them as like a
[00:06:13.420]I like doing
[00:06:16.204]Sometimes the audio
[00:06:17.930]so I try not to rely on them.
[00:06:19.910]I always go in thinking like
[00:06:21.377]the video's not gonna work.
[00:06:22.550]So what are you going to do
[00:06:23.820]when the video doesn't work?
[00:06:26.450]And I enjoy case studies, so.
[00:06:29.660]But giving information about
[00:06:31.539]a scenario or a student
[00:06:34.040]and working through a
[00:06:37.010]or a lesson planning procedure,
[00:06:38.580]or assessment procedure,
[00:06:39.691]and just thinking about
[00:06:41.263]like a real-life scenario,
[00:06:43.263]but in a, a
[00:06:44.315]lower stress environment
[00:06:45.694]than like actually having to go do it.
[00:06:50.960]I do sometimes if it
[00:06:52.690]makes sense for the content,
[00:06:55.730]actual demonstration, especially for
[00:06:58.155]lesson planning can be really useful.
[00:07:00.350]Like here's how you lesson plan.
[00:07:01.982]Here's what it looks like
[00:07:03.000]when you do it.
[00:07:04.750]when you are teaching,
[00:07:05.780]you find yourself only using auditory
[00:07:07.961]information for instruction.
[00:07:10.310]lecture or verbal
[00:07:11.495]instruction for activities,
[00:07:12.770]go ahead and add some visual or
[00:07:14.603]tactile information to supplement
[00:07:19.190]if you see yourself relying
[00:07:20.571]heavily on visual information,
[00:07:22.730]make sure to add written descriptions
[00:07:24.450]for images and always have close
[00:07:26.310]captioning turned on for these videos.
[00:07:29.120]Adding these small pieces of diverse
[00:07:30.802]sensory information will
[00:07:31.934]greatly improve your students'
[00:07:35.390]every representation of information
[00:07:37.143]is the use of language and symbols.
[00:07:39.800]We represent information in a
[00:07:41.129]whole host of different ways,
[00:07:43.070]information that you think
[00:07:45.178]might make information
[00:07:46.087]clear to students.
[00:07:47.055]Say an image that supports
[00:07:48.464]your instruction, or a
[00:07:50.637]or a specific technical term
[00:07:52.130]seen only in your content area,
[00:07:54.250]maybe incredibly puzzling to students.
[00:07:56.480]Students that come speaking
[00:07:58.520]other than English as their primary
[00:08:00.106]language might not understand
[00:08:01.968]exactly what you're talking about.
[00:08:03.920]Until you provide images and
[00:08:05.481]explanation to support your instruction.
[00:08:07.730]Recognize that all your students
[00:08:09.411]come to your class at different
[00:08:10.944]levels of understanding.
[00:08:12.560]Don't be frustrated because you think
[00:08:14.368]your students should understand something
[00:08:16.190]you've already taught or something that
[00:08:18.628]you thought should have already been
[00:08:19.940]clear and they should already
[00:08:21.075]understand it the first time around.
[00:08:23.271]The human brain is diverse
[00:08:24.739]and the role of teachers is to
[00:08:26.120]help students gain these understandings.
[00:08:28.880]There are several steps that teachers
[00:08:30.117]can take to support a student's
[00:08:31.580]understanding of symbols and language.
[00:08:33.521]These are just a few.
[00:08:36.379]let's talk about representation
[00:08:39.800]The purpose of education is not to
[00:08:42.257]teach students how to remember
[00:08:45.170]but rather to teach learners how to
[00:08:47.367]transform accessible information into
[00:08:51.530]Decades of cognitive research
[00:08:53.519]have demonstrated that the
[00:08:54.709]capability to transform
[00:08:56.280]accessible information to
[00:08:58.299]is not a passive one,
[00:09:00.480]but an active one.
[00:09:02.130]Supporting comprehension through diverse
[00:09:03.813]representation is more closely tied to
[00:09:08.130]All lessons should include
[00:09:09.777]the two following things.
[00:09:11.037]First activating or
[00:09:13.839]knowledge on content
[00:09:15.314]and generalizing that to other areas
[00:09:18.270]and highlighting relationships
[00:09:20.110]and critical features
[00:09:21.199]and big ideas.
[00:09:22.557]Let's unpack that,
[00:09:23.810]activating previous knowledge
[00:09:25.306]is crucial for students to retain
[00:09:27.990]The brain is more likely to retain
[00:09:29.393]information that is an extension of other
[00:09:31.740]information or stitched within a specific
[00:09:35.312]then it is to remember a
[00:09:36.510]novel concept alone.
[00:09:38.460]Consider starting your lesson
[00:09:39.567]with a review of previous
[00:09:40.642]information that will be
[00:09:41.790]crucial to understanding
[00:09:43.144]that lessons content.
[00:09:44.940]This doesn't have to be a
[00:09:45.864]super extensive review.
[00:09:47.367]Five to 10 minutes is plenty,
[00:09:49.110]but it gets students warmed up and
[00:09:50.750]it builds the foundation for them to
[00:09:52.020]connect information to.
[00:09:55.275]make sure towards the end
[00:09:56.560]of your lesson,
[00:09:57.210]to explore where they might be able
[00:09:58.886]to use the new content
[00:10:00.129]outside of your class.
[00:10:01.951]Now they probably won't go
[00:10:03.173]out searching for these experiences,
[00:10:05.670]but it works similar to the review process
[00:10:07.839]because it creates situational cues
[00:10:10.290]to remember your information.
[00:10:12.450]It means, well, if you
[00:10:13.766]don't do it, students
[00:10:14.848]aren't going to learn
[00:10:15.500]so you have to tie your,
[00:10:17.707]your content to what,
[00:10:18.940]what do they already know?
[00:10:20.229]And so I think it's important
[00:10:21.566]when you're thinking.
[00:10:23.340]I can't just think about my class,
[00:10:25.590]my class fits in
[00:10:26.741]within a whole series
[00:10:28.741]of knowledge that students are
[00:10:30.330]learning in order to be teachers.
[00:10:32.610]And so I have to have a
[00:10:33.529]really good basis
[00:10:34.853]of a foundational knowledge of what
[00:10:36.870]else is being taught.
[00:10:38.038]So I can say,
[00:10:39.182]so remember, when you heard,
[00:10:41.640]this is how it applies
[00:10:43.030]into this situation,
[00:10:45.720]and this is where it
[00:10:46.750]would look in the future.
[00:10:47.910]And so, if I don't make those connections,
[00:10:50.428]I think sometimes students just learn.
[00:10:52.410]I learned this here and here and here,
[00:10:54.372]but how does it all connect together?
[00:10:56.580]And so if I don't activate
[00:10:58.280]that background knowledge,
[00:10:59.850]then it's just words being talked and
[00:11:01.581]there's nowhere to kind of file that
[00:11:04.470]I have to give it to them, then.
[00:11:05.917]Is I have to form that
[00:11:07.284]either that content
[00:11:09.240]background knowledge that
[00:11:10.294]they need or the experience
[00:11:12.584]and help them think
[00:11:13.980]about it in different ways.
[00:11:15.270]And so maybe they don't bring it
[00:11:17.157]in with them from another class,
[00:11:20.640]but generally, I can tie it to
[00:11:22.039]somewhere in their life,
[00:11:23.836]what they've been through,
[00:11:24.930]their experiences as
[00:11:26.267]being a student.
[00:11:27.330]So I have to fill that in so
[00:11:29.515]they can make that connection
[00:11:32.220]to be able to use in the future.
[00:11:34.860]Activating prior knowledge is
[00:11:36.244]tapping into the students,
[00:11:40.108]kind of understanding of the
[00:11:41.761]content or topic being presented.
[00:11:44.580]To have, make a
[00:11:48.570]to whatever it is you're
[00:11:50.084]going to be
[00:11:52.680]And so that's important
[00:11:54.274]because it, it, one
[00:11:57.010]kind of primes them for
[00:11:58.286]learning it, it helps them,
[00:12:01.270]it kind of sets the stage for learning
[00:12:03.320]and helps them make that connection.
[00:12:08.710]assuming they know it or
[00:12:10.303]just going right into it, it,
[00:12:12.660]it really primes them for that learning.
[00:12:15.460]The beginning of the class,
[00:12:18.000]do some sort of activity or
[00:12:19.696]assignment or something to
[00:12:21.430]get a gist of what everyone
[00:12:22.992]knows already, if I'm not sure.
[00:12:25.270]So that I'm again, not
[00:12:26.903]repeating, but building on.
[00:12:29.710]But everyone doesn't
[00:12:30.542]start at the same place.
[00:12:32.140]So when I am providing
[00:12:34.252]content that might be
[00:12:36.500]like redundant or sort of review,
[00:12:40.750]I'll try to just acknowledge
[00:12:42.133]it upfront and be like,
[00:12:43.240]you might already know this if you
[00:12:45.362]do, don't worry about it. If you don't,
[00:12:48.040]don't worry about it.
[00:12:48.760]We're just going to go over this briefly
[00:12:50.412]to make sure everyone's on the
[00:12:53.980]you may be thinking this is so much work.
[00:12:57.220]How am I ever going to make sure that
[00:12:59.163]every single part of my instruction is
[00:13:00.820]being explained and I'm in
[00:13:02.347]multiple ways at the same time.
[00:13:04.526]Do not fret!
[00:13:05.860]We aren't saying that every piece of
[00:13:07.481]information needs to be in
[00:13:10.053]but rather the information that exists
[00:13:12.000]at pinch points needs to be in
[00:13:15.520]Pinch points are areas of your content
[00:13:18.635]that have been historically difficult for
[00:13:20.710]to teach students on a macro level.
[00:13:23.034]Remember this thing,
[00:13:25.120]this is one of the most renowned pinch
[00:13:27.000]points in all of public education,
[00:13:28.930]the Pythagorean Theorem.
[00:13:30.850]This is an equation that is used to
[00:13:32.620]find the third side in a right triangle.
[00:13:34.870]When we already know two sides.
[00:13:36.850]This piece of information is the
[00:13:38.596]gateway for understanding pre-calculus,
[00:13:43.060]and so many more advanced math concepts.
[00:13:45.970]And it's also a pinch point in math
[00:13:47.697]because it's difficult to understand
[00:13:51.070]If you can identify areas in your class
[00:13:52.929]where students have struggled before,
[00:13:54.520]like per se,
[00:13:55.360]the Pythagorean Theorem,
[00:13:56.872]focus here with adding
[00:13:58.320]multiple means of representation.
[00:14:00.550]This will save you hours
[00:14:01.772]of reteaching later on.
[00:14:03.703]Add in these diverse modes
[00:14:05.786]of representation and keep
[00:14:07.629]track of how students perform.
[00:14:09.520]This will not only allow you to teach
[00:14:11.169]the most difficult concepts with ease,
[00:14:13.321]but makes adding
[00:14:14.357]Universal Design for Learning
[00:14:15.529]tenants to your instruction
[00:14:16.840]much more manageable.
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