Universal Design for Learning - Action and Expression
The Center for Transformative Teaching | Student-Faculty Collaboration Grant | Department of Special Education and Communication Disorders |
College of Education and Human Sciences | University of Nebraska-Lincoln
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[00:00:05.638]The third area of
[00:00:06.539]Universal Design for Learning
[00:00:07.891]is Action and Expression,
[00:00:09.809]action and expression
[00:00:10.760]refer to the "how" of learning
[00:00:13.980]are the multiple avenues
[00:00:15.331]for displaying what a student knows.
[00:00:17.967]Every teacher knows
[00:00:19.069]that they need to assess
[00:00:20.070]what students understand,
[00:00:21.688]but great teachers
[00:00:22.589]give a multitude of outlets
[00:00:24.174]for students to demonstrate
[00:00:26.810]action and expression
[00:00:28.878]both to autonomy for students,
[00:00:30.346]which we covered briefly
[00:00:31.247]in the engagement video,
[00:00:32.549]but also allows students
[00:00:34.100]to overcome physical
[00:00:35.151]and cognitive barriers
[00:00:36.419]to demonstrate understandings.
[00:00:38.238]Assessment and progress
[00:00:39.355]monitoring of the goals
[00:00:40.673]you and your department
[00:00:41.608]have for your class
[00:00:43.043]aren't just some
[00:00:43.860]inescapable part of teaching.
[00:00:45.812]They also represent a chance
[00:00:48.031]where your students understanding is
[00:00:50.216]and a moment to reflect
[00:00:51.768]on your instructional strategies.
[00:00:54.170]Think for a moment
[00:00:55.038]about how you were assessed
[00:00:56.756]in your time in school,
[00:00:58.258]whether that be K-12,
[00:01:00.143]undergraduate or graduate degree.
[00:01:02.762]Did your teachers offer
[00:01:03.947]only written assignments?
[00:01:05.899]Did they offer
[00:01:06.499]only multiple choice tests?
[00:01:08.601]I'm going to assume that you can think
[00:01:10.637]of having been assessed
[00:01:11.938]in both of those ways,
[00:01:13.139]as well as a plentitude of others.
[00:01:15.542]Maybe you completed a project,
[00:01:17.694]gave an oral speech
[00:01:19.012]or participated in a group
[00:01:20.747]or work setting.
[00:01:21.865]I also want you to think for a moment
[00:01:23.783]about how you felt
[00:01:24.868]during those assignments.
[00:01:26.069]Are you the kind of person that is
[00:01:27.426]cool under pressure
[00:01:28.371]and has no problem
[00:01:29.189]with classes only offering
[00:01:30.540]one or two major tests
[00:01:32.242]that make up the majority of your grade?
[00:01:34.611]Or were you
[00:01:35.395]the kind of student
[00:01:36.112]that wanted to run and hide
[00:01:37.230]from high stakes tests?
[00:01:39.182]Did you love group work
[00:01:40.233]because you can share the responsibility?
[00:01:42.018]Or did you hate feeling
[00:01:43.203]like your grade depended
[00:01:44.337]on other people?
[00:01:46.072]No matter what kind of assessment
[00:01:47.607]you're most familiar
[00:01:48.658]and comfortable with,
[00:01:51.060]you will have students in your classes
[00:01:52.712]that feel very differently.
[00:01:54.864]Let's hear from
[00:01:55.470]a few professors
[00:01:56.249]on their thoughts on assessment.
[00:01:58.585]It was a subject that I enjoyed.
[00:02:00.170]I mean, social studies, science,
[00:02:03.656]math, even, you know,
[00:02:05.275]I would and prepared for it.
[00:02:06.943]I enjoyed taking them.
[00:02:09.262]I was motivated to do so,
[00:02:10.847]but there were plenty of other subjects
[00:02:12.632]where I dreaded it.
[00:02:13.833]Papers always paralyzed me
[00:02:15.451]and sometimes still do,
[00:02:17.453]even though I have sort of
[00:02:18.805]gotten over them
[00:02:20.039]I can put sentences together
[00:02:21.741]and synthesize information.
[00:02:23.960]But I did like tests,
[00:02:26.212]and I think the fact that I like tests
[00:02:28.982]makes me also weirdly understand
[00:02:31.851]why people don't like tests.
[00:02:33.686]Because the reason I like them
[00:02:34.938]is because I could memorize stuff.
[00:02:36.956]And I'm like,
[00:02:37.891]most people are not great
[00:02:39.592]at memorizing stuff,
[00:02:40.860]and that would be a lot harder.
[00:02:42.779]I don't have an issue with, with
[00:02:47.450]but let me clarify that.
[00:02:49.686]Testing that is curriculum based.
[00:02:52.522]I'm not a big fan
[00:02:54.858]that the end of the year
[00:02:56.659]standardized normative summative
[00:02:59.679]types of tests have a lot of value
[00:03:03.316]other than to compare kids to each other,
[00:03:06.803]which to me
[00:03:07.520]doesn't have any instructional value
[00:03:10.073]It may have administrative
[00:03:11.591]and political value.
[00:03:13.810]So that's what I mean
[00:03:15.261]in terms of the context of testing
[00:03:17.330]and and quizzing.
[00:03:18.731]I tend to like to work more as a group
[00:03:22.602]because I think
[00:03:23.386]then we can build off
[00:03:24.254]each other's strengths
[00:03:28.041]maybe we don't have
[00:03:28.908]or somebody can say
[00:03:31.544]But I think you build
[00:03:32.412]usually a better project
[00:03:34.597]with working as a group,
[00:03:36.082]and I'm not somebody
[00:03:36.916]that needs to have the control.
[00:03:38.451]And so it's nice to
[00:03:40.453]have other people doing that.
[00:03:41.738]So always working as a group.
[00:03:43.723]In terms of my own learning,
[00:03:47.810]when it comes
[00:03:48.494]to a professional situation,
[00:03:50.363]I prefer group work
[00:03:51.381]as in committee work
[00:03:52.665]because you get different
[00:03:55.218]But in my personal life,
[00:03:57.770]in terms of my learning,
[00:04:01.724]individual rather, rather than group.
[00:04:04.961]If it's content that or a topic
[00:04:07.330]that I'm unfamiliar with
[00:04:09.766]or an assignment I'm unfamiliar with,
[00:04:11.985]I like engaging in group
[00:04:15.672]perspectives of it,
[00:04:16.723]what they understand of it.
[00:04:18.341]And then at other times,
[00:04:19.509]I think that independent
[00:04:21.711]work is important
[00:04:23.947]genuine, genuinely assessing,
[00:04:26.866]you know, each student's knowledge
[00:04:28.418]and understanding of content.
[00:04:30.286]So I think there's a place for both.
[00:04:33.439]It, it kind of just depends on,
[00:04:37.176]the, the topic, and the objective.
[00:04:43.232]working by myself, but I do love like I'm
[00:04:45.935]co-teaching a class with a colleague now,
[00:04:48.037]and I love those opportunities too.
[00:04:50.006]And even though there are times
[00:04:51.157]when it's frustrating,
[00:04:52.125]because literally, like,
[00:04:53.042]let's do this now, let's do that.
[00:04:56.262]enjoyable because there's,
[00:04:57.630]you know, we're social beings.
[00:04:59.816]And so primarily
[00:05:01.267]we like the company of other people.
[00:05:04.354]We're usually is a better word.
[00:05:06.506]we like the company of other people,
[00:05:08.858]but it's not.
[00:05:10.660]I think people underestimate
[00:05:12.061]the number of skills
[00:05:13.513]it takes to work with someone well.
[00:05:16.866]And so that's why I assign group work.
[00:05:19.452]But I also try to acknowledge like,
[00:05:20.920]I know you probably don't
[00:05:22.238]like that, you're doing this,
[00:05:23.756]but there's reasons for it.
[00:05:26.442]So hopefully that comes across.
[00:05:30.063]We all have had negative experiences
[00:05:32.949]but the purpose of assessment
[00:05:34.233]is not to make students lives
[00:05:35.818]difficult and uncomfortable.
[00:05:37.420]Assessment should never be a punishment.
[00:05:40.356]It is data and like all data,
[00:05:42.658]it should be valid,
[00:05:43.810]meaning you are getting correct
[00:05:45.461]of your students understanding.
[00:05:47.230]And it should be reliable,
[00:05:48.431]meaning that if you
[00:05:49.254]gave the assessment again,
[00:05:50.917]the results would be the same
[00:05:52.318]if the students had
[00:05:53.353]the same level of understanding.
[00:05:55.505]Think of things this way
[00:05:57.073]if you're a researcher trying to measure
[00:05:58.858]how well a group of students
[00:06:01.227]to assess this,
[00:06:02.412]you have students
[00:06:03.162]read a passage out loud.
[00:06:05.648]assume that most college students
[00:06:08.067]or above average abilities in reading,
[00:06:09.752]so you would think that
[00:06:10.770]this would be a good measurement.
[00:06:13.473]when you start listening to students
[00:06:14.941]standing up and reading,
[00:06:16.559]you'll find that reading fluency
[00:06:18.027]scores are all over the map.
[00:06:20.129]How could this be? Looking back
[00:06:22.031]at the validity and reliability
[00:06:23.683]for a second,
[00:06:24.550]you might see why.
[00:06:26.102]First for validity.
[00:06:27.637]There's an implicit assumption
[00:06:28.955]that students who can read
[00:06:30.823]meaning take information
[00:06:31.891]from a written source
[00:06:33.276]and verbalize it.
[00:06:34.894]Can then vocalize it
[00:06:36.212]in front of other people. Further,
[00:06:37.797]there's an assumption
[00:06:38.531]that they will perform the same
[00:06:39.882]at that reading in front of teachers
[00:06:43.052]Perhaps the student you are researching
[00:06:45.371]can read better
[00:06:46.055]then, better in the 90th percentile
[00:06:48.040]for people their age,
[00:06:49.142]but when they're assessed
[00:06:50.593]by reading aloud,
[00:06:51.727]they perform in the 40th percentile.
[00:06:53.946]This isn't an accurate assessment
[00:06:55.531]because it's not
[00:06:56.432]measuring what it intended.
[00:07:00.136]there's an assumption
[00:07:01.037]that the students
[00:07:01.687]reading is static over time,
[00:07:04.190]if the assessment you gave was to read
[00:07:06.192]an entire chapter of a textbook aloud
[00:07:09.112]the student might fatigue
[00:07:10.379]from the 90th percentile
[00:07:11.497]to the 40th percentile
[00:07:12.648]by the end of the assessment.
[00:07:14.567]You could give the assessment again
[00:07:16.185]in two weeks
[00:07:16.903]and suddenly the student starts
[00:07:18.588]at the 90th percentile
[00:07:19.822]and then only drops
[00:07:20.540]to the 80th percentile.
[00:07:22.608]For your assessment.
[00:07:23.843]It looks like the student
[00:07:24.677]got better at reading,
[00:07:26.362]but in reality
[00:07:27.313]they just got better
[00:07:28.331]at doing the assessment.
[00:07:30.199]The assessment is unreliable
[00:07:31.601]because the results were not replicable.
[00:07:34.987]No matter how you slice it,
[00:07:37.256]techniques are not created
[00:07:38.891]equal and all teachers
[00:07:40.693]need to have assessments
[00:07:41.944]that are accurate,
[00:07:43.062]indications of a students
[00:07:45.281]the educational aims of the teacher
[00:07:47.099]and the class.
[00:07:48.634]Therefore, it's essential
[00:07:50.102]to give your students
[00:07:50.937]multiple means to display what they know.
[00:07:53.473]Here are a few instructors
[00:07:54.574]that allow for diverse modes of action
[00:07:56.225]and expression in their classroom
[00:07:57.994]and the results that they have seen.
[00:07:59.679]I assess student
[00:08:00.546]learning, obviously by,
[00:08:02.131]by objective quizzes.
[00:08:04.600]I assess student
[00:08:05.651]learning by the application
[00:08:08.104]through their project.
[00:08:09.839]I assess student learning mostly
[00:08:14.343]from using question and answer
[00:08:17.263]and group work
[00:08:19.115]where students basically,
[00:08:20.883]as I said before,
[00:08:22.268]do their own guided practice.
[00:08:28.074]the best way to assess student
[00:08:30.326]learning is through for me
[00:08:34.463]is through student engagement
[00:08:37.466]and when they're engaged
[00:08:39.302]with the content,
[00:08:41.153]whether in a pair or in a group.
[00:08:43.556]And I can see that
[00:08:46.309]that as well as question and answers,
[00:08:50.179]are the two ways that that that I can,
[00:08:55.618]not only assess learning,
[00:08:56.786]but more than that assess engagement.
[00:08:58.788]If I have students
[00:08:59.956]that have high engagement in the content,
[00:09:02.275]but they aren't doing
[00:09:03.142]well on quizzes or tests,
[00:09:05.027]I can help them with that.
[00:09:06.512]That's a simple thing
[00:09:10.466]But that engagement is something that
[00:09:14.070]that they have to, that they have to be
[00:09:17.957]that I want to assess
[00:09:19.108]and that I want to see them
[00:09:20.660]at a high level of engagement.
[00:09:22.912]You have to assess in multiple ways.
[00:09:24.647]And so in my classes, I have from
[00:09:29.368]because I do want the students
[00:09:31.187]to read the chapters
[00:09:32.939]and have that background knowledge
[00:09:35.424]to come into class, to do the activities.
[00:09:37.276]And if you don't have that,
[00:09:38.661]it's hard to participate.
[00:09:39.962]So I do have quizzes as one method.
[00:09:43.683]I have a project in
[00:09:45.234]which they do role-playing.
[00:09:46.519]And so that would be another way
[00:09:48.888]that they can use
[00:09:50.039]the skills that I've taught.
[00:09:52.758]I have presentations that they have to do
[00:09:55.645]and put those together again
[00:09:58.130]another kind of outcome
[00:10:00.166]that I want them to have.
[00:10:02.268]They write papers,
[00:10:03.286]they do reflection papers.
[00:10:05.237]And so I think there is
[00:10:06.122]a lot of different ways.
[00:10:07.440]There's in-class assignments
[00:10:09.392]that have to happen where they come in
[00:10:12.628]doing something in advance,
[00:10:14.030]and that would be another assessment.
[00:10:15.948]So there's a variety of ways
[00:10:18.117]that I think we have to know.
[00:10:20.002]We have to assess students
[00:10:20.987]to really know if they understand
[00:10:22.521]what we want them to.
[00:10:24.090]I assess learning in a number of ways
[00:10:28.527]formally and informally.
[00:10:31.614]Informally assess it through,
[00:10:33.382]you know, discussions,
[00:10:36.385]checks for understanding just questions,
[00:10:40.439]or informally or assessing,
[00:10:42.024]you know, kind of students
[00:10:43.042]understanding simply by asking questions
[00:10:46.879]how well they respond.
[00:10:48.898]And then, of course,
[00:10:51.083]quizzes, tests, assignments.
[00:10:56.906]you know that information,
[00:10:59.792]you know, that I gather
[00:11:00.810]from those assessments
[00:11:02.545]really help me determine
[00:11:05.815]the students understanding,
[00:11:07.400]you know, of the content
[00:11:08.417]that I'm presenting,
[00:11:09.168]how well they, they understand it.
[00:11:12.988]You know, if I need to expand
[00:11:15.741]further or provide additional content
[00:11:19.679]to ensure further understanding,
[00:11:21.897]if I'm seeing that
[00:11:22.698]they don't quite get it
[00:11:24.233]or if they have a, you know,
[00:11:31.590]you know, it's kind of ongoing assessment
[00:11:35.778]information for me
[00:11:36.979]for how to improve my courses.
[00:11:39.949]I keep a teaching journal
[00:11:42.601]for every class.
[00:11:44.687]you know, if I'm finding out
[00:11:45.988]there's a point where, you know,
[00:11:47.273]if they've taken an exam
[00:11:49.158]or done an assignment
[00:11:50.092]and have not done well,
[00:11:53.579]go back and
[00:11:54.680]I follow up on perhaps concepts
[00:11:56.782]they misunderstood or didn't quite get.
[00:11:58.968]But then I also make a note
[00:12:01.370]that that might be something
[00:12:02.872]I have to change
[00:12:04.256]or adapt or modify for the next year.
[00:12:08.360]Whatever it is that comes
[00:12:09.862]in, and I have to look at it as a whole,
[00:12:12.248]and I see
[00:12:13.299]maybe the majority of the students
[00:12:14.917]miss something either
[00:12:17.119]depending on where
[00:12:18.070]I'm at in the semester,
[00:12:19.088]that's going to guide
[00:12:21.857]that I need to provide the next class.
[00:12:24.460]And so I may not have taught
[00:12:26.145]something very well.
[00:12:29.415]as a group didn't understand it
[00:12:30.850]and come back in and reteach
[00:12:32.902]and try to come out the knowledge
[00:12:34.537]in a different way.
[00:12:36.639]Or it would blend into the next semester.
[00:12:39.408]When I look at the big picture
[00:12:42.311]and I can see
[00:12:43.212]students are really struggling
[00:12:45.231]then I can
[00:12:46.365]activate more background knowledge
[00:12:47.917]because I have that,
[00:12:52.004]So I can say, you know,
[00:12:53.122]last year, students really struggled
[00:12:54.790]with being able to do this.
[00:12:56.859]So let me really provide
[00:12:58.160]more explicit instruction.
[00:12:59.895]So you don't miss that
[00:13:01.213]and you get this correct
[00:13:02.298]like this is the way
[00:13:03.165]you need to sequence something
[00:13:04.817]or this is what you really need
[00:13:06.252]to focus on so they can guide me
[00:13:09.171]that can guide me for the next semester.
[00:13:12.074]We try to do
[00:13:14.243]a formative assessment
[00:13:15.728]in the middle of the semester
[00:13:17.179]before the course evaluations,
[00:13:19.098]because of course, evaluations are great
[00:13:21.167]for the next time you teach the class,
[00:13:23.002]but they don't help you
[00:13:24.036]if you're doing something,
[00:13:25.070]I won't say wrong.
[00:13:26.722]But if there's more
[00:13:27.439]you could be doing within the semester,
[00:13:29.542]there are ways to do that. So,
[00:13:31.355]so this semester, one of the quizzes
[00:13:33.496]really wasn't about the reading.
[00:13:35.147]It was about what's going well,
[00:13:36.699]what's not going well,
[00:13:37.600]what can we do better to support you?
[00:13:39.468]And we try to read all of those.
[00:13:41.237]We had our GA,
[00:13:42.171]compile them into columns,
[00:13:43.772]so we could
[00:13:44.807]actually kind of ignored
[00:13:46.041]the what's going well for now
[00:13:48.828]like if it's going well,
[00:13:49.461]I don't need to think about it.
[00:13:50.563]I need to think more about the like,
[00:13:52.882]what's not working great
[00:13:54.133]or what could we be doing more of?
[00:13:56.802]We also put a question about
[00:13:57.937]who their favorite teacher was,
[00:13:59.688]and the responses were amazing.
[00:14:03.108]But I use that
[00:14:04.844]and we try to incorporate
[00:14:06.128]it almost as soon as we can.
[00:14:08.631]There's some things
[00:14:09.498]that are very flexible
[00:14:10.850]during the course of a semester,
[00:14:12.151]some things that are less flexible, so.
[00:14:14.536]The papers, the finals.
[00:14:18.691]You sort of take those scores,
[00:14:20.142]and hopefully it's a bell curve
[00:14:21.844]like I hope some people will get A's.
[00:14:25.381]I expect people to get B's.
[00:14:28.317]And I hope no one does super poorly,
[00:14:30.486]but occasionally someone does.
[00:14:32.471]But that's all part of this
[00:14:33.822]bell curve of
[00:14:34.707]what's expected in any given,
[00:14:36.842]any given class.
[00:14:38.611]One of the things I did
[00:14:39.695]at the end of every class,
[00:14:40.863]I tell students,
[00:14:42.031]Get out a piece of paper,
[00:14:43.766]OK, and I want you to answer these
[00:14:48.454]What was the main point
[00:14:49.872]that you learned from class today
[00:14:51.840]and what was the main unanswered
[00:14:53.742]question that you have?
[00:14:55.511]And I use that for many, many,
[00:14:58.564]And that would tell me
[00:14:59.982]what they got out of the class
[00:15:02.101]and that would
[00:15:02.885]tell me, OK,
[00:15:03.936]I'm focusing on certain things over
[00:15:07.389]so I may need to broaden my focus.
[00:15:10.359]And when I see what
[00:15:12.127]their main unanswered question is,
[00:15:15.214]they grouped together,
[00:15:17.049]and then I would put those questions
[00:15:20.519]that are that are similar
[00:15:23.672]on a PowerPoint slide.
[00:15:25.925]And at the beginning of the following
[00:15:27.393]class, we'd go through each of them.
[00:15:29.862]That was a way that I did that
[00:15:31.330]for many, many years.
[00:15:32.731]I do that
[00:15:34.466]sometimes depending on the class now,
[00:15:37.152]but it's become so second nature.
[00:15:40.205]That, that I'm pretty,
[00:15:41.757]I'm pretty aware of what
[00:15:43.108]I'm doing as, as a college instructor.
[00:15:45.928]I've been doing it for 31 years.
[00:15:48.063]I hope more people know that.
[00:15:50.883]One, you can do your own evaluation
[00:15:53.552]at any point in time.
[00:15:56.438]So thinking about like that midpoint
[00:15:59.041]and that end point,
[00:16:00.576]you can add questions
[00:16:02.878]to those course evaluations
[00:16:04.296]like they are
[00:16:07.116]up to a certain point in the semester.
[00:16:09.301]And so if there is something
[00:16:10.569]you really want to know about
[00:16:12.788]how students feel about certain things,
[00:16:15.357]you can actually add it
[00:16:16.859]to the course evaluation.
[00:16:18.360]I feel like people get caught up on
[00:16:21.330]having a right answer to something,
[00:16:23.766]and there's definitely
[00:16:24.550]right answers to certain questions.
[00:16:26.251]But I think if you're
[00:16:26.952]only asking questions
[00:16:28.804]that have right answers,
[00:16:30.906]you're not getting higher
[00:16:32.858]order thinking because problem-solving
[00:16:36.812]is higher-order thinking
[00:16:38.547]for the class, I'm teaching right now
[00:16:39.999]is sort of what I hope
[00:16:40.949]people are learning how to do.
[00:16:44.937]And there's not ever a right answer.
[00:16:47.823]So I may be looking for
[00:16:49.892]a particular answer.
[00:16:51.960]And if I close off to other options,
[00:16:55.381]I might be missing a really great idea
[00:16:58.801]that someone had
[00:16:59.618]that just didn't fit
[00:17:00.536]within my paradigm or my framework.
[00:17:02.638]Assessment is critical
[00:17:03.806]for not only assessing students knowledge
[00:17:06.875]and understanding of the content,
[00:17:09.661]the effectiveness of your instruction.
[00:17:12.247]What I tell them instead, is
[00:17:13.932]when a kid misbehaves.
[00:17:16.568]what is she communicating to you?
[00:17:19.288]What is he or she want?
[00:17:21.006]Every time a student,
[00:17:22.858]when you're as a teacher,
[00:17:24.393]every time a student behaves, he
[00:17:26.528]or she is telling you something
[00:17:28.263]verbally and/or nonverbal.
[00:17:30.716]So don't take misbehavior personally.
[00:17:34.720]Be personal with kids,
[00:17:36.822]but don't personalize their behavior,
[00:17:40.826]and they will communicate to you
[00:17:43.028]on how to deal with them effectively.
[00:17:45.597]If you're good observers and listeners,
[00:17:49.151]but we are really good observers,
[00:17:51.570]we think we're watching everything,
[00:17:53.472]but we're really not
[00:17:54.606]because we have a routine way of looking.
[00:17:57.159]And so that interferes with us
[00:17:59.795]being able to assess
[00:18:04.183]whether they're academic
[00:18:05.284]or social behaviors.
[00:18:07.052]That you have to look at it
[00:18:08.170]in different ways.
[00:18:09.188]You can't just have one way
[00:18:10.539]to assess your students.
[00:18:13.742]Like I said, I'm horrible at testing,
[00:18:15.928]and if that's the only
[00:18:16.745]thing you relied on
[00:18:18.097]was a multiple-choice test.
[00:18:19.798]That's, that's not going
[00:18:20.732]to give you everything that
[00:18:22.768]that can be a piece of assessment,
[00:18:24.787]but you have to have a variety
[00:18:26.588]of different ways
[00:18:27.639]to assess your students.
[00:18:29.975]thinking about your learning outcomes
[00:18:33.011]and then matching those
[00:18:34.296]with an assessment
[00:18:35.380]that is going to give you
[00:18:37.449]and making sure that you're addressing
[00:18:39.118]all of the different kinds of learner
[00:18:41.136]learners in your classroom.
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