Dr. Samuel B. Torres and Stephen R. Curley: The National Native American Boarding School Healing Coalition's Work for Transformative Justice
Reckoning and Reconciliation in Education, Sept. 15, 2022. Samuel B. Torres and Stephen R. Curley from the Native American Boarding School Healing Coalition. Title: "The National Native American Boarding School Healing Coalition's Work for Transformative Justice"
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[00:00:06.510]We have two amazing speakers today from the
[00:00:11.327]National Native American Boarding School Healing Coalition.
[00:00:15.055]And so we have plenty of time for them,
[00:00:17.725]I wanna get started introducing them
[00:00:19.737]and feel free of course, to keep eating as you listen.
[00:00:24.030]So I really truly honored our speakers today.
[00:00:29.850]I've had the great blessing to get to know them,
[00:00:32.820]both Samuel Torres and Steven Curley,
[00:00:36.870]over the last several years through our share interest
[00:00:40.946]in exposing the history of,
[00:00:43.560]and working toward healing from Indian boarding schools.
[00:00:49.290]And so we're really delighted to have you today
[00:00:51.630]at the conference.
[00:00:54.360]Dr. Samuel Torres is the Deputy CEO of the
[00:00:57.960]National Native American Boarding School Healing Coalition
[00:01:01.110]or NABS is an easier way to say it.
[00:01:05.400]Dr. Torres first joined NNABSC in 2019,
[00:01:08.220]as the Director of Research and Programs
[00:01:11.010]where he led research teams on Indian boarding schools
[00:01:14.100]and Indian removal study,
[00:01:16.320]with the first nations Institute,
[00:01:19.140]at the University of Minnesota.
[00:01:21.281]And NABS is based in Minneapolis in the city of Minnesota.
[00:01:25.860]Dr. Torres has been coordinating with the
[00:01:28.140]U.S Department of the Interiors,
[00:01:29.470]Federal Indian Boarding School Initiative,
[00:01:31.680]which you'll probably hear more about soon.
[00:01:34.770]He has a doctorate of educational leadership
[00:01:37.260]for social justice from Loyola, Marymount University,
[00:01:41.430]and his work encompasses the impacts of colonization
[00:01:44.550]on historical and contemporary education methods.
[00:01:48.000]Particularly the legacy of Indian board schools.
[00:01:51.600]Dr. Torres is Mexica Nahua on his father's side,
[00:01:56.160]and Irish Scottish on his mother's side.
[00:01:59.130]In addition to learning and practicing Nahua language
[00:02:02.850]traditions in ceremony, he belongs Mexica
[00:02:06.045]leadership community in St. Paul, Minnesota.
[00:02:09.780]And Steven Curley is the Director of Digital Archives
[00:02:13.350]for NABS, and he's an enrolled citizen of the Dine,
[00:02:16.897]or Najavo nation.
[00:02:18.660]He began his tenure at NABS in 2019 also.
[00:02:24.180]He's a professional archivist
[00:02:25.830]who's committed to being of service to tribal community
[00:02:28.380]archives and museums.
[00:02:30.450]Through his work, he continues to reaffirm
[00:02:32.640]that tribal archives and its monuments
[00:02:35.610]to the traditional knowledge systems
[00:02:37.710]and old institutions,
[00:02:39.660]which will sustain the cultural memories of tribal peoples.
[00:02:44.008]Stephen holds a Bachelor of Arts in Anthropology
[00:02:47.430]with a minor in American Indian Studies
[00:02:49.410]from the University of Arizona
[00:02:51.180]and a Master of Arts in Library and Information Science
[00:02:54.150]also from the University of Arizona.
[00:02:57.243]And he's got there (indistinct) on it.
[00:03:02.070]He's got a focus on archival practices and methodologies,
[00:03:05.880]and he has worked with tribal governments, groups,
[00:03:08.010]and communities regarding the development
[00:03:09.720]of cultural heritage institution services,
[00:03:12.090]programming, and information management capacities.
[00:03:16.920]So please join me in welcoming Dr. Torres,
[00:03:20.100]and Stephen Curley.
[00:03:35.969](Dr. Torres speaking foreign language)
[00:03:48.750]So hello and greeting to all of you today.
[00:03:53.184]My name is Samuel Torres or Sam for short,
[00:03:57.308]for those of you in the event, some time with before.
[00:04:03.186]I am Mexica Nahua,
[00:04:05.194]my family is originally (indistinct).
[00:04:07.958]Most of my relatives now live in Los Angeles
[00:04:10.620]where I was born and raised,
[00:04:12.450]particularly in Northeast,
[00:04:16.380]downtown LA area, in El Hills.
[00:04:20.400]I am the Deputy Chief Executive Officer of NABS
[00:04:24.519]and was hired for (indistinct) programs
[00:04:27.878]back when NABS was a little bit smaller
[00:04:30.480]than we are right now.
[00:04:31.890]NABS was formed in 2011.
[00:04:38.130]As largely as a mandate,
[00:04:41.370]a social political mandate
[00:04:43.860]certainly have pursuit of formation,
[00:04:45.510]the truth reconciliation commission
[00:04:47.130]and the settlement process in Canada,
[00:04:49.140]and the desire for such a process to happen,
[00:04:52.680]particularly of truth, accountability, justice,
[00:04:55.500]and human in the United States.
[00:04:57.342]As we know now,
[00:04:59.016]particularly because of not just the work that NABS has done
[00:05:01.535]in the past 10 years, over 10 years,
[00:05:04.740]but for many other tribal leaders, activists,
[00:05:08.520]or school survivors, descendants tribal nations,
[00:05:11.910]doing incredible work over the past several generations.
[00:05:16.470]So this is work that has not existed in the vacuum
[00:05:19.980]is a generational struggle.
[00:05:21.870]And one that's for what feels like,
[00:05:26.160]I think the first time
[00:05:27.810]the federal government starting to pay attention
[00:05:29.760]is really the national consciousness,
[00:05:31.470]the social political consciousness of the United States
[00:05:33.952]really starting to pay attention.
[00:05:34.890]So we are really occupying a very unique moment right now,
[00:05:38.010]and honored to be able to be here,
[00:05:40.140]to share some of our work with you,
[00:05:41.820]as well as some of the obstacles and the struggles
[00:05:45.459]that we see and really kind of,
[00:05:47.700]we'll finish up with a little bit of
[00:05:49.000]a call to action as well.
[00:05:50.743]I'm also incredibly honored to be here today
[00:05:53.463]with my colleague, Steve Curley.
[00:05:57.734]We were hired at the same time as Margaret mentioned.
[00:06:00.690]And we both kind of made this jump,
[00:06:03.570]leaving kinda our home lands from the, you know,
[00:06:07.560]the Southwest and moving to a place such as Minnesota,
[00:06:11.130]where it can feel like winter for half a year.
[00:06:13.710]So it's been a little bit of a
[00:06:16.873]struggle growing pain, quite a good struggle
[00:06:20.010]and working with Stephen has been
[00:06:24.254]an incredible journey getting (indistinct).
[00:06:29.138]Worked at NABS together.
[00:06:36.860]So I mentioned that when Steven and I came on board
[00:06:40.350]a few years ago, we were a very small team.
[00:06:42.478]We were a team of three,
[00:06:43.311]prior to that NABS was a team of one.
[00:06:45.330]It kind of fluctuated a little bit one, two, one, two,
[00:06:47.837]but we are now currently a team full time staff of nine.
[00:06:52.710]And we're bringing a board an archives assistant next month
[00:06:58.470]or in two months.
[00:06:59.303]So we're really excited to be able to continue
[00:07:00.924]to grow this work,
[00:07:02.070]to grow our partnerships and collaborations.
[00:07:04.620]Because we know that as a coalition, as a human coalition,
[00:07:09.703]that we need all of us as a collective society
[00:07:13.950]to be able to do this work as a community.
[00:07:22.830]So I'd like to set the context a little bit.
[00:07:26.186]I think sometimes it really helps to go into a little bit of
[00:07:28.227]the historical context and to be able to make the case for
[00:07:34.620]why this understudy period of American history,
[00:07:38.370]not just native history but American history,
[00:07:41.850]really requires a particularly critical inquiry
[00:07:47.700]and not just one that tends to be marginalized
[00:07:50.040]with all of the other annual heritage months,
[00:07:51.690]heritage weeks, you know,
[00:07:53.010]just very marginalized aspect and why we need to really
[00:07:56.453]dive in and critically examine that some of the impacts
[00:08:02.130]that are still being felt in our communities today,
[00:08:08.160]are generations old, generations long.
[00:08:10.440]We're gonna go into a little bit of a discussion today
[00:08:12.390]about intergenerational trauma, intergenerational wisdom,
[00:08:16.110]and why those are important contexts to form
[00:08:21.030]our critical consciousness that have enormous impacts
[00:08:25.080]in all of the work that each of us do.
[00:08:29.132]So I'll have to start by saying that Indian boarding
[00:08:30.810]school policies lasted for more than 150 years
[00:08:34.694]over the 19th and 20th centuries,
[00:08:36.240]and removed thousands of American Indian children from homes
[00:08:39.360]and (indistinct), Indian boarding school institutions
[00:08:42.030]sought to destroy native language and culture,
[00:08:44.400]ultimately attempting to dismantle native nations
[00:08:47.074]and enable the U.S government to obtain more Indian land.
[00:08:50.790]This would be effectuated by utilizing education
[00:08:53.010]as a weapon.
[00:08:54.600]Physical, sexual, psychological and spiritual abuse,
[00:08:57.930]were all too common at these institutions.
[00:09:00.420]And this trauma continues to affect
[00:09:02.610]American Indian communities today.
[00:09:05.010]Despite the faring impacts the history and its impacts,
[00:09:07.890]two native people remain largely missing from U.S education
[00:09:10.800]curricula, dominant social and political discourse,
[00:09:13.767]and our persistently understudy
[00:09:15.390]by scholars and researchers.
[00:09:18.690]Historical narratives that are embedded within American
[00:09:21.060]exceptionalism, imperialism and white supremacy,
[00:09:23.850]all centuries long history on these lands
[00:09:26.730]that were brought and cultivated by sub colonists,
[00:09:29.760]the dominant narratives and ideals of U.S American society
[00:09:33.180]having proliferated from the deep origins,
[00:09:35.700]a mix of manifest destiny,
[00:09:38.100]the doctrine of discovery and Calvinist predestination
[00:09:41.730]have provoked the precedent conditions
[00:09:43.320]toward the native peoples of these lands.
[00:09:44.700]And (indistinct) in general shrouded in a culture
[00:09:48.780]of forgetting, packaged as U.S exceptionalism.
[00:09:54.180]One such armament of a culture of forgetting
[00:09:58.470]And we've been discussing this all day today.
[00:10:02.010]It's commitments to the erosion of identity,
[00:10:05.310]language, and culture.
[00:10:06.960]It is not difficult to see how such a culture could persist
[00:10:10.770]and amplify the myths of Euro American superiority
[00:10:14.010]privileging and preserving its own version of history,
[00:10:17.820]thereby guiding and developing a national consciousness
[00:10:22.080]toward an domestic culture.
[00:10:24.480]Ensibilizing indigenous and subter knowledges
[00:10:28.230]while justifying colonial consciousness of discovery,
[00:10:31.620]and destiny for settlers.
[00:10:42.630]The origin narratives and myths,
[00:10:44.700]common articulated and protected by the United States
[00:10:48.210]discovery, destiny, essentially white supremacy,
[00:10:52.350]fueled and compelled the political, cultural
[00:10:54.630]and social apparatus to seek to civilize
[00:10:59.280]native nations from their perspective
[00:11:01.440]to kill the Indian in them,
[00:11:03.090]to save the man as infamously uttered
[00:11:06.150]by the founder of Carla Richard Rads.
[00:11:09.540]We now know that these savior mentalities and sentiments
[00:11:13.680]were seen as actually quite philanthropic at the time,
[00:11:18.450]given a recent history and political strategic
[00:11:20.910]of military engagement and militia and embolism.
[00:11:24.600]The commissioner of Indian Affairs in 1889,
[00:11:27.990]John H. Overly, sought to save them from extermination,
[00:11:33.660]his enthusiasm for adopting a widespread
[00:11:36.660]boarding school movement,
[00:11:37.980]given the expansion goals of the late 19th century,
[00:11:42.960]emphasizing that he only...
[00:11:48.710]Emphasizing that the only alternative left is civilization,
[00:11:53.130]or annihilation, absorption, or extinction,
[00:11:56.760]such attitudes have been foundational
[00:11:59.160]to rationalizing and implementing (indistinct) periods
[00:12:02.250]of forced removal indoctrination,
[00:12:04.380]and brutal assimilation to obtain more and more Indian land.
[00:12:10.410]Assimilation oriented school was weaponized
[00:12:12.780]throughout much of the colonial period though
[00:12:14.880]it wasn't until the late 19th century
[00:12:16.983]that the federal government began system
[00:12:18.343]that has a comprehensive Indian education system
[00:12:22.110]whose sole purpose was according to President Grant,
[00:12:25.440]the civilization and the ultimate citizenship
[00:12:28.950]of the American Indian.
[00:12:34.350]In 1870, Grant's congress voted to expand
[00:12:37.530]the Indian education program
[00:12:39.420]ultimately paving the way for an expansion
[00:12:41.930]of boarding schools between 1819
[00:12:45.240]when the Indian civilization fund act was passed
[00:12:47.880]and shifted boarding school policy in the 1960s,
[00:12:50.700]when the federal government began transferring ownership
[00:12:53.190]of most of the schools to Indian nations,
[00:12:56.670]those that were left.
[00:12:58.260]The political economic and cultural status
[00:13:00.300]of American Indian nations changed dramatically.
[00:13:03.780]Originally, the stewards of 2.3 billion acres of land,
[00:13:08.430]now occupied by the United States.
[00:13:10.350]Native American land holding for reduced
[00:13:12.870]256 million acres by 1881.
[00:13:18.090]As a result of the general Longman act,
[00:13:20.250]the DAS act, only about 15 million acres remained by 1934.
[00:13:25.560]An additional 500,000 acres were seized
[00:13:28.320]by the federal government for the military use
[00:13:30.360]during world war II,
[00:13:31.800]and a series of various acts of Congress
[00:13:33.510]during the termination era of the 50s,
[00:13:36.450]was responsible for further land appropriation
[00:13:39.030]from over a hundred tribes bands and ranch.
[00:13:43.890]By 1955, indigenous land had to just 2.4%
[00:13:49.648]of its original size.
[00:13:53.760]Numerous (indistinct) examined periods
[00:13:56.190]of boarding school history,
[00:13:57.330]or the histories of the similar schools.
[00:13:58.980]But the impact interrogated this policy era
[00:14:01.770]and connected the actions of federal and church actors
[00:14:04.410]to the ongoing impacts to native people today.
[00:14:08.400]This is largely due to the fact that
[00:14:10.230]there is a fundamental social and political misunderstanding
[00:14:13.890]in this interpretation of this genocidal period
[00:14:16.680]of American history.
[00:14:18.270]They're continues to be an overwhelming miseducation
[00:14:21.780]and their of substantive critical examination
[00:14:25.500]of native history in schools, media,
[00:14:28.500]and the sociopolitical discourse in the U.S.
[00:14:31.243]Outside of native patients, their citizens,
[00:14:35.460]most folks in the U.S know very little this at all,
[00:14:39.510]of the forced removal and cultural genocide characteristic
[00:14:43.020]of federal Indian boarding schools.
[00:14:45.510]They knew even less before the findings of the mass burials
[00:14:49.423]in Camoos, Indian residential school in Canada in 2021,
[00:14:52.770]and the subsequent other institutions that we saw.
[00:14:59.400]One of the persistently stubborn obstacles of developing
[00:15:03.030]a comprehensive accounting of the boarding school policy era
[00:15:05.610]in the U.S, is that primary records in the schools
[00:15:08.370]were scattered across the nation in likely hundreds
[00:15:10.890]of different federal state church and private archives.
[00:15:15.420]Some records of single schools are beginning to be made
[00:15:18.330]accessible through individual digital archives,
[00:15:21.090]projects such as the Indian School Digital Reconciliation
[00:15:24.600]project and the Carla Indian School Digital Resource Center.
[00:15:28.770]Yet accessing large portions of these documents
[00:15:33.090]is still a sizable challenge.
[00:15:35.400]And there is currently no centralized location
[00:15:37.830]to search all boarding school records.
[00:15:40.770]This dirt of research and lack of attention
[00:15:43.020]to the sustainability and preservation of U.S
[00:15:45.720]Indian boarding school records marks a fundamental concern
[00:15:48.660]for putting forth a more complete historiography
[00:15:51.810]and holds possibilities for considerable impacts
[00:15:55.080]to calls for accountability, humanities research,
[00:15:59.340]healing work, and even more implications
[00:16:02.970]for education approaches from elementary school
[00:16:07.140]through all the way to higher education.
[00:16:10.967]Moreover, these archable records constitute
[00:16:13.650]an important source of American Indian history and policy
[00:16:17.160]and shared light on a longer history
[00:16:19.500]of removing children from their families
[00:16:21.810]throughout American history.
[00:16:23.700]A topic that will be certainly studied at increasing rates
[00:16:26.760]if its similar experience seeing when poor cases
[00:16:30.000]where native children are disproportionately removed
[00:16:32.370]from their families and placed in homes,
[00:16:34.260]outside their culture at astonishing rates.
[00:16:37.800]Despite the importance and necessity of (indistinct),
[00:16:41.160]native children are four times more likely
[00:16:43.680]to be placed in foster care than Caucasian
[00:16:46.440]slash white children.
[00:16:49.710]Though American Indian and Alaska native children
[00:16:51.780]make up just 1% of all children in the U.S,
[00:16:54.660]they constitute 2.6% of all children
[00:16:57.420]who are placed in foster care outside their homes.
[00:17:01.140]Similarly immigrant children at the Southern U.S border
[00:17:05.340]continue to be detained and separated at detention camps
[00:17:09.420]while just this summer, the president inviting a chief,
[00:17:12.240]the state goal of admitting 100,000 Korean refugees,
[00:17:16.110]including more than 20,000 Ukrainians
[00:17:18.930]that were processed in the U.S Mexico border.
[00:17:21.960]This contradiction clearly illuminates,
[00:17:24.540]the (indistinct) and contradictions
[00:17:27.120]of the federal policy guided by culture (indistinct).
[00:17:41.250]Boarding schools have provoked numerous historical
[00:17:43.170]and contemporary challenges to native people,
[00:17:45.090]particularly regarding the ability for native people
[00:17:47.670]to maintain their wellbeing,
[00:17:48.960]is to provide healthy environments
[00:17:50.910]for themselves and their descendants.
[00:17:53.040]Demonstrating these connections are an array
[00:17:54.960]of modern research inquiries,
[00:17:56.550]including recent insights about epigenetic transmission
[00:17:59.400]trauma responses through DNA,
[00:18:02.070]such insights validate traditional cultural knowledge
[00:18:05.160]and urge more culturally responsive and sustaining research
[00:18:08.040]methods, examining historical trauma in native communities.
[00:18:17.337]Not to be confused by traumatic experiences
[00:18:20.160]that are confined to the past,
[00:18:22.200]Dr. (indistinct) Brave Heart,
[00:18:24.690]defines historical trauma as the cumulates
[00:18:26.640]of emotional and psychological meaning across generations,
[00:18:30.120]including the lifespan,
[00:18:31.500]which emanates from massive group trauma.
[00:18:34.620]Our key distinction of historical trauma to that
[00:18:37.020]a post traumatic stress disorder
[00:18:39.000]is that the historical trauma has not ceased
[00:18:41.490]and is capable of being transferred intergenerationally.
[00:18:45.420]For native people,
[00:18:46.770]unresolved historical trauma certainly includes
[00:18:49.080]the boarding school period,
[00:18:50.640]but it also includes those initial moments of invasion
[00:18:53.430]brought about by set the colonialism, land theft,
[00:18:56.940]the creation of reservations, massacres and the so-called
[00:19:00.330]Indian horse, determination and relocation periods,
[00:19:04.710]among many others.
[00:19:06.180]Reflecting on the impacts of historical trauma,
[00:19:08.700]Dr. Brave Heart's reflection is worth
[00:19:10.680]stating here at length.
[00:19:12.487]"I think losing the land was the most traumatic.
[00:19:15.937]"I remember my dad talked about how they were treated,
[00:19:19.027]"some were shot, they were (indistinct).
[00:19:21.457]"So this happened in my great grandparents' generation
[00:19:23.617]"when they lost the Buffalo,
[00:19:25.357]"my grandparents' generation lost the land
[00:19:27.637]"and their livelihood, that's from generation to generation.
[00:19:31.657]"There are a lot of answers that I don't have
[00:19:34.429]"and a lot of questions that I do have,
[00:19:36.367]"and there's a lot of hurt inside me.
[00:19:38.377]"Some of these things happening over the years
[00:19:40.147]"are still happening today.
[00:19:41.947]"Like my grandparents,
[00:19:43.387]"my great grandparents had their children to schools.
[00:19:46.267]"I was moved, my brothers and sisters moved.
[00:19:50.947]"There's a big hole in my heart.
[00:19:52.507]"We see it happening to our grandchildren already.
[00:19:55.237]"Where does it stop?"
[00:19:58.200]There's deep value in confronting and understanding
[00:20:00.480]the truth in this history and the roots of this trauma,
[00:20:03.870]the absence of rigorous and meaningful narratives
[00:20:06.900]and their accompanying commitments to addressing root causes
[00:20:10.470]are not only underwhelming and unacceptable
[00:20:13.200]across the social and political discourse
[00:20:15.270]in the United States,
[00:20:16.320]but they contribute to this culture of forgetting
[00:20:18.467]and a campaign, a continued indigenous era.
[00:20:22.860]Tribal nations are presently saddled with the overwhelming
[00:20:25.320]social ills provoked by historical
[00:20:27.360]and intergenerational trauma.
[00:20:29.280]The possibilities of healing can bring about
[00:20:32.190]dramatic changes to the social, economic
[00:20:34.740]and political wellbeing of native patients.
[00:20:37.350]To name a few.
[00:20:38.490]Reimagining education and incorporating
[00:20:40.740]traditional knowledge, censoring our languages,
[00:20:45.690]environmental innovation and preservation,
[00:20:50.610]and the resources necessary to undergrad
[00:20:52.650]the sustainability of the (indistinct)
[00:20:54.840]hold profound opportunities for healing
[00:20:56.790]intergenerational trauma that was see in our communities.
[00:21:01.860]Earlier this week,
[00:21:03.600]we held a webinar, a virtual event,
[00:21:06.488]is kind of the rage these days, kinda what we faced with,
[00:21:09.662]but we held that we could bring a lot of people together
[00:21:12.319]and it was really incredible.
[00:21:13.152]We invited several speakers to help us advocate
[00:21:16.350]for congressional action on a bill that we helped write
[00:21:20.220]and is now seeing, I think a lot of momentum,
[00:21:22.107]but we were starting to feel like we need
[00:21:25.350]more action kind of running at a time.
[00:21:30.240]It was a great event when we had,
[00:21:31.080]the Lieutenant governor of Minnesota, Peggy Flanagan,
[00:21:34.680]representative, Patrice David of Kansas,
[00:21:38.580]KHA chairman, Frank Life, Shawn Chief Ben Barnes,
[00:21:43.620]Dallas Goldto, among others.
[00:21:47.060]It was star studied lineup.
[00:21:49.980]It was really great.
[00:21:50.940]One thing that really struck me was the words from
[00:21:53.815]NIHB CEO of Stacy Boland.
[00:21:56.280]She was reflecting on the fact that the federal policy
[00:21:58.850]of boarding schools amounted to
[00:22:01.290]where she stated was a hundred years of funding
[00:22:03.150]and organization for the objective operation
[00:22:05.820]for American Indian,
[00:22:06.990]Alaska native and our native Hawaiian brothers and sisters.
[00:22:10.770]It can be argued that this policy has been in place
[00:22:13.410]for even longer.
[00:22:15.540]But that said, she mentioned that,
[00:22:18.847]"Maybe we need a 100 year policy of reversing the effects
[00:22:21.757]"of course with impacts."
[00:22:24.540]You know, I thought that was a really powerful statement.
[00:22:27.240]And in a still reminder that the intergenerational trauma
[00:22:30.210]that we face is not an easy pass to reckon with.
[00:22:34.470]That it's not really something that an oncology,
[00:22:39.330]a land acknowledgement even,
[00:22:41.040]a single payment or even a truth commission can solve.
[00:22:46.799]A commitment to healing will demand a commitment
[00:22:49.620]to a long road that must involve truth, justice,
[00:22:54.030]truth, justice and healing.
[00:22:59.970]Dr. Braveheart reminds us that healing is not only possible,
[00:23:03.960]but it is feasible,
[00:23:05.490]requiring attention for guiding principles.
[00:23:08.430]Approaches to healing historical trauma
[00:23:10.920]must necessarily involve; one, confronting the trauma,
[00:23:15.030]two, understanding the trauma,
[00:23:17.370]three, releasing the trauma,
[00:23:19.020]and four transcending the trauma.
[00:23:22.470]These are generational guiding principles here.
[00:23:24.780]These are not generally principles that can exist
[00:23:27.960]within the framework of a true commission,
[00:23:31.020]of a landing acknowledgement, of an apology.
[00:23:36.390]Though, this framework requires to offer
[00:23:38.610]a charitable pathway toward healing,
[00:23:41.160]it recognizes the harsh realities that the United States,
[00:23:44.370]in this instance, socially, culturally and politically,
[00:23:48.510]has yet to even scratch the surface,
[00:23:51.120]namely confronting the trauma.
[00:23:54.090]This is to say then that fundamental to individual
[00:23:57.420]and collective healing is confronting the truth in history,
[00:24:01.380]validating its effects and addressing its impacts.
[00:24:06.360]There's much that can be learned and applied
[00:24:08.610]from the experiences and observations
[00:24:10.530]from the Canadian truth and reconciliation process
[00:24:12.740]that sought to address the historical trauma
[00:24:16.380]by the Indian residential school system.
[00:24:18.810]Mind you, of federal project that was modeled
[00:24:21.210]after the United States.
[00:24:23.910]In 2010, a class action lawsuit prompted a settlement
[00:24:26.640]that created a commission that would gather
[00:24:28.680]survivor testimonies, our goal documents,
[00:24:30.810]and produce a multi-year investigation.
[00:24:35.310]It sought a national truth seeking process that has made
[00:24:38.070]a considerable impact on the national consciousness
[00:24:40.520]of the Canadian people.
[00:24:42.720]Continuing the pursuit of truth telling
[00:24:44.640]and the preservation of this history,
[00:24:46.230]the national center for truth and reconciliation
[00:24:48.720]hosted at the University of Minnesota,
[00:24:50.653]remains an important element and legacy
[00:24:53.040]of the Canadian TRC process.
[00:24:56.970]However, a critical shortcoming of this process
[00:24:59.790]has been the lack of appropriations
[00:25:01.830]designed for cemetery surveys and research
[00:25:04.230]to determine the location of native children
[00:25:06.420]who went missing or data while in these institutions,
[00:25:10.230]despite being requested by many.
[00:25:13.260]It is no surprise then that the government of Canada
[00:25:15.780]is now facing that another reckoning moment.
[00:25:18.600]Where cemetery survey results initiated
[00:25:21.870]and enacted by first nations
[00:25:23.820]are identifying previously undocumented deaths,
[00:25:27.090]burials and grave sites, from their own resources.
[00:25:31.950]The failure to financially support cemetery investigations
[00:25:35.850]along with other great treaty violations in Canada,
[00:25:38.910]such as pipelines and industrial logging,
[00:25:41.580]on first nations treaty land,
[00:25:43.290]as well as the treatment of water and land protectors
[00:25:45.450]for state law enforcement
[00:25:46.860]have once again prompted the slogan,
[00:25:48.960]reconciliation is dead.
[00:25:54.900]What is reconciliation,
[00:25:56.700]if justice efforts do not grasp the root of past injustices?
[00:26:01.950]Should reconciliation not only address the failure
[00:26:05.220]to honor tributes,
[00:26:06.810]but also returning land to indigenous people.
[00:26:10.380]Settle colonialism both structurally and epistemologically
[00:26:15.090]have greatly fractured the premise of reconciliation,
[00:26:18.750]given the massive social economic and political power
[00:26:22.170]asymmetry between indigenous nations and subtle states.
[00:26:26.250]Reconciliation can only take place when the impacts
[00:26:29.250]of structural and epistological colonialism
[00:26:32.400]are restored and transformed.
[00:26:35.520]Just as healing cannot meaningfully take place
[00:26:40.050]Reconciliation is unattainable without transforming
[00:26:43.590]root causes and sources of domination.
[00:26:46.080]And in some cases, dismantling systems of oppression.
[00:26:51.480]Only once that path is charted by truth,
[00:26:54.240]justice and healing can process of restoration
[00:26:56.820]be truly transformative.
[00:26:59.010]Century are focused on addressing root causes
[00:27:02.250]and comprehensive outcomes.
[00:27:04.860]Transformative justice needs to change
[00:27:06.900]inequity and power abuses within society,
[00:27:09.420]as well as those personally involved.
[00:27:12.030]The notion of transformative justice recognizes
[00:27:16.110]the need for survivor safety, healing, and agency,
[00:27:20.070]but also collective accountability and the transformation
[00:27:23.220]of the social conditions that perpetuate violence,
[00:27:25.950]such as systems of oppression and domination,
[00:27:29.370]collectively the interplay of truth, healing
[00:27:32.640]and transformative justice are necessary
[00:27:34.620]to meaningfully invite
[00:27:36.120]the very possibility of reconciliation.
[00:27:41.010]The concept of reconciliation is a powerful one.
[00:27:45.090]It invites the coming together of two groups
[00:27:49.410]with the intent to resolve injustices crimes and conflicts.
[00:27:55.170]It is not a destination,
[00:27:57.570]but a framework requiring a deliberate intent
[00:28:00.570]to repair that has been harmed,
[00:28:02.730]an examination of both needs,
[00:28:04.920]and an ongoing vigilance to ensure such restoration.
[00:28:09.990]Reconciliation as a justice framework
[00:28:12.600]is an ambitious and often ambiguous premise
[00:28:16.500]whose aims are threatened if approached superficially
[00:28:19.680]or without regard to systemic root causes.
[00:28:23.340]Truth and reconciliation conditions around the world,
[00:28:25.650]each in their own way,
[00:28:27.750]have forged a charitable path of intentions.
[00:28:30.510]Some more successful than others,
[00:28:32.220]they'll have offered various levels of vocabularies
[00:28:35.430]that we can learn from.
[00:28:37.620]The experiences of the Canadian main (indistinct),
[00:28:41.370]South Africa truth and reconciliation permissions
[00:28:44.160]among many others, all share similar calls, ongoing work,
[00:28:48.330]and vigilance in addressing systemic root causes.
[00:28:53.880]The experiences of past commissions inform us that
[00:28:56.340]reconciliation cannot be the first aim
[00:28:58.770]of resolving historical trauma,
[00:29:00.330]but a reflexive framework to work toward.
[00:29:03.960]They remind us of a essential issue and guided ethos
[00:29:07.710]that these processes are all faced with.
[00:29:10.950]That reconciliation often finds itself subsumed
[00:29:15.180]under efforts of charity and saviorism.
[00:29:20.310]This serves to evasively maneuver for guilt
[00:29:23.010]and dishonest impact.
[00:29:25.952]ETOP and Wayne Yang, warn of such several moves innocence.
[00:29:31.320]What they describe as,
[00:29:33.097]"Those strategies or positionings that attempt
[00:29:35.227]"to relieve the set of feelings built for responsibility
[00:29:38.677]"without giving up land or power or privilege,
[00:29:42.277]"without having much to change at all.
[00:29:47.737]"A particularly salient expression of which happens to be
[00:29:51.067]"a critique of (indistinct) decision,
[00:29:55.627]"rather the cultivation of critical consciousness
[00:29:57.877]"as a standard for decolonization,
[00:30:00.487]"yet another severed appropriation."
[00:30:02.640]And this is to say that (indistinct)
[00:30:04.860]shouldn't listened to there's many lessons
[00:30:07.545]that (indistinct) has to teach us.
[00:30:09.810]But the misinterpretation of conscious (indistinct)
[00:30:12.719]has to stand in colonization is extraordinary.
[00:30:21.000]Though (indistinct) pedagogy of the oppressed
[00:30:23.340]offers foundational achievements,
[00:30:25.230]and critical pedagogy and rigorously critiques
[00:30:27.480]the commitment of institutionalized schools
[00:30:29.630]to the political economy,
[00:30:31.560]this philosophies have though perhaps unwittingly
[00:30:34.320]encourage educators to position colonization
[00:30:37.410]as a metaphor for oppression,
[00:30:39.840]thereby denying indigenous politics and calls for justice
[00:30:43.230]in favor of critical consciousness and intellectualization.
[00:30:47.260]This is not to say that (indistinct)
[00:30:48.930]does not have its place.
[00:30:50.190]Indeed, it is essential.
[00:30:52.860]A critical consciousness of racism, sexual abuse,
[00:30:55.890]even genocide and subtle colonialism are imperative
[00:30:59.130]to contextualize and impacts of colonialism
[00:31:02.730]to native peoples and sub alternative in general.
[00:31:07.860]Rather the crucial distinction emerges
[00:31:09.720]with the pursuit of critical consciousness,
[00:31:12.120]creates distractions, diversions, and delays,
[00:31:16.050]that the lead set the feelings of guilt or responsibility
[00:31:19.440]and conceal the need to give up land, power or privilege.
[00:31:24.300]Contemporary examples of this are trending emergence of
[00:31:27.750]land acknowledgements and official apologies that neglect
[00:31:31.170]meaningful commitments to action
[00:31:33.000]and restoring disrupted like ways.
[00:31:35.697]And I appreciate the substance of critiques today about
[00:31:39.960]land acknowledgements that are devoid
[00:31:42.150]of commitments to action.
[00:31:46.680]The nature of this struggle unequivocally reveals
[00:31:48.810]the necessity for a fundamental deviation
[00:31:51.840]from Western approaches
[00:31:53.340]that have historically contemporaneously
[00:31:55.590]limited the voicing of indigenous voices and knowledges,
[00:31:58.800]and cosmologies, letting native people leave,
[00:32:02.880]hearing what they have to say,
[00:32:05.160]and supporting their struggle
[00:32:07.230]even if land, power or privilege
[00:32:09.600]is in consideration are essential places to start.
[00:32:14.160]In some of my previous work,
[00:32:16.050]I have proposed a framework,
[00:32:19.290]I've referred to as a decolonizing indigenous framework
[00:32:22.410]or decolonizing indigenous practices,
[00:32:24.960]for community educational context
[00:32:26.820]situating the following operational principles
[00:32:28.920]as a basis for engagement.
[00:32:31.890]One centering the indigenous voice
[00:32:33.900]and I have kind of like some nonacademic terminology
[00:32:38.520]that some of this can be like super heady.
[00:32:40.740]And for that, I apologize.
[00:32:42.030]It's always my intention to make things
[00:32:44.310]as accessible as possible.
[00:32:46.560]But I also find it important to be able to honor
[00:32:50.430]those other indigenous (indistinct) scholars that have
[00:32:53.220]done incredible labor, incredible work,
[00:32:55.404]to be able to call them into these discussion.
[00:32:58.188]So I'll reflect them in sort of,
[00:33:01.050]some other descriptions
[00:33:02.100]that hopefully are a bit more accessible.
[00:33:04.560]And this of course, I would say not just as the author
[00:33:08.340]of this framework is worth diving into at greater length
[00:33:13.770]There's some resources that I can share with you
[00:33:15.634]a little bit later.
[00:33:17.287]Censoring the indigenous voice,
[00:33:19.740]what I like to call practicing true solidarity,
[00:33:22.410]naming the politics of coloniality or telling the truth
[00:33:25.020]about historical oppression.
[00:33:27.060]The mythologizing (indistinct) beliefs,
[00:33:29.730]really unmasking unchecked attitudes, implicit biases,
[00:33:33.510]and beliefs that perpetuate inequality.
[00:33:37.140]For epistomological disruptions
[00:33:39.270]or engaging dissident dispositions,
[00:33:42.360]of course, this is huge.
[00:33:43.800]We are required in call to go against the brain
[00:33:46.620]in so many of these institutionalized structures.
[00:33:49.650]And then five emancipatory rereads,
[00:33:53.580]or transforming hope as possibilities.
[00:33:56.490]And my hope in the different sense of the work
[00:34:00.149]of course is that, the quote from public rating
[00:34:04.646]in the slide before engages sort of a new kind of
[00:34:07.140]sensibility for what hope actually means, a true struggle,
[00:34:11.730]I hope we get this right.
[00:34:12.930]You know, the hope that allows us to stay active
[00:34:15.690]in this struggle and many others,
[00:34:20.490]This of course is not a hierarchical framework.
[00:34:23.010]This is not a step by step process.
[00:34:25.440]There's not a, what do I do to be better?
[00:34:29.250]This is a relational process.
[00:34:31.620]It's ground in place based epistemologies.
[00:34:36.390]It is an indigenous centered framework.
[00:34:39.360]And I think that in so many contexts,
[00:34:41.407]it can be a value in many instances,
[00:34:44.520]especially in tribal communities all over
[00:34:47.070]are already engaging in these methods.
[00:34:52.080]But that don't have credentials at the (indistinct),
[00:34:55.789]because that is the way the teachings that have been brought
[00:34:58.480]and taught and will continue to taught for generations.
[00:35:10.830]So the other mentioned framework,
[00:35:14.760]like I mentioned, has been great influenced
[00:35:16.590]by the lessons of some really incredible
[00:35:20.367]sub indigenous scholars, (indistinct),
[00:35:27.510]to name just a few.
[00:35:31.413]Each of them are deserving of further examination
[00:35:34.020]in their own rights.
[00:35:35.460]The ethos of the framework envisions a distinctive approach
[00:35:39.300]toward the restoration of our ways of living and being,
[00:35:42.000]and requires deliberate and conscious interrogation
[00:35:44.940]and disruption of values, beliefs,
[00:35:46.830]and assumptions of the west
[00:35:48.000]that open possibilities for reformulation
[00:35:51.060]of the way in which the histories,
[00:35:53.460]experiences and life ways of indigenous people
[00:36:00.630]Enacting decolonizing, indigenous practices
[00:36:03.480]requires the deconstruction and reimagination
[00:36:07.470]of conditions for meaningful and transformative
[00:36:09.780]social change to occur.
[00:36:12.420]According to (indistinct),
[00:36:14.700]the conflicts of deconstruction must be seen as catalyst,
[00:36:19.080]a stimulus that is fundamental to social transformation,
[00:36:22.200]and a major source of iteration.
[00:36:25.380]Spaces that are prepared in this way walk a path
[00:36:28.260]for reconciliation, though they do not seek reconciliation,
[00:36:32.490]they seek restoration.
[00:36:34.410]Reconciliation is possible
[00:36:35.970]but is dependent on how we tend to these crucial moments
[00:36:39.210]that require attention to truth, justice and healing.
[00:36:43.350]Consistent demands for the following,
[00:36:45.570]continue to be made by generations of people
[00:36:48.240]that have been afflicted by the traumatic legacy
[00:36:51.690]in boarding schools in the United States.
[00:36:55.140]Access to boarding schools documents, in church,
[00:36:57.660]government and private archives and collections,
[00:37:00.420]the examination of location of children
[00:37:03.420]in marks and unmarked grades, supporting school facilities,
[00:37:06.960]for instance, ground penetrating radar,
[00:37:09.180]magnetometry from other geophysical methods.
[00:37:12.300]The opportunity for survivors to offer testimony
[00:37:14.820]and culturally appropriate public hearings,
[00:37:17.640]educational and political apparatus that recognize
[00:37:20.790]and educate citizens of the history
[00:37:23.250]and impact boarding schools.
[00:37:25.530]The rights and resources to direct one's own healing,
[00:37:29.370]utilizing traditional or contemporary human methods,
[00:37:32.730]accountability of those who committed crimes,
[00:37:35.340]or covered up crimes,
[00:37:37.560]the restoration of language, culture, life, race, and land.
[00:37:42.900]Though not an exhausted list,
[00:37:44.610]each of these elements represent a general overview
[00:37:48.720]that require time and resources and likely generations.
[00:37:54.030]A truth and healing commission in the United States,
[00:37:56.820]holds the very possibility
[00:37:58.380]of generating substantive recommendations
[00:38:01.380]that address these elements.
[00:38:03.960]And before I invite,
[00:38:07.350]Steven Curley to come up and talk a little bit more
[00:38:10.290]about our work within the digital archives.
[00:38:18.960]I wanna share a current campaign that we have right now
[00:38:21.090]that really requires a lot of people power.
[00:38:24.150]And hopefully each one of you can engage with
[00:38:26.460]some resources that we have developed to help assist
[00:38:29.640]calling in congressional leaders
[00:38:31.380]so that we can bring this bill to the floor for a vote.
[00:38:34.770]We many co-sponsors in both the house and the Senate,
[00:38:39.810]and we're gonna need those bills to be passed in both houses
[00:38:43.560]before it gets sent to the president for signing.
[00:38:47.670]In this toolkit there are sample letters, sample scripts.
[00:38:55.170]I'm not gonna go through the whole thing,
[00:38:56.280]but I just wanna share with you how beautiful this is
[00:38:58.170]because one of our, you know,
[00:39:01.470]our creative director,
[00:39:02.850]who's been with us for a few months now,
[00:39:05.070]has been putting a lot of time and effort
[00:39:06.870]collaborating with each of us
[00:39:09.270]and putting these materials in a really
[00:39:11.580]easy to digest manner.
[00:39:13.650]So that all you gotta do is call congressional
[00:39:17.880]representatives and follow some of these, you know,
[00:39:21.030]there's some scripts here,
[00:39:22.710]there's letters and even social media.
[00:39:25.770]We need every media channel to be uplifting
[00:39:30.540]and bringing this issue to the attention
[00:39:34.470]of every congressional representative.
[00:39:37.890]We are running outta time after November, you know,
[00:39:40.350]we have to start over again.
[00:39:41.700]And if we do, we'll do what we need to,
[00:39:44.220]but we know that there is likely enough support.
[00:39:48.240]We've never encountered a congressional official
[00:39:51.180]that has not wanted to support in some way.
[00:39:54.360]There are some elements that
[00:39:57.510]some congressional or elected officials
[00:39:59.730]might have sticking points with,
[00:40:01.560]but these are conversations that need to be happening.
[00:40:05.040]We need these records to be accessed by tribal nations,
[00:40:08.610]their citizens, particularly board school survivors
[00:40:12.360]And there are satellite efforts that are going on,
[00:40:15.930]but with the momentum and the sustainability factor
[00:40:19.530]that we're currently facing with,
[00:40:21.000]it's going to take generations for those records
[00:40:23.957]to be processed, with the commission
[00:40:25.470]that process will be basically incredibly.
[00:40:27.450]So that's why we need your support.
[00:40:30.150]So with that,
[00:40:33.510]I'll go ahead and invite my colleague, Steven Curley,
[00:40:36.900]to the front to share a little bit about
[00:40:38.580]what our collaborations
[00:40:42.120]with university of Nebraska, with Margaret and the team
[00:40:46.527]and looking at boarding digital archives
[00:40:48.810]as a really powerful way towards initiating
[00:40:51.240]healing and (indistinct) together.
[00:40:53.317]So, yeah, Stephen Curley, thank you.
[00:41:07.042]So I'm gonna do my best to (indistinct)
[00:41:15.161]really overview (indistinct).
[00:41:19.530]Has been focused on for better part of decades past decade.
[00:41:24.179]So my part or role is really focused on (indistinct)
[00:41:28.410]and the location of (indistinct) and school institutions.
[00:41:32.760]And so it's a small part of the many facets
[00:41:38.972]that Sam had given you all already.
[00:41:42.023]But it's interconnected because
[00:41:44.478]it kinda informs our ability to,
[00:41:48.330]research informed ability to communicate
[00:41:52.380]educational opportunities with schools and, you know,
[00:41:56.760]developing the curriculum at the state level.
[00:42:01.680]And there's also healing too.
[00:42:03.207]There's healing work that's involved
[00:42:04.890]with engaging the records as well.
[00:42:08.160]And I won't really the labor of the fact that there's
[00:42:11.589](indistinct) amount of records that really tend to...
[00:42:18.300]Can we get the actual second page there.
[00:42:23.040]Thank yo very much.
[00:42:25.440]So there's 500 institutions (indistinct)
[00:42:33.979]497, excuse me,
[00:42:35.857]497 schools fall within sort of
[00:42:40.450]the classes of federally operated,
[00:42:43.140]but there's also church operated institutions that
[00:42:46.590]housed children within this sort of
[00:42:49.200]educational similar structure.
[00:43:01.170]So one of the things I wanted to say real quick is that
[00:43:06.090]archivist like myself, there's really two or three truths.
[00:43:11.400]I'm trying to go to the third one.
[00:43:15.420]The first one is really the fact that these records
[00:43:20.880]they're written from a certain point of view, right?
[00:43:23.100]So they're created to fulfill this function
[00:43:28.050]of assimilating children,
[00:43:30.690]and again, to the (indistinct)
[00:43:32.450]of disrupting native communities
[00:43:34.980]and anything that we call indigenous (indistinct)
[00:43:40.380]The second thing is that,
[00:43:45.930]the records are all housed in various locations
[00:43:50.640]throughout the U.S.
[00:43:52.080]And so it's very hard to sort of identifying locate
[00:43:55.140]those dispersed collection that
[00:43:58.269](indistinct) have control over.
[00:44:00.535]But like I said before,
[00:44:02.260]a lot are in federal repositories,
[00:44:04.920]like the national archives,
[00:44:07.500]the general Indian visual reconciliation project
[00:44:12.300]knows very incredible how difficult it is
[00:44:15.900]to try to locate and identify interest first records
[00:44:19.710]that relate to children who attended (indistinct).
[00:44:22.680]So we actually (indistinct).
[00:44:31.047]That project to essentially throw all of that cataloged data
[00:44:37.830]into a system that we're calling
[00:44:39.240]the boarding school digital archives.
[00:44:42.840]And so the idea is to really have that centralized
[00:44:47.109]sort of authoritative center
[00:44:49.403]for the school records situation.
[00:44:51.930]And so the (indistinct) school,
[00:44:53.830]which was just one of those 408 schools
[00:45:00.315]sort of introduce that institution
[00:45:03.360]and association with all these other institutions records.
[00:45:07.140]It's the idea is to really have this ecosystem of data
[00:45:12.110]in this ecosystem of information through informing itself.
[00:45:17.670]And so the third thing is that,
[00:45:21.660]research isn't really just research to (indistinct).
[00:45:26.610]It's a lot of the records or records of trauma.
[00:45:31.970]So like Sam mentioned,
[00:45:33.746]there's a variety of misconduct, abuses,
[00:45:39.270]things like that were administered on children.
[00:45:42.120]And so the overarching theme
[00:45:47.430]of wanting to engage these records is to have
[00:45:50.380]a healing sort of modalities and healing opportunities
[00:45:55.830]for a community specifically to
[00:45:58.470]really start the process of knowing what happened,
[00:46:01.500]gives us really sort the first point of
[00:46:07.770]kind of (indistinct) to this past essentially.
[00:46:10.440]So this video is actually housed
[00:46:15.169]in the national invoice for digital archives.
[00:46:18.480]It's a system, like I said,
[00:46:20.490]that we're leveraging to secure these records.
[00:46:22.890]It's a system that is gonna be launched later next year.
[00:46:27.960]So it's one, a presentation platform,
[00:46:32.010]two, it's an aggregation sort of system.
[00:46:36.120]And three, it's really an opportunity for tribes
[00:46:39.450]to tell their own histories
[00:46:41.687]in relation to that whole school experience.
[00:46:43.740]So that's kind the final point that I really wanna make is,
[00:46:50.157]the records say one thing,
[00:46:53.460]communities didn't have a response period,
[00:46:56.159]as well as forwarding this history.
[00:46:58.751]I wanna play this video real quick.
[00:47:03.911]It was a very nice place to be,
[00:47:06.898]many children wanted to stay there,
[00:47:09.030]I think a lot of parents wanted their children
[00:47:11.220]to come home,
[00:47:12.690]but even now I know from stories
[00:47:17.880]that my grandma told me when she did speak
[00:47:20.614]of her boarding school experiences,
[00:47:23.310]that it wasn't a place where it was fun
[00:47:25.650]and games and had to learn.
[00:47:28.304]It was more like you looked most of the time,
[00:47:30.660]hard labor and you school was just part-time,
[00:47:34.980]and that was it.
[00:47:37.601]So it was hard on all our people,
[00:47:43.800]all those who attended school.
[00:47:45.850]Well, I would say it was
[00:47:49.140]forcibly transferring children or in some cases,
[00:47:53.280]kidnapping children by the U.S government
[00:47:56.793]or by the missionaries and Christian churches.
[00:48:00.720]That was to rip apart the families and extended families
[00:48:04.107]and was just another one of the policies for assimilation.
[00:48:08.430]I would say the
[00:48:11.010]systematic oppression genocide
[00:48:14.349]of what it meant be (indistinct).
[00:48:17.234]The history of indigenous boarding school learning
[00:48:20.383]is a global wide phenomenon.
[00:48:22.260]And most people in dominant boarding society
[00:48:26.130]have absolutely no idea really the bright of the scope,
[00:48:32.310]that boarding schools, that residential schools,
[00:48:34.473]that these forms of educational and (indistinct)
[00:48:37.020]really have on native equals.
[00:48:40.140]That is something that obviously
[00:48:42.000]within the colonial framework is deliberately not taught.
[00:48:44.940]It's deliberately kept silenced
[00:48:47.130]because it's a black stain, right?
[00:48:49.260]It's a shameful part of the great myth
[00:48:52.230]of American manifest destiny.
[00:48:54.210]Indigenous boarding schools were not to turn out
[00:48:57.300]native people who could be enormously successful
[00:48:59.910]within the spectrum of colonial society
[00:49:02.280]or what was deemed successful by dominant peoples.
[00:49:05.940]It was designed to create a lower class working cast system
[00:49:11.040]with native people serving at the lowest rum of that ladder.
[00:49:16.140]Well, there's the history of that
[00:49:20.010]and what was done
[00:49:21.963]that definitely affected us emotionally.
[00:49:24.270]My mom was forcibly transferred to (indistinct).
[00:49:27.360]She had to go and couldn't come back until
[00:49:31.530]she come back at summertime.
[00:49:34.138]So she was given permission to come back.
[00:49:38.160]It was hard experience for my mom to be there,
[00:49:41.940]even though she didn't thought much about it,
[00:49:44.423]but it was being poorly unfamiliar place
[00:49:48.180]taken away from everything that is,
[00:49:50.670]from the parents, from brothers and sisters
[00:49:55.290]and their aunts and uncle, all the relatives.
[00:49:57.994]And then all the other elders of people in the community
[00:50:02.485]Growing up in my household,
[00:50:04.174]we didn't have a work a little bit.
[00:50:06.795]I started to be more aware of
[00:50:09.472]and we were in generation that was really (indistinct).
[00:50:12.770]We knew that my great grandparents had gone
[00:50:14.577]and although they didn't really share stories
[00:50:17.834]by the time I came around,
[00:50:22.762]it was a more openness discussion (indistinct).
[00:50:26.043]From my understanding,
[00:50:26.876]the way I see my grandparents experience
[00:50:28.575]with boarding school was,
[00:50:30.959]just a part of that was simulation and
[00:50:36.112]something that they didn't wanna participate in.
[00:50:37.960]Something that wasn't their choice or their parents' choice.
[00:50:41.125]And however they tried to make it sound
[00:50:43.949]that's something they were forced into.
[00:50:45.990]And so then they finally (indistinct).
[00:50:49.620]Yeah, my great grandparents, my grandma, my mom, me,
[00:50:54.570]four generations there.
[00:50:57.840]My great grandparents were fluent.
[00:51:00.210]My grandma could understand it.
[00:51:02.536]My mom didn't know a thing
[00:51:04.287]other than random words here and there.
[00:51:06.905]But then me, I'm wondering why.
[00:51:09.637]So how I conceptualize is like within two generations
[00:51:12.730]is the most (indistinct) a language could have lost.
[00:51:16.414]It was very much, these boarding schools existed.
[00:51:19.260]These places existed.
[00:51:20.790]Here are the things that happened at these places.
[00:51:23.400]Here are these subsequent results of language loss,
[00:51:28.110]cultural loss, intergeneration trauma.
[00:51:30.870]But the actual real stories that come down to my family
[00:51:34.740]are something that I had to really find and dig
[00:51:38.580]as adult to really (indistinct) point.
[00:51:41.520]What happened to my grandparents (indistinct).
[00:51:46.590]I feel like my grandparents didn't talk about
[00:51:48.420]boarding schools because
[00:51:50.202]it was a traumatic experience for them.
[00:51:52.400]It wasn't something that they really wanted to dwell on.
[00:51:57.000]But also I think that from their generation,
[00:52:00.810]they were taught not to talk.
[00:52:03.194]They were taught not to (indistinct).
[00:52:07.470]And the effects that it have on people,
[00:52:09.819]I think that it's something I can very easily look back
[00:52:12.986]at now, family community and see the effects of that.
[00:52:18.120]There's that internals (indistinct),
[00:52:25.050]but also the external.
[00:52:27.546]I think that they learned the circle on the base
[00:52:29.696]while they're at boarding school
[00:52:32.070]that they in turn carried on
[00:52:34.173]with how they raised their children
[00:52:36.570]rather than raising children in a traditional way
[00:52:39.950]that they were safer and cherished and never abused,
[00:52:48.840]and how formal done physical abuses,
[00:52:52.980]emotional abuses, neglect, part of how that just redundant.
[00:53:00.727]As long as we continue to allow
[00:53:04.830]current dynamic of our land being held by colonizers,
[00:53:08.790]there will never be justice
[00:53:11.370]for those children who were murdered there,
[00:53:13.017]and also the survivors who got out,
[00:53:15.188]normally the descendants of people
[00:53:16.758]who had to deal with that trauma.
[00:53:19.013]In fact healing a trauma contingent
[00:53:20.876]is not what the federal government says or what it feels,
[00:53:26.478]'Cause any form of reconciliation in healing,
[00:53:30.090]one (indistinct) that acknowledgement that,
[00:53:32.787]but two, the land back,
[00:53:36.990]or land reclamation.
[00:53:39.120]In my opinion, again, as one person,
[00:53:42.570]that ownership of these sites needs to go back
[00:53:45.840]to the native peoples
[00:53:47.190]to whom they originally belonged, right?
[00:53:49.260]Prior to conquest.
[00:53:51.540]But control over what is going to be done
[00:53:53.880]with these grave sites, with these boarding schools,
[00:53:56.220]with the land to base it on,
[00:53:58.230]is also solely a choice of the native people
[00:54:01.500]who have their ancestors buried there.
[00:54:04.350]It doesn't actually belong to anywhere else.
[00:54:07.110]If they wanna turn into genocide memorials, excellent.
[00:54:10.500]If they wanna turn into museums
[00:54:12.240]discussing the horrors and atrocities
[00:54:14.430]perpetrated there, great.
[00:54:16.320]If they wanna burn it the ground, that's (indistinct).
[00:54:22.200]But that kind of thing comes with land return.
[00:54:25.933]That the only way we're ever going get justice
[00:54:28.228]for those children is land return.
[00:54:31.590]And that's something that's probably
[00:54:33.000]could be very, very beyond what we're ever gonna see for us.
[00:54:37.140]If we're going to heal,
[00:54:38.070]if we're going feel attracting to before this,
[00:54:42.870]that is something that we have to do from their selves
[00:54:46.440]and not depend on the federal government
[00:54:49.620]or the churches to try and fix it.
[00:54:52.826]'Cause they broke so how can they fix it?
[00:54:54.840]We know that those traumas carried forward
[00:54:58.680]every generation, unless we resolve them,
[00:55:00.960]unless we address them.
[00:55:03.060]So a lot of healing needs to occur.
[00:55:06.960]We know there's still a lot of kind of dysfunction
[00:55:10.920]in the way that we raise our children, for example,
[00:55:13.560]we know that there was corporal punishment
[00:55:15.540]in those boarding schools.
[00:55:17.250]So if we come to understand that that's not our way,
[00:55:20.580]and where that comes from, that helps our human process.
[00:55:24.679]Every time we have trauma,
[00:55:29.193]every time we have negative experiences,
[00:55:33.990]if we don't address that on a personal level,
[00:55:39.930]it affects us the rest of our life,
[00:55:42.360]where we get at by these incentives.
[00:55:47.400]Residential boarding schools are genocide
[00:55:51.852]and this knowledge ought to be taught in the schools.
[00:55:56.253]It is part of our share history of all people
[00:56:00.407]who claim these citizens of the United States of America.
[00:56:04.800]Thank you very much.
[00:56:06.406](speaking foreign language)
[00:56:33.125]So I think I'm gonna close it out
[00:56:35.509]for our part and think we look into other things, but,
[00:56:42.298]if you have any questions, please follow up with us.
[00:56:44.550]There's a lot of differences or elements that
[00:56:46.470]we just didn't have time to get into
[00:56:48.270]that we have a lot to say about.
[00:56:51.480]And so I wanted to say one thing about this video is that,
[00:56:55.353]the video was a byproduct of many byproducts
[00:56:59.220]of this project that we just recently fulfilled
[00:57:02.250]through sort of human center.
[00:57:04.590]And the idea was to have their sort of be this
[00:57:08.771]almost like a cohort,
[00:57:09.990]this path of community members with the community
[00:57:14.010]who actually historically (indistinct)
[00:57:18.220]attended Pipestone attended schools.
[00:57:23.610]But really getting the record
[00:57:28.140]that was relevant to their communities at Pipestone,
[00:57:31.479]into their hands,
[00:57:33.206]and to have them also be equipped with
[00:57:37.410]standard research skills
[00:57:39.480]and to be able to have opportunities to really
[00:57:43.200]investigate what it is that they wanted to investigate,
[00:57:45.853]that could be a period of things.
[00:57:47.951]It could have been genealogy.
[00:57:48.890]It could have been focusing on the cemeteries
[00:57:52.410]or aspects that the closer to ask questions about now.
[00:57:58.140]But a lot of what they're interested in
[00:58:02.280]was genealogy and really sort of,
[00:58:05.823]they sort of some ways that they connected essentially.
[00:58:10.560]And as they were also engaging with records,
[00:58:15.540]they were creating sort of narratives about
[00:58:18.060]what (indistinct) research healing aspects,
[00:58:22.350]to (indistinct) itself.
[00:58:25.320]And so there were also very gracious enough
[00:58:28.740]to want to communicate
[00:58:30.293]that to this broader general public as well.
[00:58:34.349]That's what you see (indistinct).
[00:58:37.124]So thank you very much for being here and listening.
[00:58:41.600]As I said, thank you all for being here.
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