2022 Eastern Nebraska Soil Health Conference Presentations - Amy Schmidt
When is Manure the Right Solution for a Cropping System? (Virtual Real-Time Presentation) - Amy Schmidt, Associate Professor & Livestock Manure Management Engineer, University of Nebraska-Lincoln
Toggle between list and paragraph view.
- [00:00:08.290]So I want to visit,
- [00:00:10.330]today about when is manure the right
solution for a cropping system. And,
- [00:00:16.360]I'm sure you've been hearing today and
you will hear today about cover crops and
- [00:00:20.890]no till and a number of different,
- [00:00:23.800]management practices that are,
- [00:00:26.920]have positive influences on soil
health and so quality and so
- [00:00:33.250]I would like you to consider is just
one of those tools in the toolbox,
- [00:00:37.960]for improving soil health and
maintaining soil health.
- [00:00:43.630]so as, as mentioned
during the introduction,
- [00:00:48.370]there's actually a large group of us in
the state of Nebraska that make up the
- [00:00:52.090]animal manure management team. And so
I always like to share with you,
- [00:00:56.410]the other individuals that are part
of this team and our website,
- [00:01:00.400]addresses there at the
bottom. so that you know,
- [00:01:03.130]who you can reach out to either in
your region of the state or,
- [00:01:07.510]on campus for questions
related to, livestock,
- [00:01:11.770]manure management. So as a team,
- [00:01:17.740]we have kind of three overall goals that,
- [00:01:21.240]that we're working towards.
- [00:01:23.290]So the first one is just building
awareness about the value of
- [00:01:29.080]So a lot of times this means
understanding the nutrient value,
- [00:01:33.970]how to account for the
nutrients in manure,
- [00:01:37.570]how to calculate a value based
on fertilizer, equivalent.
- [00:01:42.730]But we also talked quite a bit
about the benefits that aren't,
- [00:01:47.290]as tangible or as,
- [00:01:50.110]that we can assign a value to
things like the organic matter and
- [00:01:55.270]the, microbes that are in manure
and the way that manure applications,
- [00:01:59.800]the land changes, soil properties.
- [00:02:04.630]we, do a lot of work to
demonstrate benefits of manure,
- [00:02:09.940]through on-farm research
and demonstrations. And
so at any number of,
- [00:02:14.230]field days and meetings, you'll see
members of our team out there,
- [00:02:17.080]either showing some in field
research that we're doing, or,
- [00:02:22.030]some tabletop
demonstrations that are,
- [00:02:25.240]used to demonstrate soil
property changes. And then,
- [00:02:29.920]one of our,
- [00:02:31.300]our biggest efforts lately has just
been helping to increase competence
- [00:02:36.130]among crop farmers,
- [00:02:38.410]to identify fields that are likely to
drive the greatest value from manure.
- [00:02:42.970]So we are typically looking at livestock
- [00:02:48.370]producers who have the manure,
- [00:02:50.620]crop producers who don't raise
livestock and exchanging that
- [00:02:55.270]manure, between the two operations.
- [00:02:58.180]We want to make sure crop farmers,
- [00:03:02.440]understand what they're getting and how
best to use it and where they might get
- [00:03:06.070]the most value out of it. So,
for instance, if it's,
- [00:03:10.450]if you've got a, manure that's, well,
- [00:03:13.900]any of them that have potassium
and phosphate in them,
- [00:03:17.110]if they're being applied to
a field that's high in,
- [00:03:21.460]potassium and phosphorus,
- [00:03:23.110]then you don't really get the value from
that manure of those nutrients because
- [00:03:26.890]you don't need them. So
we like to look at,
- [00:03:29.770]all the scenarios that
you might consider,
- [00:03:33.490]for why that manure would be valuable
and where, applying it would,
- [00:03:37.460]would give you the most,
return on that investment.
- [00:03:43.060]So I think one thing we,
- [00:03:46.870]we can all agree on is that
regardless of our role,
- [00:03:49.930]whether we're educators or
farmers or advisors to farmers,
- [00:03:54.970]we're all kind of working towards the
same goal and that is for agricultural
- [00:03:58.750]production to be
profitable and sustainable.
- [00:04:01.300]And so from the nutrient
- [00:04:07.060]we're interested in reducing,
- [00:04:09.760]non-point source pollution
from agricultural fields.
- [00:04:12.970]So that is the runoff from fields
that reaches surface water bodies and
- [00:04:17.860]carries, nutrients and sediments
or other contaminants that are,
- [00:04:22.840]you know, a threat to water
quality. And it's also,
- [00:04:26.800]we're also thinking about
leaching of nitrogen. And so,
- [00:04:32.230]you know,
- [00:04:32.650]groundwater and surface water quality
are kind of what we're addressing and
- [00:04:37.360]what we like to tie back to the
use of manure and other,
- [00:04:41.380]practices that improve resilience
and productivity of crop
- [00:04:49.960]So this is taken from,
certified crop advisors,
- [00:04:54.700]site. And so when they
are working with farmers,
- [00:04:57.850]they're really trying to help
that farmer decide what are the
- [00:05:02.620]right solutions for their
operation and their goals. And so
- [00:05:09.160]nutrient management is always
obviously a big component of that,
- [00:05:12.790]but they're also looking at
integrated pest management,
- [00:05:15.010]water and soil crop management.
- [00:05:17.260]And so what I want to talk about today
are the ways that manure influences these
- [00:05:22.240]different areas of land management.
So we know nutrient management,
- [00:05:26.770]that's a big one,
- [00:05:27.460]but I want to talk to about how
manure impacts pest management,
- [00:05:32.260]water and soil, and then,
crop health and, and,
- [00:05:37.270]production efficiency and, and,
environmental impacts as well.
- [00:05:42.220]And I think the one point I,
- [00:05:43.970]I want to make before we start is that
every farm is different. Every farmer's,
- [00:05:48.940]goals or individual needs
might be a little bit different.
- [00:05:52.900]And so I would just encourage you to think
about what are your ultimate goals on
- [00:05:57.590]your farm? Is it improving,
- [00:06:00.140]nutrient utilization or
nutrients and efficiency of your
- [00:06:04.940]ups? Is it reducing erosion
or runoff, and then,
- [00:06:09.980]and then select those practices that
you're hearing about today that are
- [00:06:13.220]relevant to your needs. So
they may not all be, but,
- [00:06:17.510]but like I said, manure
is one of those,
- [00:06:20.030]items in the toolbox for soil health that,
I would like you to keep in mind.
- [00:06:24.890]So maneuvers role in nutrient management
is, pretty straightforward.
- [00:06:29.960]Maneuver is kind of the oldest,
- [00:06:31.760]recycling program that
has ever existed, right?
- [00:06:35.390]They use manure for cropping systems
long before we knew of inorganic
- [00:06:40.310]fertilizer or any other
- [00:06:44.390]practices to improve crop production.
- [00:06:47.900]And I think it's important
to consider maneuvering or
- [00:06:53.300]part of a complete fertility programs.
- [00:06:56.160]So you can absolutely meet all
of your crop nutrient needs with,
- [00:07:00.560]with inorganic fertilizer,
a lot of farmers do that.
- [00:07:07.010]the problem that we've seen over the
years and why there's such a focus now on
- [00:07:11.240]improving soil health,
- [00:07:13.310]is that using inorganic
- [00:07:17.870]returning any of the organic
matter to the soil that is
- [00:07:22.370]removed with proper production,
- [00:07:24.440]where we're seeing a decline in
the quality of the soils, there's,
- [00:07:27.830]there's greater erosion potential,
greater runoff, nutrient losses.
- [00:07:32.930]And so we seem a newer as,
- [00:07:37.220]as a compliment to inorganic fertilizer.
- [00:07:39.770]We know it's difficult to meet
exact crop nutrient needs with just
- [00:07:45.500]but it certainly should be an important
consideration in a fertility program.
- [00:07:50.270]So, research in
general shows that,
- [00:07:54.710]if you apply equivalent rates of nutrients
as a manure or commercial fertilizer,
- [00:08:00.230]there's fewer, there's a,
- [00:08:02.140]there's a lower risk of nutrient
losses from manure application,
- [00:08:06.890]then chemical
fertilizer. And so there's,
- [00:08:11.750]for instance, there's
a research project,
- [00:08:14.060]that was published out of Arkansas
and they showed a 55% reduction in
- [00:08:19.040]phosphorus concentration and runoff,
- [00:08:22.190]seven days after serpent for surface
application of poultry litter.
- [00:08:27.410]And they were comparing that to a similar
application of inorganic phosphorus.
- [00:08:32.750]And so from a, from a plant's
perspective, nutrients or nutrients,
- [00:08:38.270]organic nitrogen that comes in manure
obviously is not available right away to
- [00:08:42.470]the plants, but when it becomes available
as an inorganic form of nitrogen,
- [00:08:46.790]they don't know the difference between
that inorganic form and a commercial
- [00:08:50.270]fertilizer. It's all
just inorganic nitrogen.
- [00:08:52.430]So then the same is true with
phosphorus and potassium.
- [00:08:55.020]So if we can meet crop nutrient needs,
- [00:08:59.400]immediate needs with application,
- [00:09:02.820]considering our inorganic nitrogen
that's in that manure and also
- [00:09:07.770]be meeting future needs with the organic
fraction of nitrogen that becomes
- [00:09:10.950]available over time. We're also improving
the soil quality so that when we do,
- [00:09:16.050]apply inorganic fertilizers,
we're more likely to,
- [00:09:21.570]have those available to the plants
rather than losing them,
- [00:09:25.290]to ground them surface water through
runoff, erosion, and leaching. So,
- [00:09:29.730]so manure is really, it's
both a nutrient source,
- [00:09:33.480]but it's a source of
helping improve the,
- [00:09:38.190]efficiency of inorganic
fertilizer, use as well.
- [00:09:45.060]Another thing that we've
been working on,
- [00:09:48.300]at UNL over the past several years is,
- [00:09:52.410]of course you mean cover crops.
You're hearing about today,
- [00:09:56.190]residue management,
- [00:09:57.330]anything that leaves a cover on the soil
surface to protect it when you don't
- [00:10:01.440]have a, a row crop growing.
- [00:10:04.140]But another area that we've been
looking at is using, mulch,
- [00:10:08.490]primarily from Cedar tree
clearing in the state.
- [00:10:12.420]And this is an effort that's been funded
and promoted by the Nebraska forest
- [00:10:17.760]because in order to encourage people
to manage Cedar trees on their land,
- [00:10:22.440]there needs to be some mark or some,
- [00:10:26.580]some value added use of the
material that's generated.
- [00:10:29.760]And so we've worked for probably,
- [00:10:33.210]past five or six years looking
at application of the Cedar
- [00:10:37.620]mulch to cropland within,
- [00:10:40.170]without manure to try and
understand how does it impact,
- [00:10:44.940]soil properties, nitrogen
and carbon cycling,
- [00:10:49.770]soil microbes, all of those things that
we kind of think about as part of,
- [00:10:54.240]the soil health equation
and, overall it's,
- [00:10:59.310]it's, been shown to be beneficial.
We haven't really seen any negative,
- [00:11:05.910]but I will say that a combination of
molt with manure seems to be the best
- [00:11:11.040]because then you get better breakdown of
the carbon in that mulch when you have
- [00:11:15.810]a nitrogen component with it
as well. So I have some,
- [00:11:19.590]results here in a moment that I'm
going to show from some of our work,
- [00:11:23.910]but I want to talk a little bit about
pest management before I show you,
- [00:11:28.890]those researchers. So
with, pest management,
- [00:11:33.420]when we're thinking of an
overall, production system,
- [00:11:37.980]we want to look at, look
at strategies that,
- [00:11:41.940]in help control negative PEs in the field,
- [00:11:45.960]maybe that's by out competing
those pests with,
- [00:11:49.980]with good organisms. and
we want to do this, you know,
- [00:11:54.550]without impacting our yield negatively
and we want to be protecting the
- [00:11:58.810]environment. So,
- [00:12:00.910]we know that good management of our
soil helps improve water storage,
- [00:12:05.740]helps them improve
drainage, helps hold nutrients,
- [00:12:09.520]where the crops can use them,
makes the soil more poorest,
- [00:12:13.180]so that roots can develop better and
reach the water and nutrients that they
- [00:12:16.960]need, but all those things together,
- [00:12:22.180]there's research starting to show
that those things can influence,
- [00:12:26.590]crop defense mechanisms in
populations of beneficial
- [00:12:30.730]organisms, that out-compete
some of the pest organisms.
- [00:12:35.080]so the more diverse the plants,
the organisms in the soil,
- [00:12:40.090]nor diverse, those are in a
farming system, the more diverse,
- [00:12:43.900]the community of
beneficial organisms that,
- [00:12:46.870]that farm can support in that
soil can support. And so,
- [00:12:51.520]as we've kind of moved into
talking more about soil
- [00:12:55.810]biology, it's,
- [00:12:59.230]it's difficult to measure and demonstrate
soil biological properties in a way
- [00:13:04.210]that is, cost-effective and efficient.
- [00:13:09.520]most of the methods for assessing
soil biological properties are largely
- [00:13:15.100]So you've probably heard of
the [inaudible] fatty acid
- [00:13:19.960]test, the Haney test,
soil respiration, and,
- [00:13:24.270]and these are all really
good analysis tools.
- [00:13:29.290]but what,
- [00:13:30.210]what we find in our research is
that we often can't sample and test
- [00:13:35.020]those factors in our
soil often enough,
- [00:13:40.030]at a price that we can
afford with our research.
- [00:13:42.460]So those aren't once a year
type of tests that can tell you,
- [00:13:47.530]you know, your soil is great or your
soil is not great. They're, they're more,
- [00:13:51.820]they're more an indicator of change
if you can monitor them over time.
- [00:13:56.890]And particularly when we're doing a
research study where we have, you know,
- [00:14:01.540]20 some plots, that's a lot of that's,
- [00:14:05.530]that's pretty high cost for us to do,
- [00:14:07.810]those types of tests on a repeated
- [00:14:12.310]basis on that many plots. And so
those prices on those tests, you know,
- [00:14:17.170]30 to $50. but I,
again, I said, you know,
- [00:14:21.940]most valuable when they're
repeated several times a year.
- [00:14:25.450]So in our work we've been
looking at other methods of,
- [00:14:30.640]understanding soil,
- [00:14:33.760]And I want to talk about
a couple of, of those,
- [00:14:37.120]that we've been developing in kind
of what we see out of our research.
- [00:14:41.740]So this first one that we've been
working with for quite some time
- [00:14:46.480]is looking at degradation
of a cotton fabric and soil.
- [00:14:50.930]So if you've paid attention to saw
health education at any point in the
- [00:14:55.910]last several years,
- [00:14:56.570]you've probably seen people talk about
the tidy Whitey test or the underwear
- [00:15:01.100]test. And so a pair of,
- [00:15:03.560]or multiple pairs of cotton
underpants are buried in soil.
- [00:15:09.050]maybe one soil is the no-till with cover
crops and the other is a conventional
- [00:15:12.980]tillage without cover crops.
And over time, those,
- [00:15:17.120]those different pairs of
underwear are dug up and you see a
- [00:15:21.830]marked difference in the degradation
of the fabric sometimes.
- [00:15:26.390]all you find is that polyester waistband.
- [00:15:28.770]So the cotton fabric itself has
been very well degraded, and that's,
- [00:15:33.080]that's an indication that there's,
- [00:15:36.650]a lot of oil, biological activity,
- [00:15:40.100]those soil organisms are consuming the
carbon that's in that cotton fabric,
- [00:15:45.170]as a food source. And so it's,
- [00:15:47.620]it's a good indication
that you have a lot of,
- [00:15:49.710]of activity in the soil
- [00:15:53.090]what we have found is that's
a really good visual tool,
- [00:15:56.480]but can we use it in a, in
a way that we really,
- [00:16:01.130]can get a better understanding
of rate of degradation or,
- [00:16:05.060]total degradation over a period of time.
- [00:16:08.000]And the only way we can see to do
that is to have that fabric be and
- [00:16:12.620]measured piece that we can then
analyze before and after and look at
- [00:16:16.250]degradation. So, as you
see up here in the corner,
- [00:16:20.960]this is what we've been working
with. up in the right-hand corner,
- [00:16:25.520]we put our fabric cotton fabric
samples that are measured
- [00:16:30.830]at these mashed bags and
place them in the soil,
- [00:16:35.630]over time and go back and collect those.
- [00:16:37.520]And then on the left is what
the fabric looks like when it's
- [00:16:42.050]collected. And this is a piece that's
not degraded, a whole heck of a lot,
- [00:16:46.400]but you can see, quite a bit of
degradation. And so we've looked at,
- [00:16:51.440]visual methods or,
- [00:16:54.380]computer vision methods to analyze
total degradation and overall
- [00:16:59.240]we've had pretty good results doing
that. I know, Gary lesson,
- [00:17:03.530]we've sent him some of these sample
bags to put out in insights,
- [00:17:08.270]to demonstrate fabric degradation
as a, as a biological property.
- [00:17:13.490]but the other, the other thing
we're trying to look at is, you know,
- [00:17:17.330]can we equate that degradation to some
other properties in soil that are,
- [00:17:22.430]that are important. And so
the other one that we've,
- [00:17:26.000]been looking at is evaluating the,
- [00:17:30.320]population of arthropods in the soil.
- [00:17:32.750]So arthropods are your, oh,
- [00:17:37.520]mites and, other little,
- [00:17:42.340]laid critters spiders,
that are active in the soil.
- [00:17:47.300]These are the organisms that are,
eating the carbon material,
- [00:17:51.690]breaking it down, making that,
- [00:17:54.570]organic nutrient into an inorganic
form that plants can use.
- [00:17:58.920]And so the greater your abundance and
diversity of these organisms in the
- [00:18:03.840]soil, the better you can,
- [00:18:07.890]you can say that your soil quality
is because you got a lot of,
- [00:18:11.100]of good stuff happening there in the soil.
- [00:18:13.560]And so for this particular work,
- [00:18:17.160]we go out and we collect soil cores that
are about the size of a coffee can 20
- [00:18:21.240]centimeters by 20 centimeters.
- [00:18:23.310]And we bring them back to the lab
and put them in these burlesque,
- [00:18:26.340]the funnels that you
see on the screen. Oops,
- [00:18:30.990]sorry about that.
- [00:18:33.460]so these burlesque funnels they're set
up so that we shine a light on the top of
- [00:18:38.430]the soil and down below, which you really
can't see in the picture. There's,
- [00:18:43.770]there's a glass of jar. I don't know if
you can see my mouse here on the screen.
- [00:18:46.920]Each one of these has a
glass jar underneath of it.
- [00:18:49.380]That's screwed onto the bottom of here.
- [00:18:51.930]And what happens is organisms in the soil.
- [00:18:55.140]Don't like the heat and the drying
that occurs because of the light.
- [00:18:58.080]And so they start to move down through
the soil and they eventually fall through
- [00:19:02.220]a screened area here
and into these jars,
- [00:19:06.810]where they're preserved in ethanol.
- [00:19:08.970]And so we then go back and look at
those samples and pick for them and
- [00:19:13.800]identify the different types of
organisms that were in that soil.
- [00:19:17.730]how many have many different kinds of
organisms? And we come up with,
- [00:19:22.560]kind of, a score that's
based on, the number,
- [00:19:27.780]the, the variability in the types of
organisms and the development of those
- [00:19:31.860]organisms. So it's kind of a lengthy and,
- [00:19:35.040]and it's very lengthy process.
- [00:19:38.430]but it gives us a good idea of
what's what's living in that soil.
- [00:19:43.020]And so just, kind of some of our
findings, just from this past summer,
- [00:19:48.150]we, we finished a study. We were
looking at, plots that received,
- [00:19:53.070]inorganic fertilizer versus
crop plots that received,
- [00:19:58.320]swine manure applied at
a rate to meet nitrogen
- [00:20:03.780]ins of the crop or pre-season
nitrogen needs of the crop.
- [00:20:07.290]And then the other plots were
received that nitrogen,
- [00:20:10.560]from swine manure as well, but
also had, Cedar wood chips,
- [00:20:14.940]surface applied after that manure
was applied. So here's some of the,
- [00:20:19.800]individual critters, I guess,
- [00:20:21.960]that we found in that soil and
why they, why they matter,
- [00:20:27.390]to our assessment of the soil quality.
- [00:20:30.570]So mites are,
- [00:20:33.150]mites are a really important
organism in soil. They, they have a,
- [00:20:38.730]a lot of their activities
are indirectly related
- [00:20:44.130]to some of the soil processes.
- [00:20:45.390]Sometimes they serve as a food source
for some of the larger organisms that,
- [00:20:49.420]that, actually are responsible
for aggregation and, and,
- [00:20:55.000]other other qualities of the soil, but
might, they contribute to nuclear,
- [00:20:59.650]nutrient cycling,
soil aggregate formation,
- [00:21:03.640]pest control. And so they're, they're
considered a good indicator of,
- [00:21:08.860]so biological quality.
- [00:21:11.950]And so we did identify,
- [00:21:15.250]mites in all of our samples over
a summer, over a growing period.
- [00:21:20.050]but we saw a lot more of them,
- [00:21:22.180]a significant significantly
greater amount of these in the
- [00:21:27.010]plots that had swine manure
applied, followed by woodchips.
- [00:21:32.470]So SSW is our swine swine
slur and wood chip application
- [00:21:38.350]for Columbia. these,
- [00:21:40.750]these are big players in the soil,
- [00:21:44.950]macro aggregation game. So they,
- [00:21:49.660]having Columbia populations
in the soil is a good thing.
- [00:21:52.510]You can expect to see changes in
your aggregate stability of soil.
- [00:21:57.280]And we know that that reduces
erosion of soil particles from the
- [00:22:03.700]we also know that we
want to see a higher,
- [00:22:09.320]ratio of mites to Columbia.
- [00:22:13.480]So they're both good. They're both
good organisms, but having more,
- [00:22:17.620]more mites than these
Columbia is a as a good,
- [00:22:21.160]indicator of soil quality and stability
of the habitat in that soil. And so,
- [00:22:25.930]again, in our plots from
this past summer,
- [00:22:30.010]we saw good,
- [00:22:32.560]populations of these two organisms
in all of our, our plots,
- [00:22:36.280]but in the plots receiving swine slurry,
- [00:22:39.490]followed by which ships the ratio
was, was the best in that,
- [00:22:44.410]among those, those plots that received
that treatment. And then finally,
- [00:22:49.660]some Fila, these are little
organisms that feed on plant roots.
- [00:22:54.640]they're a bad thing you don't,
- [00:22:57.190]you would rather see those numbers be
low because they're detrimental to plant
- [00:23:01.030]roots, can be a big pest
problem if they're not controlled.
- [00:23:05.530]And what we found is that these,
- [00:23:08.530]the abundance of these organisms was
the lowest in our treatments receiving
- [00:23:13.060]swine slurry and wood chips.
- [00:23:16.570]they were a little bit
higher in our swines FLIR,
- [00:23:18.670]and then they were the
highest in our control,
- [00:23:20.440]which was our inorganic
- [00:23:23.890]so we found significant increases in
the good organisms and significant
- [00:23:27.700]decreases in the,
- [00:23:30.580]less desirable organisms when
we use that combination of swine
- [00:23:35.080]slurry and wood chips.
- [00:23:37.510]And one of the reasons I
think that we saw this,
- [00:23:41.410]more so in the swine slurry with wood
chips versus just the wood chips,
- [00:23:45.290]those wood chips are a
great source of carbon,
- [00:23:47.000]but they're hard to break down
that carbon's a lot, you know,
- [00:23:50.360]a lot of cellulose.
- [00:23:52.430]So if we have a nitrogen source
like manure combined with those wood
- [00:23:57.050]chips, you get a much quicker
process just like we do in composting,
- [00:24:01.850]right. We want to see a nitrogen
and carbon ratio that,
- [00:24:05.990]that doesn't inhibit,
organism growth and,
- [00:24:09.700]and the activities of those
organisms that break down
- [00:24:15.440]the trail and conflict as piles. So,
- [00:24:20.720]and what chips, and we've done quite a
bit of work with, cattlemen neuron.
- [00:24:24.050]Woodchips those seem to be
good combinations for,
- [00:24:27.500]providing a nutrient
source from the manure,
- [00:24:30.110]providing some ground cover that
protects soil from erosion and,
- [00:24:33.170]wind erosion and water erosion,
- [00:24:35.720]and increasing our organic
matter in the soil.
- [00:24:38.840]since the maneuver helps us widgets break
down a little bit more over time. So,
- [00:24:43.310]I didn't get into,
- [00:24:46.430]in this presentation, the,
- [00:24:50.270]rates about application of wind
chips and that I don't show those,
- [00:24:53.870]but we're w most of our work has been,
- [00:24:56.810]we've applied around 10 to 20
tons per acre of wood chips.
- [00:25:01.490]And so if there's questions about that,
we can talk more at the end, but,
- [00:25:05.060]but that's kind of a, an overview what we
- [00:25:11.270]have been findings. So,
- [00:25:16.160]I guess to summarize
- [00:25:21.410]at a combination manure,
- [00:25:24.440]which seems to positively impact soil,
- [00:25:29.930]it do, is to support visits and,
- [00:25:35.180]other or, care,
- [00:25:39.320]as a rule of thumb when
manure is used in that system.
- [00:25:41.360]And we increase the diversity of
our organisms, those soils,
- [00:25:45.620]those ecosystems that have
more diversity tend to be more
- [00:25:50.600]resistant to disturbances,
- [00:25:55.640]you know, high winds that might've road
- [00:26:00.650]soil, or,
- [00:26:05.490]so they're able to stand,
- [00:26:06.960]they're able to have greater resistance
to some of those negative impacts.
- [00:26:10.050]They also have greater resilience,
which over time means they,
- [00:26:13.500]they recover more quickly
from those stresses. So,
- [00:26:18.150]I know a lot of times it's hard
to look past this crop year and
- [00:26:22.800]what we're looking at for
yields and input costs.
- [00:26:27.240]but I think it's important to
remember as you are managing
- [00:26:32.250]that land. It's, it's not a year to year.
- [00:26:35.310]If you're not managing
it for a single year,
- [00:26:37.170]you're managing it for the lifetime.
That, that, that soil is,
- [00:26:41.940]providing income as, as, you know,
- [00:26:44.570]production area and hopefully being
passed down to your next generation.
- [00:26:48.960]And so I think looking at this
long term resilience and how we can
- [00:26:53.910]improve the quality of that soil and the
productivity of that land over time is
- [00:26:58.710]important as well. So while we
don't see immediate changes,
- [00:27:01.470]sometimes we might see a yield bump,
- [00:27:03.510]but we don't really see what's going on
below the soil surface when we implement
- [00:27:07.650]a lot of these, soil
- [00:27:12.960]that, that positive, impact
is, is multiplying over time.
- [00:27:17.880]And, and, you know,
- [00:27:18.690]this is a marathon rather than a
sprint to improve soil quality.
- [00:27:22.200]We didn't degrade it over a season or
two. We're not going to rebuild it to,
- [00:27:27.630]optimal conditions in the season or two,
but I think this idea of resilience,
- [00:27:32.280]improving over time is
really important to keep in mind.
- [00:27:39.840]so again, maneuvers rolling
water, soil management, greater soil,
- [00:27:44.100]aggregate stability, means we
have reduced runoff and erosion,
- [00:27:49.530]less, less opportunity to carry,
- [00:27:52.860]contaminants from the soil surface
to water bodies and organic
- [00:27:57.690]nitrogen and manure,
breaks down over time.
- [00:28:02.190]So it's less prone to leaching
than inorganic nitrogen fertilizer.
- [00:28:06.490]So inorganic fertilizer,
- [00:28:07.800]when it's put on it either needs
to be used by the plants, or,
- [00:28:12.870]when there's rainfall, it's, it's going
to move down through the soil profile,
- [00:28:16.650]whereas organic nitrogen, is more,
- [00:28:20.190]it's going to break down over time and
be available in smaller doses and more
- [00:28:24.120]likely, available for those fans
to use when it's, when it's needed.
- [00:28:32.910]So maneuvers rolling crop management,
obviously we've talked about,
- [00:28:36.840]a yield potential yield increases, but,
- [00:28:41.640]you know, producing a healthy
and cost efficient crop,
- [00:28:45.390]improving the environmental sustainability
of that, of that land over time,
- [00:28:50.130]is kind of the,
- [00:28:52.890]the main theme I guess,
of, of today's meeting is,
- [00:28:57.690]is how do we improve,
- [00:29:00.720]improve our productivity and
resilience over time on our land.
- [00:29:04.590]And so I think there's definitely,
- [00:29:07.890]excellent opportunities to improve,
- [00:29:12.930]return on investment or,
- [00:29:15.390]or input costs by using
manure as a fertilizer,
- [00:29:20.220]for livestock operations.
- [00:29:22.170]They certainly need to have those
markets available for that manure.
- [00:29:27.300]but for crop producers, you know,
- [00:29:31.380]it's important to think about
the value that is in that manure.
- [00:29:34.470]And I have a lot of producers
tell me, you know, their,
- [00:29:38.250]their neighbors didn't really like the
idea of this new swine operation going up
- [00:29:43.030]next to them, when they first
built it. And then they started seeing,
- [00:29:47.770]how much that, that
- [00:29:52.990]corn was, was greener and
taller and more lush. And they,
- [00:29:58.030]you know, they heard they were getting
better, yields on that land,
- [00:30:01.180]where they were using the manure slurry.
- [00:30:02.830]And then some of those neighbors
started thinking maybe,
- [00:30:05.650]maybe that's not such a bad thing,
- [00:30:07.000]because that if that manure
is available to me,
- [00:30:10.480]it seems to do good things
for the crop land. And so,
- [00:30:15.070]a lot of those livestock
producers, if they have,
- [00:30:18.040]if they own enough land to
utilize the manure themselves,
- [00:30:20.560]they're in pretty good shape. Cause they,
they want that manure if they can.
- [00:30:24.610]if they have an opportunity to transfer
it offsite because they don't have
- [00:30:27.970]enough land to utilize it, then it's,
it can really be a benefit to,
- [00:30:31.840]the neighbors. I put some
data on here from a Missouri,
- [00:30:36.520]university of Missouri study,
4,800 head grow,
- [00:30:40.810]finish hog operation.
- [00:30:43.390]so a modern operation where
they're using, you know,
- [00:30:47.650]diets to really meet the nutrient
needs of the animal without,
- [00:30:51.730]having excessive
- [00:30:55.630]they could meet the fertilizer needs of
two sections of land in a corn soybean
- [00:31:00.400]rotation with that manure.
- [00:31:04.030]they were able to reduce,
- [00:31:06.880]purchase of inorganic fertilizer
and actually ended up with a
- [00:31:10.840]$25,000 or return on assets.
- [00:31:16.240]and so they not only were they
getting the value of the manure,
- [00:31:19.330]they were replacing inorganic fertilizer
that they would typically buy and they
- [00:31:23.110]were getting greater yields. And
so all of that together, was a,
- [00:31:27.940]significant, economic
benefit to those farms.
- [00:31:34.420]So as a crop farmer,
- [00:31:38.380]you are not,
- [00:31:39.850]you don't fall under the same rules and
regulations as a livestock farmer when
- [00:31:44.230]it comes to using manure. So
with a livestock operation,
- [00:31:48.040]if they're operating with a permit
from the state, they have,
- [00:31:52.870]reporting requirements,
nutrient management plan,
- [00:31:57.340]requirements. They have to
follow a certain setbacks of,
- [00:32:00.880]of how they apply manure,
where they apply it.
- [00:32:03.790]And once manure is Tran
transferred from that
- [00:32:08.860]livestock farm to a crop farm,
- [00:32:11.410]as long as the livestock farmer
doesn't have any big thing to do with
- [00:32:14.680]determining application right on that
crop farm. So it's really a transfer.
- [00:32:18.340]Here's the manure, you
take it and do with it,
- [00:32:20.410]what you want that crop farmer
doesn't fall under the same
- [00:32:26.410]but we still want caught farmers
to what we say as minder manure
- [00:32:31.180]manners, right? So even though
there's no, regulatory,
- [00:32:35.860]there's no reporting requirement,
- [00:32:37.540]nobody's kind of looking a nutrient
management plan to make sure you know,
- [00:32:41.300]that those are being used, right. We
want to make sure that you are,
- [00:32:45.560]following setbacks, best
management practices to reduce,
- [00:32:49.160]losses of those nutrients to,
to surface water, be a runoff.
- [00:32:54.050]so protecting water quality, we want
to see manure used in a timely fashion.
- [00:32:57.920]So if it stockpiled from a beef feed
lot on the side of the field,
- [00:33:02.960]you know, use that in a
timely manner. And,
- [00:33:06.440]otherwise you're losing a lot
of the nutrients that are in it.
- [00:33:09.210]You're gonna lose nitrogen
to the atmosphere and that
reduces the value of that
- [00:33:12.950]product. so these
are just some of the,
- [00:33:16.070]pieces of content that
we've put out better,
- [00:33:20.000]references for land owners that receipt
received livestock manure, from,
- [00:33:24.890]from a livestock operation.
And, we want to see, you know,
- [00:33:28.950]being a good neighbor and maximizing
the value of that manure if you're
- [00:33:32.480]purchasing it.
- [00:33:34.190]we wanna see you putting it on the
fields where it's giving you the most
- [00:33:36.740]benefit. And so that brings us to,
- [00:33:41.090]talking a little bit about what audiences
understand and value as benefits
- [00:33:46.040]of machineries and barrier. So if
you've used manure for some time,
- [00:33:51.110]you are probably in that, in that group,
- [00:33:53.030]that would say there's a lot of
benefits, but if you haven't,
- [00:33:56.120]there's some barriers that are
keeping you from doing that.
- [00:33:58.280]And so we want to understand
those better so that,
- [00:34:01.250]as a mineral management team, we
can help address those and,
- [00:34:05.870]improve producer confidence in
using manure as a fertilizer.
- [00:34:10.250]And so this is a survey that we
did, year and a half ago.
- [00:34:15.320]we got almost a thousand responses
from throughout the U S some India,
- [00:34:19.520]Canada, our target audience
was crop and livestock farmers.
- [00:34:23.240]And any of those professionals
who advise farmers.
- [00:34:26.150]So this included extension
- [00:34:30.440]conservation and regulatory
- [00:34:34.910]private consultants, crop advisors,
those types of audiences.
- [00:34:41.270]about 60% of the responses we got
were from advisors who were not,
- [00:34:46.400]not Cropper livestock
farmers on top of that.
- [00:34:49.490]So they were just advisors and then
the other 40% were combinations.
- [00:34:53.030]Maybe they had livestock and
crops. Maybe they were just,
- [00:34:56.000]a crop farmer who also
served as a crop advisor,
- [00:35:00.110]some of their combinations.
So keep that in mind,
- [00:35:02.960]as we're looking at the results,
we ultimately wanted to figure out,
- [00:35:07.460]how farmers and their advisors feel
about using manure and cropping systems.
- [00:35:11.390]So we first,
- [00:35:14.390]first wanted to ask questions
to figure out where,
- [00:35:17.760]those crop and livestock farmers in those
advisors currently stand in terms of
- [00:35:22.370]their perceived knowledge
and understanding of some
of the different impacts of
- [00:35:26.360]manure. And so this shows,
in the center here is,
- [00:35:30.440]is the crop farmers responses.
- [00:35:32.210]And on the right side is livestock
farmer responses. And when we,
- [00:35:37.380]them questions about crop,
fertility and nutrition,
- [00:35:42.240]what we have 90, 95% here, and,
- [00:35:47.310]94% over here said they were moderately
to very knowledgeable about those
- [00:35:52.020]topics. So they seemed confident
about understanding crop,
- [00:35:55.410]fertility and nutrition, factors
associated with using manure.
- [00:36:00.360]They also rated themselves,
to have very,
- [00:36:03.690]very good knowledge of how many impacts
soil, physical properties and soil,
- [00:36:07.200]biological properties,
crop yields as well.
- [00:36:11.490]and they rated themselves high
on, on their knowledge of,
- [00:36:15.000]environmental quality
associated with the use of
- [00:36:19.560]livestock manure.
- [00:36:22.140]We also asked advisors to indicate what
they believe to be levels of knowledge
- [00:36:26.460]on these topics among the crop and
livestock farmers that they work with.
- [00:36:31.560]So, so the,
- [00:36:34.110]so this set of data shows what
advisors perceive farmers to know.
- [00:36:39.510]and so it's kind
of interesting, and I,
- [00:36:41.730]I've spoken at a couple of crop advisor
clinics and ask them to, you know,
- [00:36:45.550]ask the people like, why do you think,
you know, do you agree with this? Or why,
- [00:36:49.400]why would this be, cause we
can only really speculate
on why they, you know,
- [00:36:53.970]for instance, 40, 44% of advisors,
- [00:36:59.220]rated farmers as very or moderately
knowledgeable of how many are impacts.
- [00:37:02.850]So physical properties while
a farmers themselves,
- [00:37:07.020]we had 88% of crop farmers and,
- [00:37:10.950]81% of livestock farmers said I'm
moderately to very knowledgeable.
- [00:37:15.180]So there seems to be a little bit of
difference in what crop and livestock
- [00:37:19.770]believe their knowledges versus what
advisors believe the knowledge of those
- [00:37:24.120]farmers is. so it's just
kind of interesting,
- [00:37:27.600]to look at some of those comparisons
and, try to better understand,
- [00:37:33.330]why the advisors maybe don't think the
farmers know as much as the farmers think
- [00:37:38.070]they do. So you might, you
might ask your advisor,
- [00:37:42.300]if you think she know your
business, as well as he does,
- [00:37:45.180]it could be an interest
- [00:37:50.730]we also asked,
- [00:37:53.250]is manure harmful or helpful or so is it,
- [00:37:56.400]is it beneficial or harmful to
these different, factors?
- [00:37:59.640]So overwhelmingly,
among all the respondents,
- [00:38:03.780]farmers and advisers,
they said, yeah, you know,
- [00:38:06.210]manure is at least slightly beneficial
to crop fertility and nutrition.
- [00:38:11.460]80 per,
- [00:38:13.860]90% said it's manures at
least slightly beneficial to
- [00:38:18.570]soil, physical properties,
- [00:38:20.280]similar results for soil biological
and similar results for crop yields.
- [00:38:24.420]But what was interesting is when we
talked about environmental quality,
- [00:38:27.870]which we mainly talked
about water quality,
- [00:38:30.720]we call it environmental
quality on this, on this graph,
- [00:38:33.360]but we were asking questions
about a water quality.
- [00:38:37.300]Most of the respondents,
- [00:38:39.130]weren't really sure that
manure had any been sensitive
- [00:38:44.080]to environmental quality and 32% thought
it was at least slightly harmful to
- [00:38:48.490]water quality. And I think
- [00:38:52.180]because to me it says there's not a
good connection that we've made between
- [00:38:57.310]physical and biological properties
being good and how those impact water
- [00:39:02.050]quality. So we've, we've talked,
- [00:39:04.330]I've talked throughout this presentation
and you've probably heard others talk
- [00:39:08.320]today about better soil
quality means less erosion and
- [00:39:12.670]runoff, greater nutrient cycling,
less leeching of nutrients.
- [00:39:17.950]And that's exactly what we're talking
about with water quality, but we,
- [00:39:21.120]we tend to think poorly of manure
- [00:39:26.140]probably because,
- [00:39:28.870]we've seen a lot of cases of over
application of manure, not following,
- [00:39:33.850]proper setbacks, not
applying it rates that,
- [00:39:38.500]that were beneficial to the crop
and not beyond what those crops
- [00:39:43.030]needed. And when we hear those
stories about manure runoff,
- [00:39:47.950]contaminating water,
that's what sticks with us.
- [00:39:51.520]So I think it's really
important to remember the,
- [00:39:55.840]and I'm going to skip over this one
real quick, to save a little time.
- [00:39:59.110]But I think it's really
important to remember if we're
improving soil proper and
- [00:40:04.390]we're following best management practices
for manure or inorganic fertilizers,
- [00:40:08.620]either one, there are water quality
benefits, we're improving the soil,
- [00:40:13.180]we're still adding nutrients to it,
- [00:40:14.620]but we're keeping those nutrients where
the plants can use them versus seeing
- [00:40:18.580]them run off, in the liquid or,
- [00:40:22.420]erode with the solids.
- [00:40:24.370]And so bridging this gap is something
that we're working on with our programming
- [00:40:29.120]to better connect the soil
properties, to the improved,
- [00:40:33.730]water quality benefits,
- [00:40:37.150]real quickly among the farmers and
advisors who regularly used or,
- [00:40:42.760]or recommended fertilizer.
- [00:40:45.250]The majority think that manure and
fertilizer compliment each other.
- [00:40:48.250]And I think that's important
as I mentioned earlier,
- [00:40:50.260]we definitely don't think manure's
the only fertilizer that farmers,
- [00:40:54.700]but the idea of using manure to
meet needs and supplementing with
- [00:40:59.560]inorganic fertilizer,
- [00:41:03.820]we think of beneficial practice
in, and it looks like our,
- [00:41:07.930]audience members out there from the
survey. Agree with that. So,
- [00:41:13.180]I'm gonna, I'm going to skip
over this slide as well.
- [00:41:16.240]These are challenges to manure using
propping systems that we identified in the
- [00:41:19.810]survey. we can come back to
these if you have some questions,
- [00:41:23.650]but for the sake of time, since we started
a little bit late, we'll move on.
- [00:41:28.690]so like I said,
- [00:41:30.460]we're more focused now on not
explaining what's in manure and
- [00:41:35.390]why it's good, but helping farmers,
- [00:41:38.420]make decisions about
- [00:41:42.170]so that they'd get the most
value out of that manure.
- [00:41:45.350]And so we have an activity, some
of you may have seen this already.
- [00:41:49.100]We teach this at our land application
trainings. And essentially what we do is,
- [00:41:53.720]is our participants sit around the
table. We have a map of an area,
- [00:41:58.280]that's, you know,
- [00:42:01.790]area that is representing
where we're teaching us.
- [00:42:04.430]So if we're out on the west side of
Nebraska, we use a map that is,
- [00:42:09.380]from out there and it has different
soil types and it has different,
- [00:42:13.010]typography and precipitation,
data, climate data, and everything.
- [00:42:17.690]But we go through a number
of scenarios. you know,
- [00:42:20.870]if we want to maximize the
nutrient value of that manure,
- [00:42:24.290]here's our fields that we have.
- [00:42:26.570]here's the crops that
we're going to be growing.
- [00:42:28.130]Here's what our soil tests look
like. Let's think through.
- [00:42:32.300]I have a field half a mile
from me that I could apply to.
- [00:42:35.120]So it saves me on transportation costs,
- [00:42:39.410]but I have a field. but that field
is, is high and fosters. You know,
- [00:42:43.580]if it's next to us,
- [00:42:44.720]livestock operations probably gotten
a lot of maneuver over the years,
- [00:42:48.110]so we're not getting any value out of
the phosphorus that's in our manure,
- [00:42:51.140]if we apply it there. So we really can
only account for that, the nitrogen,
- [00:42:55.570]value of that fertilizer.
Maybe we go two miles away. So,
- [00:43:00.440]you know, a little bit
higher transportation costs,
- [00:43:02.900]but we have a field where we're
going to use the nitrogen,
- [00:43:06.260]the phosphorous is needed,
the potassium is needed.
- [00:43:10.430]and so we can get the value of
all three of those fertilizer,
- [00:43:15.920]components from that manure by
traveling a little farther. So we,
- [00:43:20.090]those types of scenarios where we
talk about, you know, the things that,
- [00:43:25.010]you know, well, this one
is near a neighbor. You,
- [00:43:29.270]it tends to be more
sensitive to odors.
- [00:43:31.850]if I go another half mile this direction,
I'm not going to bother that neighbor.
- [00:43:36.650]Maybe that soil is, or
the next crop is, is,
- [00:43:41.630]more likely going to need the
potassium that I'm applying or,
- [00:43:45.130]or more likely to remove phosphorus.
So it's a better option.
- [00:43:49.730]and so this is a training
that's required of,
- [00:43:53.720]permitted livestock
operations in the state.
- [00:43:56.120]At least somebody from their operation
has to go through this training if
- [00:43:59.990]they're managing land
application of manure.
- [00:44:04.190]but we would love to see
more crop producers there
who are thinking about using
- [00:44:08.300]manure and, and going through so
many scenarios and helping,
- [00:44:12.350]understand where,
- [00:44:13.580]where can I use manure and really
get the most benefit out of it.
- [00:44:17.990]so I put up here just a list
of our upcoming trainings.
- [00:44:20.570]We do these every spring and we do
a tour around the state and offer
- [00:44:25.400]these at several locations so that we
can accommodate all of our permitted
- [00:44:29.990]livestock operations. So, I'll
put this slide up again at the end,
- [00:44:34.620]if you want to, look
- [00:44:39.900]I'll wrap up with just some
of the key messages.
- [00:44:42.540]what I think are key takeaway takeaways
from the research we've been doing and,
- [00:44:46.500]and, and some of the research
that others have been doing,
- [00:44:51.000]first of all, manure
- [00:44:57.960]quality and its ability to
withstand different disturbances.
- [00:45:01.890]And it includes resilience.
So the long-term,
- [00:45:06.870]ability of that soil to
recover from stressors,
- [00:45:12.120]when we use the money we're according
to best management practices.
- [00:45:15.060]And that to me is the key. We have,
- [00:45:18.360]lower risks of erosion and runoff
of contaminants to surface water.
- [00:45:22.920]So, like I said, we
often get a bad rap,
- [00:45:26.610]for manure because it's
- [00:45:30.030]with surface water pollution,
- [00:45:32.010]but the key there is to be using it
according to best management practices and
- [00:45:36.690]it's to the farmers advantage to
follow those practices as well,
- [00:45:40.140]and get the most value,
- [00:45:41.130]not over apply the manure and
put on nutrients that the plants
- [00:45:45.980]don't need. and then there's
no value in those. So,
- [00:45:51.150]the body of research out there supports
the assertion that organic fertilizers
- [00:45:55.260]tend to reduce pest risks in cropping
systems, more than inorganic fertilizers.
- [00:46:00.660]So we have a lot of positive,
aspects of using manure.
- [00:46:05.910]our role as educators is to try to
help producers overcome some of those
- [00:46:10.560]barriers. So the, the
transportation costs the,
- [00:46:15.300]determining how much
- [00:46:18.180]to put on to make sure that the nutrients
there are available to the crops,
- [00:46:21.960]so that we don't, we don't
under apply any nutrients,
- [00:46:24.540]but overall our, our motto for the
team has kind of become manure,
- [00:46:29.340]happens, make the most of it.
- [00:46:31.500]And we want to help farmers make the most
of manure, understand where it's,
- [00:46:36.090]it's going to benefit them the
most, economically and,
- [00:46:40.230]regarding their soil quality,
environmental quality and
crop productivity. So,
- [00:46:44.820]so our, our efforts going
forward are connected to helping,
- [00:46:50.070]make that connection between improving
soil with manure and reducing runoff and
- [00:46:53.700]erosion losses,
- [00:46:55.650]kind of getting rid of the bad
reputation that manure might have.
- [00:47:00.930]so with that, I'm
going to wrap up,
- [00:47:03.570]I've put my contact information here,
- [00:47:05.580]so I'll stay on this slide for
just a moment, but then,
- [00:47:08.460]if we want to do some questions,
I'll switch to the,
- [00:47:11.400]list of our upcoming training
program, locations and dates.
- [00:47:16.110]and I would,
- [00:47:17.670]I would love to see some properties there
that are there because I want to learn
- [00:47:20.280]more about it, using
- [00:47:24.360]as opposed to just being there,
- [00:47:26.730]because they have to for an operating
permit. So thank you very much.
- [00:47:32.200]hope I didn't go too far over and I'll
go ahead and switch to the slide and take
- [00:47:35.830]questions if you have them.
- [00:47:38.350]Thanks, Amy. Why don't we give
Amy a round of applause? Thanks.
- [00:47:43.270]Okay. why don't we take one
question here from the crowd,
- [00:47:46.780]and I don't know if we have any online,
but, you had a question for me.
- [00:47:51.580]I read recently that the
biofuels industry is.
- [00:47:55.930]I am not hearing you guys,
if you are talking to me
- [00:48:03.040]I thought they were might just have
emptied out while I was talking to us a
- [00:48:06.160]Nervous there.
- [00:48:09.400]I can hear you now. Okay, good.
- [00:48:12.070]I read recently that the biofuels
industry is utilizing manure as
- [00:48:16.900]a source to make biofuels
from, and I guess,
- [00:48:21.340]increasing in that practice.
- [00:48:22.990]So do you have any insight
into how much of a threat that
- [00:48:27.850]might become, for the
availability for farmers of manure?
- [00:48:34.780]Yeah, it's interesting. So if
we think about here in Nebraska,
- [00:48:40.150]where the bees stay, right, we
have a lot of beef production.
- [00:48:43.300]Those feed lot sources of
manure are not great for energy
- [00:48:49.210]And the main reason is that energy
production comes from the organic fraction
- [00:48:54.130]of manure. So when we think of a
dairy farm that has a flush system,
- [00:48:58.690]there's a lot, there's
a lot of carbon,
- [00:49:01.150]pretty decent concentration of
nutrients and carbon in that manure.
- [00:49:04.420]And not a lot of soil contamination.
- [00:49:07.930]If they're a sand bedded operation,
- [00:49:09.850]we got to get the sand out
of there because it just
clogs up the whole process,
- [00:49:13.090]which we're digesting or otherwise,
- [00:49:17.350]doing some sort of, fuel,
- [00:49:20.680]generation from that
manure beef from anywhere.
- [00:49:23.200]It just has a lot of
inorganic contaminants in it.
- [00:49:26.710]If it's coming from a feedlot system,
- [00:49:28.420]it's hard not to get soil
when you scrape the manure.
- [00:49:31.900]And so there's been quite a bit of,
- [00:49:34.810]work and conversation and ideas
about, digesting B feed,
- [00:49:39.100]lot manure to generate, methane.
- [00:49:43.120]And most of the work that I've
seen in the work that I've done
- [00:49:48.100]personally is it's just not a good system
- [00:49:52.810]because we, we end up
clogging up or, or,
- [00:49:57.640]ruining that biological activity
that we want inside of our digester,
- [00:50:01.210]because there's too much
inorganic material in there.
- [00:50:06.490]on the other hand, we're seeing a lot
more, confined beef operations.
- [00:50:10.150]So during their deep bedded or
a slurry slurry pit storage,
- [00:50:15.670]and those I think are gonna,
- [00:50:18.370]be good candidates for energy production
because just like dairy systems,
- [00:50:23.050]there's a lot of, a lot of
carbon that's excreted in that,
- [00:50:28.130]and that manure and
it's a good concentration.
- [00:50:32.840]So concentration not, not
too much liquid in there.
- [00:50:36.950]dairies to me are the kind
of the ideal place to,
- [00:50:41.360]to have a digester swine systems.
We've seen digesters work,
- [00:50:45.440]but honestly, there's,
there's just a lot of,
- [00:50:48.590]a lot higher moisture
content and a lot less,
- [00:50:52.790]degradable carbon in that material
than what we see in like a beef slurry
- [00:50:57.950]or a very slurry.
- [00:51:01.610]So I guess I don't see that I don't see
all of our money. We're going to,
- [00:51:06.470]energy production anytime
soon, at least in Nebraska.
Log in to post comments