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04 Ornamental and Turf Pest Control 2022
04 Ornamental and Turf Pest Control updated for the 2022 training season.
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Hello, and welcome to Pesticide Applicator
for category 04 on your license, Ornamental and Turf.
Today, we will hear from experts on plant biology,
their growth, control method,
and new and different technologies
to help maintain your ornamental and turf landscape.
This training will provide a valuable review
of new practices and some that you may already be using.
My name is Kyle Broderick and I am the plant diagnostician
and coordinator of the Plant and Pest Diagnostic Clinic
at the University of Nebraska Lincoln.
And today we're going to be talking about pesticide use
and integrated pest management within a lot
of our urban landscape environments.
Now, there are a few things that bring joy,
as much as a well-kept and disease-free landscape.
insect pests, diseases are an unfortunate part of life,
and we have to deal with them, all the time when managing
any of these landscapes, whether it is a park,
a golf course or your own backyard.
Now proper management of these of these pests
is also heavily important
just because we have a pest present,
does not always mean that control is warranted
for this pest or disease.
And in making that determination of whether or not
we need to implement a management practice
can also be one of the most difficult aspects
of developing a integrated pest management program.
So what is IPM, well integrated pest management
is an approach that as the name implies,
seeks to manage the pests and diseases in a landscape,
as opposed to completely eliminating them,
just because of pest or disease is present in the landscape,
doesn't always mean that we necessarily will need
to manage for them, however,
just that we're trying to keep their levels
low enough that we won't see damage occurring,
or at least that we won't see an unacceptable
amount of damage occurring.
And we can implement an IPM approach
by focusing on a few steps.
And so the first step is correct identification
of the problem, we need to know,
is this an insect pest that we're dealing with?
Is it a disease, is it fungal?
Is it bacterial?
Is it a nematode or is it something abiotic
or environmental that we are dealing with?
Understanding what that problem is
and correctly identifying that problem is always
the first step to any sort of management program.
And once we have properly identified
whatever pester problem is in the landscape,
now we can start to develop our management program.
And once we've identified the problem,
now we need to be out monitoring for these pests.
Many of our insect pests and diseases,
lifecycle is highly dependent on the environment,
how much moisture we have,
certain temperature conditions as well,
and their life cycle will depend
much more on the environment than any sort of calendar date.
So making sure that we are out in the landscape, monitoring
or sampling for these diseases are pests
as opposed to making an application
purely based on a calendar date,
is heavily or highly important.
We also wanna try to establish some sort of management
or some sort of management or damage threshold.
So basically a level at which,
if we see more damage than this occurring,
that's when we'll start to implement
one of our management practices.
And once we've implemented a management practice,
we always need to evaluate that management.
If it's not working, maybe it's time to go back
to the drawing board and develop a new program.
Now, there are many tools that are available
in integrated pest management
when it comes to managing these pests,
pesticides are a very important aspect
of integrated pest management.
However, often, really pesticides should only be used
as a last control option, when we have already utilized
a lot of our non-chemical controls,
some of these non-chemical control options
would be looking at cultural controls.
And so making sure that we are managing
our moisture properly, that we're managing fertility,
having a balanced fertility,
greatly reduces a lot of excess stress on plants
and allows them to fight off any diseases
or insect damage a little bit better.
In addition to our cultural controls,
we also have genetic resistance that's available as well.
If this is a chronic problem that you've been dealing with
in an area, year after year after year,
instead of continuing to manage that problem, instead,
maybe let's start thinking about a replacement plant,
if possible, maybe we can have a completely different
species of plant that's better suited
for the individual stresses, or we can find a plant
of the same species that's resistant
to whatever the main problems are in an area.
As I mentioned, chemistry's are certainly
a valuable part of any IPM program.
However, really they should be used as a last resort.
And the reason for this is many of the problems
that come into the diagnostic clinic,
whether it's an insect issue or a disease,
the main problem is something environmental
or abiotic or caused by a non-living factor,
roughly 80% of the samples
that come through the diagnostic clinic,
the main problem is not caused by a disease,
is not caused by an insect,
instead it's caused by the general environment
that the plant is growing in.
It's making it more susceptible to these insects
or disease problems.
By managing these other environmental problems
that the plant is suffering from,
that makes it much more resistant
to many of our diseases and insects.
And we may not even need to apply some of these chemistries
if we have taken care of the cultural controls necessary.
As we were thinking about using pesticides
to control any of our problems in our landscapes,
responsible pesticide use
is always something to keep in mind.
And that responsible use always starts
with following the label.
Remember, the label is law.
And so we need to make sure
that we're following the label in regards to dosage.
So making sure that we're applying the correct rate
in a given area for a given pest and plant,
but in addition to following those dosage recommendations,
we also need to be looking at some other things
on the pesticide label.
What is the environment doing?
Are the environmental conditions today
suitable to apply this pesticide?
It's not too hot, it's not too windy, it's not too wet.
If we ignore some of these environmental aspects
that are on the label, phytotoxicity may occur,
or we may just have an ineffective pesticide application.
Now, in addition to following that pesticide label,
we also want to be using different tank mixes.
And so mixing different active ingredients
or different pesticide groups as possible,
or if that's not an option, that we are rotating
the pesticide groups when making multiple applications
in a given year.
By using tank mixes with different pesticide groups
or rotating that active ingredient,
that greatly reduces the likelihood that any of our pests
will develop resistance to our pesticides,
rendering them useless.
And finally, we're only going to be applying
any of these pesticides when warranted based on risk,
which is also known as one of our action thresholds.
Now unfortunately, it can be difficult
to determine your action threshold
without knowing exactly what the problem is.
So on-site diagnostics becomes very, very important
when looking at your overall landscape.
Symptoms of different diseases or insects
can look very similar to each other.
Some of these symptoms may also mimic
different environmental conditions.
For example, if you have a row of lilacs
and the leaves are beginning to turn black,
this may be caused by bacterial blight of lilacs,
or it could be caused by a fungal leaf spot
or it could be caused by cold temperatures,
all three different causes
on lilacs that they result in very similar symptoms.
Misidentifying the cause of those symptoms
will render any management useless,
trying to manage a bacterial disease
with the fungicide just does not work.
And if it's environmental,
no amount of chemistries
that you apply will ever get those leaves to return.
So the questions to ask
when we're at our site and doing our diagnostics,
the first question is, what plant am I dealing with?
This may seem very basic,
but it's one of the most common problems
that we see in the diagnostic clinic,
knowing what the exact plant,
knowing not only what the plant is,
but also knowing what variety or cultivar it is,
gives you an indication of its environmental requirements,
how much moisture it needs,
what sort of fertility is required
for this plant to grow properly.
But it also helps tell us what's normal for this plant.
If we have an evergreen and we're seeing
the internal needles start to turn yellow
and drop, is that concerning?
Possibly, if we're seeing that internal needle drop
occurring on a pine tree, that's perfectly normal.
As most pines only hold onto their needles
for a couple of years.
And they'll shed those internal internal needles
when they're no longer needed.
However, if you're seeing this needle drop
occurring on a spruce tree, now that's more concerning,
as spruces tend to hold onto their needles much longer.
In addition to having an idea of what's normal for a plant,
knowing exactly what the plant is
also gives us a list of key pests or diseases
that may be present.
Knowing what the common diseases are, chances are,
what we are dealing with will be one of our common diseases
as opposed to something brand new and unique.
And the next question that I always ask
is what does it look like?
And so what sort of symptoms are we seeing?
Are we seeing general dieback occurring?
Are we seeing general leaf spots?
Is there just a dead patch that's occurring?
Identifying those symptoms is very important,
but identifying those symptoms
from different scales is critical also.
And so the first scale, what are those symptoms look like
from an entire landscape perspective?
Are there any environmental conditions
that may be influencing plant health in the landscape,
such as low areas or water runoff
that could be predisposing the plant to infection.
Once we've looked at the entire landscape scale,
then we wanna dig down and look at the entire plant.
And where on the plant are we see an injury occur?
Is it primarily at an injury to the roots or crown?
Is it an issue that we're seeing in the foliage?
Is it up at the top of the plant
or is it primarily affecting the flowers
or reproductive structures of the plant?
Different insects and different diseases
tend to attack different parts of the plant
and knowing which part is being attacked
can help you narrow down which pest
or disease you are dealing with.
And then finally,
once we've looked at the overall landscape,
looked at the entire plant,
then we want look at those individual plant parts.
And where on the individual plant parts
are we seen injury occurring.
If we're seeing very uniform injury
occurring on the plant parts,
maybe it's an antibiotic problem.
As many of our diseases tend to show up
a little bit more random, and they're not near as uniform.
Once we've looked at the plant and recognized symptoms
at these three different scales,
then we can start to look for actual evidence
of any pest or insect on that plant.
Maybe we're able to see some of the cottony,
cobwebby type growth that's often associated
with fungal diseases,
or maybe we can see some fungal fruiting structures,
maybe they're black specs that are often found
with many of our fungal diseases
or possibly are seen insect eggs or the frass
or insect poop that's there,
or maybe they're cast skins or the insect itself.
Looking for that specific evidence is very, very important.
And so once we properly identify the plant,
looked at symptoms, symptoms on the plant,
symptoms across the entire entire environment
and symptoms on individual plant parts,
also evaluated the entire environment
to see if there's any adverse conditions
that may predispose the plants to infection.
And then we've looked for physical evidence
of the pest on the plant,
then we can put it all together and hopefully,
that will lead us to a good answer
for what the primary problem that we're seeing is.
If you've asked all these questions
and you're still not able
to come up with a conclusion as to what the pest is,
then we always have our local extension office
that can provide support
or the plant in pest diagnostic clinic.
We do have a nice QR code that can be followed
to go to the plant and pest diagnostic clinics website,
as well as contact information can be seen
on the slide provided.
So once we have properly identified the problem,
now it's time to develop our action threshold.
As I mentioned earlier,
we don't have a lot of great action thresholds
for many of our landscape or ornamental plants.
We have action thresholds for a lot of agronomic plants,
but not so much with things in the landscape.
And the reason for this is that there just has not
been the research done to say that if we have,
this amount of disease occurring on a plant
then we will see this amount of injury occur.
And so often these action thresholds
will need to be developed for each individual situation
based on conversations with the clientele,
to determine how much injury is deemed acceptable
in their specific situations.
And often these action thresholds will not only be
how much damage we are seeing,
but also the overall cost of action.
And so how much will the management cost?
Both in product and time.
Also, what's the overall impact
of this action on the environment?
And finally, specific thresholds may be developed
by long-term growers, purely by looking
at trends over time.
They see if we have this number of grubs in the lawn
at this time of year,
it's likely that we will need to apply
some sort of insecticidal control.
And why do we even need to use action thresholds?
As mentioned previously,
many of our insects and diseases,
their life cycle is primarily based
on environmental conditions
as opposed to a specific calendar date.
So waiting to make sure that we have
those environmental conditions to allow for an increase
in that insect population or the disease to occur
before damage before damage appears is critical,
as opposed to applying a pesticide
purely based on the calendar date.
The other thing that use of action thresholds does
is it helps maintain pesticide efficacy.
If we're not applying a pesticide
purely based on the calendar date
or doing it every year, only applying these pesticides
based on need, that normally will reduce
the amount of pesticide applied,
which reduces the likelihood
of these pests becoming resistant
to the different chemistries.
And since we don't have a lot of research driven,
established action thresholds
for many of our landscape and ornamental plants,
we need to develop those thresholds ourselves.
And these can be done a few different ways.
Ideally, we would have some sort
of quantitative or numerical threshold
that we could be using.
This is very common with a lot of our insect pests.
If we have collected X amount of mods in the traps
per week, that will tell us action,
we need to apply some sort of management program.
This is not near as easy to do
for a lot of our diseases.
We can't go out and count the individual spores
that we're seeing or see how quickly
are bacterial cells multiplying.
So, we're often able to establish
a lot of our action thresholds for diseases
by looking at historical trends.
Looking at in previous years,
when did these diseases start to occur?
And once these started to occur, when did they decline?
So once we have developed, once we have properly identified
the problem occurring and developed
our action threshold, now is when you need to have
this conversation with your clientele
regarding whether or not treatment should apply.
And we have a great list of specific questions
that can be asked to help determine
whether or not management is applicable
this year or every year.
Now unfortunately, we do have new pests
and new diseases moving into landscapes all of the time.
And just the pests that we have today
are not necessarily the diseases and insects
that we'll have to deal with in the future.
Some of the insects and diseases
that we are monitoring in the future,
are spotted lantern fly, Asian Longhorned beetle,
bacterial leaf scorch, the bacteria leaf scorch occurs
on many of our ornamentals
and also thousand canker disease on black walnuts.
Now when managing the landscape,
overall plant health and appearance
is your job, complete elimination of all pests
and insects from the environment
is not necessarily your job.
And it's important to remember
that a successful integrated pest management program
is not a one size fits all approach,
but instead, can be customized
working with each individual situation.
Hi, I'm Jonathan Larson.
I'm an entomologist for the University of Nebraska.
I'm here in the Maxwell Arboretum on east campus.
And I'm here today to talk to you a little bit
about some of the pests that can infest our trees,
our lawns and our landscape plants.
We have lots of different bugs out there
that can cause problems.
We have lots of bugs out there that don't cause issues
that we'd like to preserve,
but those pests are the ones
that you're probably gonna get the most calls about.
So in Nebraska, we mainly worry about things
like aphids feeding in the leaf zone.
Aphids are small, Hemipteran insects.
They have true mouthparts that look like a needle
that they use to siphon out fluids from the plant for food.
They feed on just about any kind of plant
that grows in our landscape.
They're usually green, but they can be red.
They can be yellow that can even be kind of black in color.
As they feed, they can cause the leaf to curl.
They'll hide out under the leaves that they make curl over.
So they have a nice tidy spot to hide out in,
and they can also cause the plant
to look really wilty overall.
The other symptom that we associate with aphids
is that when they feed,
they're sucking up all that sugar juice.
So they're also pooping out a lot of sugar juice.
We call this honeydew, honeydew often accumulates
on the leaf as this sticky, wet puddle.
It can fall down onto people.
It can also get on cars and decks.
It can be really annoying.
And your clients may call you
about that issue in particular,
it also produces the premium growth opportunity
for things like black sooty mold.
So if you have an aphid issue,
you may see a lot of sooty mold growing on the bark,
on the branches or on the leaves.
Aphids can be controlled in a variety of ways.
If it's just on a little shrub
or a little perennial or annual plant,
you can really just blow them off with a hose of water.
Once they fall off the plant,
they have a tough time getting back up onto it.
So just a strong jet of water,
we'll knock them off and dislodge them.
You can also use things like insecticidal soaps.
You wanna treat the top and bottom of the leaf
in order to get maximum coverage.
If an insecticidal soap is put onto these aphids,
it soaks them and it clogs them all up
and it will kill them.
Some more traditional insecticides
that would be non-organic would be pyrethroid type products,
sprayed on the leaf until it kind of drips off,
that way, you can control those pests for your client.
So other Hemipteran that cause issues
would be scale insects.
They feed very similarly to the aphid.
They have the same kind of feeding diet.
They feed on that sugary sap as well.
And they are different in that they're not very mobile.
Aphids can move around and walk and they can be seen
pretty easily, they look like plant lice.
The scale on the other hand are usually camouflaged.
They glue themselves to the plant and they pretty much stay
in one spot, they're nature's greatest couch potato.
They just sit on this one spot
and never move and drink the sugar water.
They also cause sooty mold
and the honeydew to accumulate and the wilting,
they're a little tougher to control though.
They're often covered in a waxy cuticle
that can protect them from insecticidal sprays.
So we wanna time our sprays according to their life cycle.
In the early part of the year,
when things are starting to leaf out,
you'll notice that there could be crawlers on the plant.
The crawler is the only moving stage
of the scale's life cycle.
It's the immature form,
and they're looking for a new spot to hang out on.
And so they're crawling around.
They're usually little and yellow.
You can put a piece of black electrical tape
wrapped around the branch, sticky side up,
and you can monitor for scales using that tactic.
The crawlers will get stuck in it.
And that will tell you it's time to make an application
of a pyrethroid or again, and insecticidal soap
if you wanted to use it,
scales can also be destroyed with dormant oil applications
in the winter when the tree is not growing,
there are other pests that don't just feed
on that sugary sap.
There's some that feed on the leafy material itself,
here in Nebraska, we have a few examples of that.
A big one that we're seeing more and more of is the bagworm.
We're hearing more reports of this insect feeding
a lot of our different evergreen plants.
Bagworms are caterpillars.
They love feeding on Juniper, arborvitae, pine, spruce,
they'll even get in larch.
You can also find them in some of our deciduous plants
like oak and locus trees.
And when they're in those trees,
they're gonna cut the leaves up and consume them.
They're also gonna take bits of the leaf or berries
and other materials in the tree,
and they're going to use it to construct
a silk bag around their body.
They use a silk that they produce and this debris,
they glue it all together and they get
this nice sleeping bag that they get to hang out in.
It protects them from the elements.
Keeps them safe from predators.
It also camouflages them into the tree that they live.
Once they do that, they're gonna feed
for about eight to 10 weeks in the summer.
They first emerge in may, maybe early June,
depending on where you're at in the state.
And then over eight to 10 weeks,
they can create this bronzing symptom
on our evergreen plants.
They feed and create this brown spot that used to be green.
It's very unsightly, and if it's left unchecked,
it will kill the plant over successive generations.
They usually start at the top and then move their way down
through the tree over the next few years.
Bagworms can just stay in the tree
and re-infest the one that they were born in,
or they can do what we call ballooning.
This is how new infestations get started.
They start hatching out and they crawl to the end
of the leaf, that little caterpillar is so small
it can just release a strand of silk,
which is picked up by the wind.
And it carries the caterpillar for miles to a new location
that it can infest, once they get there,
they land on the tree, they start feeding,
building their bag and developing, once they become mature,
the male pupate, and then he comes out as a little moth
that can fly around.
It's small, brown and very fuzzy, with big feathery antenna.
The female, when she pupates,
she turns into what we call sort of a super caterpillar.
She never becomes a true moth and she never leaves the bag.
She stays inside of there for her entire life.
Males are able to detect which bags contain females
with their large feathery antenna.
They detect pheromones and they fly up to the bag,
mate with her through the bag and then he dies.
He uses all his energy up to do that.
The female will be inside of the bag protected.
She lays her eggs in there with her,
and then she parishes, those eggs will stay in the bag
over the winter and emerge the next spring
to start the cycle all over again.
Bagworms can be controlled either through organic options
like going out in March or April
and snipping bags from trees,
cutting them out with a shear or a pair of scissors
or a knife, the bag is quite tough.
It can be hard to remove just by using your hand.
But if you cut those out, you'll remove the bags
before those eggs hatch out and you can stop them
from re-investing the tree the next year.
If you don't do that,
you can get out in the early part of the year,
usually in early June and apply BT to the plants.
BT is made of bacillus thuringiensis, it is organic,
but it's extremely effective against caterpillars.
When they ingest this,
it crystallizes inside of them and it can shred them
from the inside out, it's extremely gruesome,
but it's a great way to control caterpillars.
Once they ingest it, there'll be controlled by that.
And you've controlled that problem for your client.
If you miss that early window in June though,
if you go out in July or August and have bigger bags
and bigger bagworms,
you're gonna wanna treat with or carbaryl,
to control those larger caterpillars.
There are other plant feeding insects,
such as Japanese beetles that are becoming a bigger issue.
Japanese beetles are one of our rare two for pests.
There are pests both as an adult and as a larva.
As an adult, they feed on over 300 different species
of plants and 80 different families.
There are Scarab beetles.
So they're kind of oval in shape.
They're a bright metallic green as well as a copper color
on the top of their elytra.
And they have white fuzzy dots
along the edge of their abdomen.
This is one of the main traits that we use to separate them
from things like false Japanese beetles
and other species that they resemble.
When they feed on the plant,
they usually attack the leaf zone.
When they feed on the leaf,
they have very sharp mandibles
that cut through the green
tissue and all they leave behind is the vein of the plant.
It's what we call skeletonization.
It's also kind of Lacy and appearance.
As this happens, the tree starts to lose its leaves
and it can look like autumn is setting in,
in the middle of summer.
They'll also attack fruits, they love grape.
They love peaches and they'll hollow out those fruits
and they love flowers as well.
They'll eat the blooms of roses and shred them into a fine,
almost powder after they get through with them.
They're extremely damaging, it's extremely unsightly.
And it aggravates a lot of folks.
There are some things that we can do
to prevent this damage, on trees that they attack.
We can use a systemic soil applied insecticide,
like Imidacloprid around the root flare of the tree,
it's absorbed and the tree is protected for one year.
You can do this on every tree that they attack,
except for lindens.
Lindens have a special labeling issue
where for a lot of Imidacloprid products,
you're no longer allowed to use that type of chemistry
on a Linden tree.
Always check the label.
Some products are allowed, other products are not allowed.
So always make sure you check
before you treat a Linden tree.
you can also treat the leaves' foliarly
with products like Pyrethrin, Chlorantraniliprole
The leaves are soaked and then they're protected
depending on the product.
For one week for Carbaryl, up to four weeks
with Pyrethrin and Chlorantraniliprole.
If you're trying to protect shrubs
and other plants in the landscape,
it might be better to focus on Pyrethrin on those leaves,
never get it on the flowering portion of the plant,
or you're creating a hazard for pollinating insects.
There are some organic options.
If your business is oriented that way,
you might try Neem or Pyola applied to the leaves,
they do provide protection for three to seven days.
You're gonna have to make multiple applications though.
For the grub stage, we have a different set of issues.
They feed in the root zone of turf grass.
And when they do that, they can create
large dead patches of brown grass
that lift up from the ground, like a carpet from the floor.
There's no roots tethering it to the soil anymore.
So it just lifts right out of there.
They also attract things like skunks and raccoons
to the yard because they wanna feed
on these yummy land shrimp that are below the turf.
When they're under there,
they go through several stages of growth.
They're an egg in August,
up until about the end of that month.
And then they feed in August in September and October,
and they go through three stages of development.
After that, they go down lower in the soil and overwinter,
and pupate the next spring before they emerge
in May and June, when they're down there in the soil,
it can be hard to get the insecticide
where we want it to be.
But if you do a preventative application
in April or May at the latest, the 4th of July,
usually wanna get it out in May or June.
If you get the products out like Scott's GrubEx,
which has Chlorantraniliprole or Imidacloprid
which is found in products like merit,
the plant will be protected systemically
for that growing season,
but you've gotta do that every early summer.
Otherwise it won't work.
There's also curative products that you can use
in the September timeframe.
You'd go out with a Carbaryl type product or,
and those products when they soak in,
they'll control about 75% of those grubs
that are below the soil.
there's also a new invasive species out there
that we're really worried about
that's called the Emerald Ash borer.
This is an invasive pest from Asia.
We believe it was accidentally introduced
into the United States from wooden packaging material.
And it was first found in the Detroit Michigan area in 2002.
Since that initial find it's been found
in over 30 different states, several Canadian provinces.
And if you want the most up-to-date information
on where it lives go to EmeraldAshborer.info.
It has a really up-to-date map
that shows you where all the locations are.
We first confirmed this pest in Nebraska in 2016,
it was first found in the Omaha Metro area,
but then it was also found in Greenwood,
Nebraska in the same year,
if you want the most up-to-date info on where it's at
in Nebraska, check the Nebraska forest services website,
they have a really cool map that shows
all the different spots, this pest detects
all of the different types of ash
that we grow in the United States,
blue ash, white ash, black ash,
all of the different cultivars, including purple
and autumn spectacular ash are equally effected.
If you don't do anything to stop this pest,
it will kill these trees
over the course of seven to 10 years.
We also have to worry about closely related species
like the white fringe tree,
which can be infested as well.
In terms of what to do about this pest.
If you haven't had a confirmed sighting in your area yet,
it's best to just be vigilant for it.
You wanna look out for symptoms like dieback
in the upper one-third of the canopy.
The tree is gonna have an infestation starting up there,
where the beetle feeds in those branches.
And as they do that, it can cause leaf loss.
So if you see that happening, it's a good early indicator
there could be a problem.
We also see epicormic shoots
sprouting out from the base of the tree.
New leaves that don't belong there, trying to save itself,
the tree will produce as many leaves as it can.
You also see an increase in woodpecker feeding,
they eat the larva.
And so they'll attack the tree more vigorously,
trying to get to those larvae underneath.
What the larva are doing are they're feeding
in the Cambium layer of the tree.
This is the layer of the tree
that moves nutrients from the soil to the rest.
They create this serpentine like damage that you see here.
And eventually they'll deprive the tree
of its ability to feed itself.
This is caused by the larva.
When they're ready to emerge as an adult,
they will crawl out from the tree
and leave behind a D shaped exit hole.
Their body is kind of boat shaped,
flat on one side and round on the other.
So they leave this behind.
These would be the indicators that if you're cutting limbs
out of a tree and you see these,
your client probably has EAB and you need to report it
to your local extension office
or to the Nebraska Forest Service.
If you wanna try and prevent this pest
from getting into your client's trees,
you're gonna be focused on using either
a soil applied systemic product like Imidacloprid
a or you're gonna be doing a trunk injection,
which is usually done with a Imidacloprid
or things like Emamectin benzoate.
Depending on what you use,
the product will last for one year
with those neonicotinoids or two years
with the Emamectin benzoate.
Keep in mind what you're using and tell your client
how often they're gonna have to treat the tree.
You also wanna pay close attention
to how healthy the tree is.
If it's not a healthy candidate for treatment,
you should recommend that they remove the tree
and replace it with a non ash species.
Only treat the best trees.
If they use those products though,
they are very effective against this pest.
They have about 98 to 99% control over it.
And you're gonna keep those trees protected
for an indefinite period of time
until the client decides it's time to remove them,
but keep your eyes open,
looking for all those different bugs out there
and help us to know where they're at
and try and use some of these products that we've listed
if you wanna control pest for your clients.
Hi, I'm Roch Gaussoin,
I'm the extension turf grass specialist
at the University of Nebraska Lincoln.
Today, we're gonna talk about weed ecology.
Now, many of you responsibilities include controlling weeds,
but what's really paramount to really understanding
how to control weeds is a little bit about their biology.
So rather than talk about herbicide recommendations
and rates and spray patterns and that sort of thing,
today, we're gonna talk,
I'll spend a little more time talking in depth
about weed biology,
and why it's so important
for successful management strategies.
Weeds can be classified as either annuals,
summer annuals or winter annuals
within the annual category, or perennials,
how you control them will be mandated
by what type of life cycle they have.
Winter annuals, as their name implies,
germinate in the fall of the year,
over winter, and then the following early spring,
they produce seed heads and drop the seed to the ground.
And then that starts to cycle for the winter annuals.
Summer annuals on the other hand,
like crab grass and goose grass
and some of the other very common weeds in lawns
end up germinating in the spring of the year,
they will produce a fairly prolific amount
of vegetative matter early in the season.
And then later in the season,
they will start producing seed heads.
So both of these weeds,
although they are very similar in their growth habit,
annual in nature will require a different strategy.
The most effective way to control annual weeds
is normally with a pre-emergent herbicide.
And the timing is very critical on their life cycle.
So even though we started this conversation
about not using herbicides,
we are gonna say that for annual weeds,
the use of pre-emergent herbicides is probably recommended.
With something like crab grass,
you're gonna be applying that in the spring,
for something like Downy brome,
you're gonna be applying that in the fall
based on when they germinate.
So that's the first step in understanding
how to effective control them based on weed biology.
Perennial weeds on the other hand, generally produce,
they can germinate out almost any during the summer.
They're generally gonna produce seed heads
sometime during the summer or late summer,
they're gonna produce that seed drop to the ground,
but what's more important about perennial weeds
is they have below ground structures,
often rhizome, stolons, tubers,
a lot of different ways that they can reproduce.
And because of that, they're much more difficult to control.
An example of a perennial weed would be dandelion
and dandelion is very prolific in the spring.
You see the seed heads being produced
with that bright yellow flower.
There is a fair amount of information out currently now,
that that's a pretty good for pollinators.
So in some of the outer play areas,
you might wanna leave that there
if you're trying to attract pollinators
at your particular locations.
So perennials, annuals, annuals are two applied,
both summer annuals and winter annuals.
Lifecycle is the first thing.
The other thing you need to know a little bit about them
when you come to weed biology,
is it a monocot or a grassy weed or a dicot,
which would be a broadleaf weed?
Dandelion clearly is a broadleaf weed
by the very nature of its its leaf.
But can you tell with others,
whether they're broad leaf or grassy weeds,
and the way to tell that is the way the veins are arranged
in the leaf, broad leaf weeds have a net venation look,
spider web like, and when you hold it up to the light,
or even on something like dandelion,
where the veins are very prominent,
it's relatively easy to identify them
with the netted leaf venation, monocot weeds
or grassy weeds, and also including sedges and lilies
and some of the ornamentals have parallel leaf Fundations,
and we'll show you some closeup pictures here
in a minute of what those look like.
And you'll pretty much understand
why we think that's important and the strategies
you'll use for managing perennial and annual grassy weeds
is gonna be different than perennial and grassy weeds
in the broadly for the arena.
There are some strategies
that will control both equally well,
and there's even herbicide strategies
that will control both equally well,
but you still have to be able to delineate
between lifecycle first and whether they're a monocot
and dicot before you can come up with a true strategy
about why, or what to use to control that weed.
Now, we started this conversation about ecology.
Now, why is ecology important?
You need to understand a lot about how that weed grows
to better understand how you're gonna control it
as we've previously mentioned.
So that said, what was ecologically important
about say a dandelion versus a crab grass plant?
Well, crab grass plants are prolific producers of seed.
So strategically you want to control those weeds
before the seed head is produced,
whether that's with mowing,
whether that's with some other less invasive technique,
rather than herbicides, but just keep those seed heads down.
And in subsequent years,
you're probably gonna have far less crab grass.
Could you eradicate crab grass totally with mowing?
Probably not, but at least you could eliminate it,
or excuse me, at least you could reduce it.
And in that case, make it easier to control
in subsequent years with perhaps a more traditional
Management also critical, in a turf system,
we talk about mowing height, we talk about fertility.
We talk about irrigation.
These are all very critical in the understanding
of how you would wanna best go about limiting
the invasion of a particular weed.
So some weeds prosper under very wet soils,
Yellow Nutsedge for example,
a weed that we're gonna talk about a little bit later.
And other weeds really prosper
when the ground is compacted, such as prostrate knotweed,
such as goose grass, such as annual bluegrass.
These weeds proliferate when the ground is compacted.
So sometimes something as simple as aerification
with a core air raider or some sort of cultivation device
may do enough to pull it up.
Outside the turf arena,
when we get into the ornamental arena,
you might wanna consider mulching,
the use of some of these other techniques that are far
can really facilitate control
without the use of herbicides.
You might still need to use herbicides,
but at the end of the day,
you can limit a fair amount of weeds in ornamental beds,
simply with a really good landscape mulch,
generally something in the range
of shredded bark, pine needles.
There's a number of them on the market,
avoid landscape fabrics,
and also avoid the use of synthetic type mulches,
like the crumb rubber mulches.
They tend to heat up and they're hard to dispose of.
So we would avoid those in that particular instance.
So we've talked really in broad based terms
about weed ecology, and really,
it's not a total lesson right here in these few minutes,
but now we're gonna isolate a weed in particular,
that would be Yellow Nutsedge.
And we're gonna talk a little bit more at length
about why the ecology of that weed
is really critical to understanding
what would the best strategy of you would be
to control that weed.
So let's move on to the Yellow Nutsedge plants.
We're standing on the Yellow Nutsedge ecology study
and turf study that is located
on the east campus turf plots.
And the reason we're standing here
is we've been talking about weed ecology,
but sometimes a picture and a description
is worth 1000 words.
So we're gonna talk a little bit about the study
in general terms.
And then we're gonna take a closer look at what's going on
ecologically in these particular plots.
So what we've done here is we've planted three by three
plots of Kentucky bluegrass from sod.
And we also have three by three plots
that have no grass in them, so it's bare ground.
Then we've taken a single Yellow Nutsedge plant,
one yellow nutsedge plant
germinated from a single yellow nutsedge tuber.
And we've planted it in the center
of each of these small three by three plots.
Then we've applied various irrigation rates
as well as variable nitrogen rates
to these plots to see whether we can detract
or enhance the invasion of Yellow Nutsedge
with the use of either nitrogen fertilizer
at the correct rate or the use of irrigation
and little or no water,
depending upon what the treatment is.
So you see a lot of different plots here.
It looks a little bit like a patchwork quilt
and from the air, it definitely looks like that.
So we've got a lot going on here,
but let's try to break this down
into exactly what happened.
A year ago, we started the study.
And so we started the treatments.
We started the bare ground,
Yellow Nutsedge plants in the center.
And over time they've developed
these relatively strong stands of Yellow Nutsedge
and some stands that don't look quite as strong.
So let's take a closer look at those particular plots.
The plot I'm looking at right now
was planted to bluegrass and then a Yellow Nutsedge plant
was planted right in the center.
This was a moderate rate of nitrogen fertilizer,
not too high, not too low,
well within the range of what we recommend
in all our recommendations
available on the turf website.
And you're hard pressed to find the Yellow Nutsedge plant.
Healthy turf, mowed at three inches.
Good fertility, good irrigation based on evapotranspiration.
All of the things we would recommend,
immediately adjacent to that plot
was a single Yellow Nutsedge plant planted in bare ground.
This three by three plot now is 100%
Yellow Nutsedge because it didn't have
that aggressively growing healthy Kentucky bluegrass
to compete for space and light and water and nutrients.
And so, because of that,
it just took over the spot, no Yellow Nutsedge,
100% Yellow Nutsedge.
Now Yellow Nutsedge reproduces by tubers.
It's a little below ground storage organ,
much like a potato, as they're a matter of fact,
in some developing countries,
they use the tubers to make flatbreads and tortillas
and other things.
So it does have some nutritional value,
but in a lawn situation,
it really is an undesirable species.
In this three by three plot, a year later,
We've dug plots like this up.
We've counted the number of tubers
that are in this three by three area, and it's over 5,000.
So that's why you can see this continuous proliferation
of Yellow Nutsedge, healthy turf, no Nutsedge,
no nutlets left behind, three by three plot
with no competitive turf in the plot.
And you're seeing that it's just prolific
with yellow nutsedge and over 5,000 yellow nutsedge tubers.
So even if we were gonna come in here and spray this,
treat it, cultivate it, do something,
and then plant turf on top of it,
you would have to contend with 5,000 yellow nutsedge plants
potentially underneath the little, small three by three plot
based that on what would be available per acre
or per 1000 square feet,
depending upon whatever unit wanna know.
And you're talking about yields about half
of what commercially produced potatoes
would do with tuber production,
no tuber production, 5,000 tuber production.
And all you did was managed with the turf effectively,
this entire area received no herbicides
over the course of the last two years.
So it's a pretty amazing story when you think about it.
But I also mentioned that we have different fertility rates
and different irrigation rates.
So let's take a look at one of the plots
where we put a lot of excessive water on,
similar to what a homeowner would do
irrigating every day, two inches plus rainfall,
just a crazy amount of water, which we would not recommend,
but which is very typical of what some homeowners do.
And for those of you in the lawn care business,
you have to contend with this sort of thing
when you're doing your application schedule.
So let's take a look at that plot.
This is a high nitrogen plot.
So it got four pounds of nitrogen
per 1000 square feet per year.
It's also the higher arrogation, excessive irrigation plot.
Now, of course, when it's adjacent to the bare ground plots,
I've got a single nutsedge tuber.
You're not really seeing that much nutsedge in it,
but we are seeing probably seven to 10 plants after a year.
So if there wasn't some sort of strategy
to control the nutsedge and at this point,
it would just continue to proliferate.
It was able to keep its stand in this plot
versus the one we showed you earlier,
where it received the adequate moisture,
the right mowing height and everything.
This is still the right mowing height,
but it's not the right amount of fertilizer
that we would recommend, nor is it
the amount of irrigation we would recommend.
And now we have roughly seven to 10 nutsedge plants
in there, but when we come in and count
the number of tubers underneath this plot,
it doesn't look like there's much there,
but after a year there were about 1500
yellow nutsedge tubers in this plot.
So it's trying to recover from the dense turf stand
and it's gonna make it
because it's over watered and over fertilized.
And once again, it's nowhere near as catastrophic
as the plots in and around it,
which were a single plant in a three by three,
but it's still starting to take hold.
This is what we believe ecologically happens in home lawns,
they see one or two yellow nutsedge plants.
They don't do anything about it.
And then they just kind of let it go.
And then four or five years down the line,
they have plots that look very similar to this.
If they mow too short, if they put too much fertilizer on,
if they over irrigate,
if they don't plan to improve varieties,
which this happens to be a very prominent,
improved variety of one of the darker green blue grasses,
it's gonna eventually take over.
It's a very opportunistic weed.
All weeds are super opportunistic,
but yellow nutsedge represents
one of the most ecologically invasive weeds
that we have in a turf system, and for years,
people have said heavy irrigation,
low areas where it stays flooded, you know,
areas where you mow you short,
and our work is not only confirming that,
but giving us quantitative estimates of what's going on
underneath the surface where the yellow nutsedge
is eventually gonna re-establish itself.
So ecologically, all weeds take advantage
of something that you're doing wrong,
mowing too short, heavy traffic,
all the things that some you have control over,
some you don't, but maintaining a healthy, dense,
actively growing turf goes a long way in suppressing weeds
and making the need for herbicides, probably not eliminated,
but far less than anticipated.
So before we actually apply the product,
we need to calibrate the equipment that we're gonna use
to apply it with.
Our labels, with the product we're using
will tell us how many ounces per 1000 square feet
or gallons per acre or pounds per thousand square feet
that we're gonna apply.
So then we need to know how our equipment
applies that product.
We'll start off first of all,
by measuring a set area, so a known area to us,
a 1000 square feet, 100 square feet,
whatever you need to use to determine
how you're gonna apply over the rest
of the property you're applying.
So once we know that,
then we can go in with what the manufacturer recommends.
So many ounces per 100 square feet,
we take out, so for instance, our small hand sprayer
will measure over a period of time,
how long it takes us to apply
a certain amount of liquid over that.
So starting off with clear water.
So that way, if there are any problems,
if you have equipment problems,
you're not worried about over applying the product
to that particular area.
So when using a backpack sprayer or the smaller sprayer,
you have your preset area, pre-measured area,
time yourself as it takes you
to cover that with the water, as your test,
once you've done that you can come back
and then for that amount of time,
spray into a measuring cup.
And so that way I'll tell you the volume of water
or volume of product that you will apply
over that amount of square feet.
And then again, working with your label,
that'll help you adjust how many ounces per gallon
that you'll enter into your sprayer
when you go out to actually apply the product.
So that's the first thing is making sure
that your equipment is working correctly.
And then go ahead and apply that product
over that measured pre known area.
With our granular products, with our spreaders,
whether it's a broadcast or the drop, again,
the manufacturers and the information for the spreader
should give you a point to start
as far as applying to product.
And again, starting off with a known area
about 100 square feet, put in the amount of pounds,
let's say for using fertilizer,
the amount of pounds that you should be using
over 100 square feet.
So starting off with a preset on your gauge
for your spreader, as you go through that,
if you're a little short or a little light with that,
then you can adjust as you go through that
and get to a setting that works best
for that particular product.
When using the granular spreaders,
it's important to know the width that you'll be applying.
So the swath width, with the broadcast spreader
that may adjust with the speed as you travel.
So that's important to maintain
the same speed as you're applying the product.
And that will give you an estimate on how wide a product
or how wide your swath will be
when you're applying the product, with the drop spreader,
it's obviously a known thing, it's only gonna drop so far.
So whether it's two foot, three foot or four foot, again,
that will help gauge how much product
you're applying and the same with the liquid sprayers.
So whether it has a boom again,
knowing the width of the total spray,
this particular one is about 102 inches.
And also, whether it's a backpack or a bottle sprayer,
depending on the nozzle you use will also depend
on the width of the spray,
the pattern that you're putting out.
So it's important to have an idea how wide your pattern is
as you're going through your test zone.
So you know that you cover it accurately
as you're going through it.
So as you've gone through and you're ready
to make your application, a couple of things
to think about as you're applying,
whether it's a fertilizer or a pesticide
to your lawn or your landscape,
it's important that you're applying at the correct rate
and the label and the SDS will give you that information.
So you know, that you're planted at the correct rate.
Again, if you're applying too much, you're wasting money.
And if you're applying too little,
you may be encouraging resistance to particular pesticides,
or if it's a fertilizer,
you're not gonna get the performance out of that product
that you'd hoped to get.
So accuracy is very important
and that is through your calibration,
making sure your equipment is tested and ready to go.
And that will ensure that you're gonna have
a successful application.
So we're gonna look at using a pump style sprayer.
And this method we're gonna use
is gonna be a little different
than using a graduated cylinder and measuring them out
that we do for calibrating the sprayer.
So this method is really, if you're applying,
if your spot spraying or herbicide,
and then those kinds of products,
and typically what we're using
when we're using those products,
they're telling us on the label that it's a one
or two ounces per thousand square feet,
depending on the product.
So we have an area measured out of 1000 square feet.
We'll go through the process, timing ourselves,
to give us an idea of how long it takes us
to spray 100 square feet.
So then when we're out spraying an area,
if we're spot spraying, we know what our pace should be
as we're going through that that process.
So we're gonna be using a pump style sprayer that again,
we're going to want this at about 30 to 40
pounds of pressure, and depending on the sprayer you have,
some may have a gauge on it.
This particular one has a insert in here
that lets me adjust the pressure in here.
So there's different settings
in the inside of the tank that allows me to spray
at that amount of pressure.
That allows me to use 30 pounds of pressure inside the tank.
When using a fan type sprayer,
we wanna keep the nozzle at the same height.
So somewhere around 20 inches, for me,
it's about knee height.
You'll wanna measure for each of you individually,
but something to keep in mind to keep it at the same height
so that we're not very in the height.
That way it maintains the same distribution
on this spray when we're doing our test pattern,
make sure that you're using the proper PPE
based on the product you're using.
So it's important to read the label a review
to make sure that you have the proper stuff on
as you're doing it.
So typically we want some sort of boot, rubber gloves.
You may look at waterproof chaps, protective head gear,
safety glasses certainly.
So look at your label and make sure
that you have the proper personal protective equipment on
while you're applying the product.
When doing your testing for this,
for calibrating, this particular sprayer,
it's important to think about where you're gonna be
normally applying to product and then testing it
on a similar location, so for instance,
if I'm typically gonna be using this in a lawn area,
I'm gonna wanna use this.
I'm going to want to do my calibrating in a lawn area,
not in a parking lot or something like that,
because my rate, my speed and gate
will be different based on that sort of circumstances.
So again, give that some thought,
if you're in a hilly area or a rough area
or a tall grass area, you're gonna want
to calibrate yourself to those circumstances
so that you're consistent as you apply this product.
So using the stopwatch setting on my phone,
that'll help tie me as I walk through this
1000 square foot area.
And then that'll give me an idea
when I'm out spot spraying or doing an area
that I know how much product I should be applying
as I'm doing that work.
So again, you wanna make sure that you maintain
a gate that you would normally use
while you're out applying product,
even with a backpack sprayer,
drift can be a serious problem.
So you're gonna wanna make sure that you monitor that
as you're applying your product.
So while we're doing this, the other thing to consider
is to do this multiple times, do it three,
maybe even four times
as you go through your calibration methods.
So you can get an average time, because again,
that'll give you a better idea of what your gate is
and on a consistent basis.
So taking a little extra time to do it a few times,
and then average the amount of time that it took you
to spray out a gallon over a thousand square feet
would give you a little bit better number
when you go out to do some spot spraying.
So to wrap this up, it took me,
I used about a third of a gallon, took me about two minutes.
So if you work that through the math, easy math here,
we're looking at about six minutes per gallon at my gate,
walking over an area like this.
So I would expect myself when I'm out applying product
that it's about six minutes per gallon
to do 1000 square feet of product.
So that's one thing to kind of, again,
each person's gonna be a little different,
your gate's gonna be a little different,
but it's important that you calibrate
your sprayer to you as you go through this process.
And you're gonna wanna look at each product again,
make sure that the ounces per gallon,
per thousand square feet are consistent.
So you know which product you're using,
how many gallons you need to apply per thousand square feet.
Again, things to keep in mind that are really important.
Drift is again, a serious issue.
And it's something, especially in our profession,
we wanna be very aware of just because we're using
a pump style sprayer doesn't mean
that we can't have drift.
And so it's important to know what the wind speed is.
And again, match that up with the label.
There are some restrictions on some labels,
as far as what the wind speed is
when you're applying the product.
Think about the interval time between applications,
many products have a maximum amount
of ounces per thousand square feet
applied to a particular area over a season.
So again, keep that in mind
as you're applying your products
and calibrating your sprayer and keeping track
of where you've been applying product and how often.
Make sure you have your PPE on
that's appropriate for the product.
Otherwise, be safe.
Good afternoon, my name is Kevin Holdorf.
I'm pesticide inspector for the Department of Agriculture.
Today, I've been asked to talk to you
about some of the inspector's perspectives
on pesticide safety and some of the things
that we see in the field.
Here's an interesting case.
We basically got a complaint call that somebody
had striped a lawn and I went out to investigate this
and can anybody out there tell me what's wrong with this?
This happens to be a situation where the owner
of the company told his applicator who was not licensed
that he should go out and fill up the tank
with water and then add some weed killer to the tank.
And so he went out, grabbed the weed killer off the shelf,
put it in the tank to mix it.
And lo and behold, it was weed killer and grass killer.
You'll notice the nice striping in it.
This has everything to do with the fact that the guy,
he never cleaned out his equipment from the previous season
and the nozzles were plugged, and consequently,
he got this nice striping on his lawn.
Now here, this guy we've blocked his face
for identity reasons.
And he is wearing the proper protective equipment.
He's got a pre-measure on his product there,
but there is a violation here.
And I'm wondering if you can see it.
If you look at the bottom of the screen,
he's got a hose that's stuck in the tank.
There's about four feet of this hose
at the bottom of the tank.
What's gonna happen when he shuts off the water?
I'm hoping that the homeowner has a backflow preventative,
but the label here says that you must have a stop gap.
And a stop gap is such that where when you turn
the water off, it's not gonna affect the tank.
Or basically when you turn the water off,
there's a gap between where the chemical
or the solution is going into the tank and your hose.
So this is a violation of the label.
This guy has got plenty of PPE on, in fact,
he's kind of got more than is required,
but there's a violation here.
If you look at the product that he's pouring into the tank,
it has no measuring device on it.
And glug glug is not a measuring option.
A fact, he has no idea how much chemical
he's putting into this tank.
This one's real obvious.
I see this all the time.
I drive around and look for applicators
to do what's called a use observation on them.
This guy, of course, is not wearing a long sleeve shirt.
He's not wearing gloves, he's not wearing long pants.
And this one's really easy, I mean this is a no brainer.
I spot these guys all the time
and it's an automatic violation.
So again, we've protected this guy's identity.
Again, the PPE here is lacking.
He's missing a long sleeve shirt.
Otherwise, not so bad.
This guy was not licensed by the way.
Here's one that the guy who's got
his protective equipment on,
his personal protective equipment on,
and it looks pretty good.
He's got his long sleeve shirt on.
He's got even has a respirator, which he really didn't need.
He's covered pretty good.
But what if I told you that shrub
that he standing behind,
that he's spraying around is a fruit shrub,
have to take a look at the label and see
if that product's appropriate for spraying around fruit
that's gonna be harvested and eaten.
I wanna do a little demonstration for you
on some of the things that I see in the field,
and I just want you to kind of take notes
and see if you can point out,
or you can identify all the violations
that have occurred in this demonstration.
First of all, I'm gonna get prepared here
and we'll just roll up the sleeves.
And I've got a few things
that I've seen out in and people's chemical sheds,
and here's a product that I've found on the shelf.
It's pretty dusty, it's been there for quite a while.
And here's another one.
It's a Mason jar filled with liquid
and on a pesticide shelf.
And I have to wonder what's in this thing.
And it looks kind of like a two four D product,
but I have no idea.
I know what you're thinking, you could smell it.
And then that way you'd know what's in it.
So if we open this up and we whoa,
that stuff's strong, it doesn't really smell
like 24D, oh, I spilled a little bit of it here.
Let me wipe that up a little bit before we go on.
Yeah, it's a mess.
It just keeps going on all over the place here.
Well, you know, it's something that we see a lot of,
we see a lot of chemicals that are in containers
that have no markings on them.
And then we'll see something like this,
where we have a measuring cup and some measuring spoons
on the shelf, and you know, is that appropriate?
I don't know, you tell me, care for a mint?
These are great, love these things.
So you see when you go out and you're looking for things,
you always wanna pay attention to the small details.
You know, chemicals are really dangerous
and you should really be aware
of what's going on around you.
I see this a lot in people's trucks.
Oh, excuse me, my telephone is ringing.
I really can't, what do you mean?
Oh, okay, well I gotta go.
I'm in the middle of something here Richard,
okay I will, I will, I will.
Sorry about that.
I have to go pick up my kids after school today
and they get out of school in about 20 minutes.
So probably need to wrap this up real quick.
Well, that's just some of the things
that I see out in the field.
Did you catch all the violations here?
I'm wondering if he did, because there are some things here
that are not that obvious.
Oh, here's that label, I found it.
Must have eye protection when handling this product.
Oh, well I have my glasses.
That's gotta protect my eyes, doesn't it?
Oh, spill kit.
In case something spills, do you have a spill kit
in your truck or the vehicle that you use
when you apply pesticides?
Good thing I had my handkerchief here.
'Cause that got it up pretty good I think.
So those are just some of the things
that I see out in the field.
I'm wondering though,
this cup is awfully corroded on the inside.
I wonder why that did that.
Oh, this is corrosive to metal.
Oh, and it says here do not breathe the fumes.
Well, well, at least I got my long sleeve shirt on.
Let's continue with regulations.
What's in it for you as an applicator?
Well, the applicator is responsible
for any and all pesticide applications.
Therefore it is always important to be professional.
You never know who's watching.
There are people watching you everywhere,
from their home, from their car,
from any possible angle that you can imagine.
Why do I know this?
Because they complain and I respond to their complaints,
read the label.
It's your responsibility to read and understand the label.
You should always read the label, always.
And even if you have used the product in the past,
read it again, products change all the time.
Labels change all the time.
It's very important to read and understand the label.
I would do it often.
The label is the law.
There is a statement on every label approved by the EPA.
And it says, it is a violation of federal law
to use this product in a manner
inconsistent with its labeling.
It is the applicator's responsibility to read and comply
with all directions provided on the label.
It is not your employer's responsibility.
Your employer may tell you what you need to do,
but you need to read the label,
personal protective equipment or PPE.
You've got to wear the personal protective equipment.
It is an automatic violation
if you do not wear the protective equipment
and you are putting your family at risk
when you do not wear it.
For instance, in the scenario that we did earlier,
where the applicator has to go pick up his children.
If you remember, wiped his hands on his shirt,
he's got chemical on his hands from cleaning up the spill.
And now he's gonna go home maybe to change vehicles
I hope, to clean up I hope,
but he had 20 minutes to get there
or half hour or whatever it was.
And what do you think the first thing
that child's gonna do when he sees his parent after school?
He's gonna give him a hug.
He's gonna give him whatever.
I mean, he's gonna give him a hug.
He's gonna maybe give him a kiss.
And he's got chemical all over his body.
Wear your protective equipment, it's important.
Follow the directions and restrictions
for use listed on the label.
Here are the ones that we regulate, which is target site,
target pest, rate of application, wind speed,
distance from water, temperature, standpipes, et cetera.
There's a whole list.
The label has every one of them on there.
But some of the things the labeled doesn't put on there
is there's no regulation for cell phones.
There's no language on a label
that says anything about a cell phone.
But if you remember, I used my cell phone
after I cleaned up my spill.
This is gonna be a problem every time you use it,
because you are reintroducing chemical,
either on your hand or to your ear,
depending on how you handled this item.
So that's not on the label.
So sometimes you have to use common sense, record keeping,
record keeping for ornamental and turf is not required
unless you use a restricted use product,
but I'm asking you to consider using record.
Simply from the standpoint of,
if somebody has an issue with your application,
what are you going to be able to remember
about that application when somebody takes you to court?
Therefore, I encourage you to all,
to get a pesticide record, keeping requirement brochure,
and look at all of the things that we recommend
that you have on your records.
There's one that isn't listed,
but I think it's very important.
And if you look on this list, it says date and start time.
I also think you should put your end time on there as well,
simply because when you finish an application,
what happens after the application can be important.
For instance, the wind speed might've been ideal
for your application when you started it
and when you ended it.
But shortly after there, the wind picked up.
How do I know as a regulator,
when your application ended and whether or not
you are compliant with the label,
it's always good to have more information on your records
than less, even though it's not required, it's important.
Records must be maintained for a minimum of three years
and must be recorded within 48 hours
of your pesticide application.
Again, here are some good resources
for record-keeping, DriftWatch.
This is a service I think that is totally under utilized,
as an applicator, you have the ability to access
a DriftWatch site that will tell you
where there are sensitive areas
that you might be concerned about
or need to be concerned about.
Some of those places are, are vineyards, vegetables,
bees and protected species.
It's important to know who is around you
when you're doing an application.
It's important for you to know your customers, neighbors,
talk to your customers about their neighbors.
Find out who the troublemakers are in the neighborhood,
might save you a complaint.
Well, that concludes my talk for today.
If there's any questions, please contact
the Nebraska Department of Agriculture
with any of your questions or concerns
or call your regulatory agent
or your regulatory inspector directly
if you have his telephone number.
You can see the telephone number here and our website.
And we ask that you would give us a call.
It's better if you call us than when we call on you.
Well, that's all I have for today.
My gosh, it's awfully hot in here.
I wish we could have turned on the air conditioning
a little bit more, man.
You know, I'm not feeling so good.
I think I better lay down.
This concludes the recertification training
for category 04, ornamental and turf pest control.
We hope this video has provided some new insight
for your work, as well as offering review
of important pest management practices.
Visit us any time at pested.UNL.EDU,
for more information on a variety of topics,
thank you for your time and be safe out there.
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