Established Tick Species and Risk of Tick-borne Disease along the Platte River Corridor
The goal of this study is to examine the risk of tick-borne disease (TBD) along the Platte River corridor. This goal was to be achieved through assessing the occurrence and distribution of ticks, determine if the ticks were infected with TBD pathogens, and evaluate if TBD transmission is occurring through canine serology. This was a group project between Ashtin Kaumans, Brittany Horbach, and Miranda Kahn.
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[00:00:00.990]The title of our project is established
tick species and the risk of tick-borne
[00:00:05.160]diseases along the Platte river
corridor. My name's Ashtin Kaumans.
[00:00:09.180]My name is Brittany Horbach and
I'm Miranda Khan. To start off,
[00:00:14.190]we have some background information.
[00:00:15.660]The human tick borne diseases
have doubled from 2004 to 2016.
[00:00:20.490]This can be contributed from the
climate change, uh, tick host,
[00:00:24.870]population growth and human
mediated habitat change.
[00:00:29.750]The current established populations in
Nebraska include the lone star tick, deer
[00:00:33.590]tick, and the American dog tick.
[00:00:35.900]All of these ticks are
vectors of common tick-borne
[00:00:41.750]The non established populations include
the Gulf coast ticks that have been
[00:00:45.800]found in Nebraska, but
are not established.
[00:00:47.660]And the Asian Longhorned
tick, cattle fever tick,
[00:00:50.390]and the red sheep tick all of these non
established texts can be detrimental to
[00:00:55.010]the livestock industry as well as their
health. Because the last extensive survey
[00:00:59.750]was done seven years ago.
[00:01:01.040]We do not know the established tick
populations in Nebraska as of now.
[00:01:06.170]We have three different objectives
for our research project.
[00:01:10.200]The first being assessing the current
distribution of ticks along the
[00:01:14.930]Platte river corridor. Second
evaluating if tick-borne disease,
[00:01:18.800]transmission is occurring by
evaluating canine serology work.
[00:01:23.630]& third determining if ticks are infected
with tick-borne disease pathogens
[00:01:28.400]this will serve as an educational tool.
[00:01:31.190]Identify densely populated tick
areas for future population
[00:01:37.160]enhanced biosecurity planning to
prevent tickborne disease transmission,
[00:01:41.330]and warn physicians,
[00:01:42.560]veterinarians and public health officials
about the risk of tick-borne diseases
[00:01:46.580]in the area.
[00:01:49.120]So for our collection,
[00:01:50.380]our materials are listed above and
for methodology we collected at
[00:01:54.940]approximately 24 sites for a period of
10 weeks. We had a cycle of three weeks,
[00:01:59.890]which meant we collected at
roughly, um, six sites a week. Um,
[00:02:04.450]that way we could replenish the sites
that we went to. For every site that we
[00:02:08.200]went to, we performed the drag technique,
[00:02:10.060]this included Lang cloth on the
ground and walking 25 meters after the
[00:02:14.890]25 meters, you'd examine the
cloth. If there was any ticks,
[00:02:17.740]you'd place them into the ethyl
alcohol vial full of alcohol.
[00:02:21.070]And at each site we'd record the number
of collectors time spent collecting and
[00:02:25.060]the weather conditions in the
journal. And so later on in the lab,
[00:02:28.270]we identified the species sex and
life stage by notable characteristics
[00:02:33.100]using an anatomical reference book.
[00:02:37.230]For our second materials and methods.
[00:02:39.450]This is for our IDEXX 40
X snap tests that we used.
[00:02:44.010]We asked different clinics and
shelters to participate in our study,
[00:02:48.060]qualified dogs. Um, we got
blood samples from them.
[00:02:51.480]Qualification requirements include no
travel history outside of Nebraska,
[00:02:56.790]no use of tick control products and
must spend all of its time or most of
[00:03:01.720]its time outdoors. We also collected
ticks from these different locations.
[00:03:08.540]The snap test procedure included allowing
the components to equalize at room
[00:03:12.770]temperature for 30 minutes.
[00:03:14.120]Then we pipetted three drops of blood
and four drops of conjugate to a new
[00:03:17.300]sample tube and inverted it three to
five times on a new level of service.
[00:03:21.680]We added contents of the sample tube
onto the snap test sample well
[00:03:25.400]once the sample first appeared
in the activation circle,
[00:03:27.980]you firmly press the activator down.
[00:03:30.320]Then you read the test results in eight
minutes. On the figure of the left.
[00:03:34.100]It shows the antibodies
present if there are any.
[00:03:36.860]Here we show some results on our left map,
[00:03:39.950]we have the total number of ticks
collected at each site on our right is our
[00:03:43.940]figure of a total capture
rate of each site,
[00:03:46.400]which was calculated by doing the total
amount of ticks divided by collector
[00:03:50.690]divided by time spent.
[00:03:53.920]Continuing our results in figure three,
[00:03:55.820]we have an American dog tick
stage for each site, um,
[00:03:59.200]indicated by the pie charts
for each location. Um,
[00:04:02.200]the pie charts are scaled so that, um,
[00:04:05.380]they're representative of the amount
of ticks found at each location.
[00:04:08.470]So the bigger the pie chart, the
more ticks found. Um, additionally,
[00:04:11.860]we have the figure four, which
is the lone star tick stick,
[00:04:14.860]tick stages for each site. Um,
[00:04:17.200]they are also proportional to the
amount of ticks found per site.
[00:04:20.710]And then for figure five,
we compared these two, um,
[00:04:24.040]maps into one showing the densities
of the lone star ticks compared to the
[00:04:28.660]American dog ticks.
[00:04:31.660]The incidental findings
that we found were Ixodes
[00:04:34.840]dentatus was found at Platte river state
park, SCHRAMM, and Czechland recreation
[00:04:38.680]center also Dermacentor was
found at Carol joy Holling.
[00:04:41.170]And this species is still
yet to be determined
[00:04:44.320]For our preliminary results,
[00:04:46.270]We have had three shelters participate
in this study so far with a total
[00:04:51.160]of 24 dogs being tested
with the 40 X snap test,
[00:04:55.540]all of which being negative.
And for our third part,
[00:04:58.660]we have not tested any
ticks with PCR at this
[00:05:03.520]moment in time.
[00:05:07.340]So for our discussion, um,
[00:05:08.720]some noticeable trends that we noticed
at least for the collection is that we
[00:05:12.180]found more adult ticks than
we did any other life stage.
[00:05:14.900]This can probably be attributed to the
time of year that we are collecting,
[00:05:18.890]which is the summer. Um, additionally,
[00:05:21.050]we saw that there was more lone
star nymphs than there was, uh,
[00:05:23.780]compared to the adults. We're not
really sure why this trend exists,
[00:05:27.050]but it's important to note. Additionally,
[00:05:29.330]some significant findings that we saw
was there was no ticks collected at River
[00:05:32.660]West. This is most likely due to the
limited forested area that they have.
[00:05:37.130]Most of the grass that was
there was already mowed. Um,
[00:05:40.820]and so we also found no deer ticks or
Gulf coast ticks at any of our locations.
[00:05:44.780]We found this highly
unusual considering, um,
[00:05:47.690]some of the locations that we went to
such as Carol joy Holling had previously
[00:05:52.160]had deer ticks based on other studies,
but we didn't find any in ours. Um,
[00:05:56.570]this could most likely be attributed
to a cold snap in the winter, um,
[00:06:01.400]that we just had. However,
this is more of a hypothesis.
[00:06:05.900]We would need more research
in order to confirm this,
[00:06:08.780]but for our Gulf coast sticks, um,
[00:06:10.880]we highly think that the reason why we
didn't see them is because we were mainly
[00:06:14.420]looking in, uh, forested areas.
[00:06:16.430]Whereas Gulf coast ticks primarily
prefer land that is marshy or at least,
[00:06:23.920]There's also been a higher prevelance
of lone star ticks on the Eastern
[00:06:27.250]collection sites, along the
Platte river and Missouri river,
[00:06:30.250]we found that Adam's place had a total
of 173 ticks collected Bramble had a total
[00:06:35.230]of 53 ticks and Honey Creek Iowa
had a total of 93 ticks collected.
[00:06:40.090]This site was only visited once. Our
findings are showing that there is both a
[00:06:44.710]human and animal health risk. Um,
[00:06:47.230]American dog ticks are actually the
most common ticks found in Nebraska.
[00:06:51.280]And they are very important
factors of spotted fever rickettsia,
[00:06:55.000]which is the most deadly tick-borne
disease in the United States.
[00:06:59.830]Along with that lone star ticks are
also vectors of the pathogens that cause
[00:07:07.750]we will have a better understanding of the
risk once to determining the pathogen
[00:07:12.130]loads and the ticks and tick-borne
disease exposure to dogs.
[00:07:18.960]So our next step would be to start
diagnostic testing of TBD pathogens via
[00:07:24.620]we also want to evaluate canine exposure
to tick-borne disease pathogens via
[00:07:29.190]serology. Um, with more clinics.
[00:07:32.810]We are also going to continue collecting
ticks from these locations and we are
[00:07:37.610]going to submit all of our American dog
ticks to the center of disease control
[00:07:42.500]for further testing on
their pathogen loads.
[00:07:47.630]We wanted to acknowledge all those
who contributed to our project,
[00:07:50.570]including UCare, Dr. Roberto Cortinas,
[00:07:53.720]the Nebraska department of agriculture
and all participating shelters and
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