The Breeding of Novel Colored and High Protein Quality Popcorn and Sweet Corn Varieties
This research involved three goals: 1) To breed varieties of high lysine sweet corn that contain the opaque-2 allele mutation, 2) to breed colorful varieties of sweet corn that are aesthetic and high in antioxidants; and 3) to introgress quality protein maize (modified o2) varieties into colorful popcorn varieties to make varieties of quality protein popcorn that are both high in lysine and antioxidants with a variety of tastes and textures while being aesthetically pleasing. For this study, crossbreeding and visual kernel assortment was used to select for desired phenotypic traits.
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[00:00:02.720]My name is Cleopatra Babor,
[00:00:04.390]and I'm a plant biology student here at
[00:00:07.160]the University of Nebraska-Lincoln.
[00:00:10.210]I am working with Dr. David Holding
[00:00:11.847]on the breeding of novel colored
[00:00:14.010]and high protein quality popcorn and sweet corn varieties.
[00:00:17.182]This project is branching off of previous research done
[00:00:20.514]that has successfully introgressed the opaque-2 mutation
[00:00:23.420]into different popcorn varieties
[00:00:25.270]without losing popability and texture
[00:00:27.300]of the popcorn kernels.
[00:00:29.620]This project was started by Caleb Wehrbein
[00:00:32.206]during the summer of 2020,
[00:00:33.764]with support and funding from UCare.
[00:00:36.557]This project is working on three goals.
[00:00:39.410]The first is to breed varieties of high lysine sweet corn
[00:00:42.857]that have the opaque-2 mutation.
[00:00:45.203]The second is to breed colorful varieties
[00:00:47.640]of sweet corn that are high in antioxidants
[00:00:49.940]and visually aesthetic.
[00:00:51.860]And the third is to introgress
[00:00:53.720]quality protein maize varieties
[00:00:55.269]into colorful popcorn varieties
[00:00:57.430]to make quality protein popcorn
[00:00:58.739]that are both high in lysine and antioxidants.
[00:01:03.150]This project utilized three different categories
[00:01:05.457]of characteristics found in corn.
[00:01:08.780]The first being sweetcorn
[00:01:10.730]with the sugary one and or shrunken 2 mutation.
[00:01:14.940]This mutation decreases the rate in which sugar
[00:01:17.380]is converted into starch in the endo sperm.
[00:01:20.840]This is making the kernel sweet to eat
[00:01:22.580]20 to 25 days after pollination.
[00:01:26.530]The second is quality protein maize, also known as QPM.
[00:01:31.600]These are dent corn varieties
[00:01:33.330]that contain the opaque-2 mutation,
[00:01:35.480]which decreases the amount of alphazans
[00:01:37.500]found in the endosperm of the kernel.
[00:01:39.920]This in turn increases the amount of beneficial amino acids,
[00:01:43.134]such as tryptophan, found in the endo sperm.
[00:01:46.730]The third is the use of colorful corn varieties,
[00:01:49.940]such as popcorn, dent corn and Flint corn
[00:01:52.910]that contain intense colors due to the anthocyanins
[00:01:56.510]and carotenoids found in the pericarp of the kernel.
[00:01:59.900]These anthocyanins and carotenoids have been found
[00:02:02.534]to contain antioxidants and anti-microbial benefits.
[00:02:08.040]This project is utilizing public popcorn, sweetcorn,
[00:02:11.970]dent corn, and Flint corn varieties for breeding purposes.
[00:02:16.700]How it all began.
[00:02:17.722]The parent lines were planted during the summer of 2020,
[00:02:20.951]and the crosses were done during the month of July
[00:02:23.950]to get the F1 offspring.
[00:02:26.240]To prevent cross-contaminations from other parent lines,
[00:02:29.720]we capped the tassels and silks
[00:02:31.549]with waterproof paper bags for control pollination.
[00:02:35.860]And when the tassels were releasing pollen,
[00:02:38.355]we collected the pollen and hand pollinated the silks
[00:02:41.039]in the field.
[00:02:43.610]Later, when the F-two cobs were harvested and dried,
[00:02:47.520]we selected the F-two kernels
[00:02:49.710]based on the way they were segregating,
[00:02:51.900]depending on the crosses.
[00:02:55.080]The three cross categories were sweetcorn by color,
[00:02:58.490]sweetcorn QPM and QPM by color.
[00:03:03.670]For the sweet corn by QPM crosses,
[00:03:05.541]we select a kernel segregating
[00:03:07.347]for the sweet corn shrunken phenotype
[00:03:11.183]and a relative opaque endosperm center
[00:03:15.120]that can be seen with a light box.
[00:03:17.838]This can also be confirmed with DNA analysis.
[00:03:22.560]In the examples I have,
[00:03:24.062]I have pointed out three examples of kernels
[00:03:27.090]that are yellow with either the sweetcorn phenotype
[00:03:30.260]and is vitreous,
[00:03:31.722]another with the sweetcorn phenotype with an opaque center,
[00:03:35.960]and another kernel with the, that is opaque,
[00:03:39.240]but is not segregating for the sweetcorn phenotype.
[00:03:42.567]For the QPM by color crosses,
[00:03:47.010]we selected kernels for their color.
[00:03:49.750]In the examples I give,
[00:03:50.994]the cobs contain a variety of colors,
[00:03:54.280]which is what we're looking for.
[00:03:55.830]But since we can not see
[00:03:57.450]due to the intensities of the color,
[00:03:59.540]the presence of the opaque-2 mutation
[00:04:01.218]with an opaque endosperm,
[00:04:03.496]we have to do DNA analysis to confirm
[00:04:06.890]the opaque-2 mutations presence.
[00:04:10.047]For the sweetcorn by color categories,
[00:04:12.860]we selected kernels segregating for
[00:04:14.640]the sweetcorn shrunken phenotype and color.
[00:04:18.420]In the examples you see,
[00:04:19.880]there are kernels showing for the sweetcorn phenotype
[00:04:23.420]with a variety of colors,
[00:04:25.010]which is exactly what we're looking for
[00:04:27.000]to have a variety of offspring for the F three crosses.
[00:04:33.642]The selection that we did during the spring of 2021
[00:04:39.690]were planted in the field during the summer of 2021.
[00:04:43.800]This will give us our F three cobs and our F three kernels.
[00:04:48.190]This, during the summer,
[00:04:50.040]this project has collected over 1000 samples
[00:04:53.050]from the F two seedlings during the month of July.
[00:04:55.940]These samples will be run through
[00:04:57.340]a Biosprint 96 workstation to extract the DNA.
[00:05:01.610]This DNA will then run through a polymerase chain reaction,
[00:05:05.070]also known as a PCR protocol,
[00:05:07.800]with the U of the UMC 1 0 6 6
[00:05:10.190]with forward and reverse primer,
[00:05:12.130]that shows the polymorphic bands
[00:05:14.070]between the opaque-2 mutation
[00:05:15.900]and the wild type opaque-2 allele.
[00:05:18.890]This will help us determine which offspring
[00:05:21.820]and which kernels have the opaque-2 mutation
[00:05:24.997]and help us determine future crosses
[00:05:27.136]for the next growing season.
[00:05:31.770]We will also be doing zien and non-zien protein extractions.
[00:05:36.780]This will help us determine the ratio
[00:05:38.660]of zien and non-zien proteins in the QPM crosses,
[00:05:42.408]and help us further make decision on future crosses
[00:05:46.760]in the F 3 offspring.
[00:05:50.420]I would like to thank,
[00:05:52.270]Caleb Wehrbein, Johnathan Niyorukundo,
[00:05:55.460]Christian Elowsky, and David Holding
[00:05:57.620]for supporting and offering advice and,
[00:06:04.350]on this project and allowing me to gain experience
[00:06:08.350]in the field and in the lab.
[00:06:10.410]I would also like to thank the UNL McNair Scholars Program
[00:06:14.033]for funding my summer 2021 research,
[00:06:17.110]as well as UCARE,
[00:06:18.120]for funding my future 2021-2022 academic year research.
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