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Group and Team Development
Melissa Griffith Phelps
A workshop regarding group and team development.
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[Joe]: Hi, my name is Joe Hagerty.
I'm the program coordinator for student organizations and the office of student
involvement. I'm joined with Reshell Ray,
who's also part of student involvement. Her camera's not working, so it will be,
it looks like frozen throughout our presentation,
but you can at least still hear her, which is, great,
but I'll let Reshell do a more formal introduction and then we'll go ahead and
[Reshell]: Hi Katie!
I am Reshell and I am the associate director for student involvement.
I work with Campus NightLife and East campus programs, and
I'm happy to be here with you today.
[Joe]: All right, thanks. Reshell. We'll go ahead and kick off then.
How are we going to do this presentation,
Katie, is what kind of do back and forth between Reshell and I.
And then there's a few times where we'll stop and ask for you to kind of answer
a few questions for us.
We'd like to be as interactive as possible on our presentations.
I think that our attendees gain the most from our presentations and we do it
that way. So won't be anything hard. So,
it'll just be stuff that we talk about and kind of getting your thoughts on.
So we'll let you know when we get to that point,
but we'll go ahead and kind of kick off.
But how we'll kind of structure today is we'll start off with an intro of the
team development model and then talk about when and how it's used.
And then we'll actually go through each of the stages.
But as we go through each of the stages,
what we wanted to do is make sure we gave you more of the academic description
of the stage. And some characteristics you'd see play out in real life,
but then actually show you what that looks like.
Because sometimes telling you what it,
what it is and how it looks is different than seeing it in action.
So we'll actually play a video that kind of describes each of the stages and
actually allow you at that point to tell us what are the characteristics you saw
that that video showed that exemplified that stage or that step.
So that's where we're going to ask for you to join us and kind of give some
feedback on - on what you saw.
Then we'll end with two discussion questions at the end to kind of test your
understanding and see how maybe you can utilize the information you gained
today, in - in any clubs or groups or
different people that you're around.
So that's kind of how our structure will go today and we'll go ahead and kind of
kick off. But our presentation is kind of known
in a couple of different ways. So a lot of people call it the Tuckman model,
or if you've been in the business classes,
they sometimes maybe would call it forming, storming, norming, performing,
and adjourning. Or the development sequence in small groups.
There's lots of different names that it's known by, but
we like to call it the Tuckman model or the team development model,
just because that's easier to understand. But over on the right side,
you can kind of see a kind of diagram that describes the stages,
but we'll go more in depth, like I said on each one.
But think of the whole model as it path or stages that teams follow on their way
to high-performance. And what we mean by that is groups
aren't always going to be effective right when they start.
It's going to take time,
it's going to take some clashing of personalities and it's going to take some
working through conflict to be able to find that sweet spot that the groups are
going to have to find if they're going to be effective in accomplishing their
tasks or their goals. So that's really what that model talks about.
And so we are going to take you through each of those steps. And like I said -
they - as you go through each of those, you'll find that at the beginning,
when we start at our forming stage,
it's really just a collection of strangers. So just random people that are,
that are lumped together in a group for whatever reason.
So usually it's a common goal that they're trying to accomplish,
whether it's a group project or
whether it is a project at work or maybe it's a sale
that they're trying to make to another business,
it could be used in so many different ways. It's not just academic settings.
But they end up becoming united at the end of the process with a common goal,
whenever they've fully gone through this process. But
understanding these phra- phases will help you to recognize that when you're
in these different stages and hopefully it'll help you to be a better leader and
also a better team member,
because you're able to recognize the characteristics of each of these phases.
It helps your team to grow and develop and really push to that next level.
So that's really what the model is and why it's important.
So this is another kind of description of the model.
I broke it down into the four stages,
but you can really think of the first stage as forming.
And it's really where the team gets together,
learns about the different opportunities or challenges, and really are,
are strangers at that point.
And we move to storming where the group starts to really test each other and
try to figure out who is supposed to be in what role who's the leader,
what are the expectations? And that's really where the conflict happens.
Then we move into norming where we push back against that conflict and start to
function a little more normally, and people have responsibilities.
They have defined roles and they start to work together better.
It's not perfect yet, but it's better.
Then we get to that performing stage where people are really doing well.
They're pretty much at their peak performance. They're able to work together
well, everybody has their defined roles makes decisions on their own.
They're inter-dependent, meaning they work on their own,
but they work together at the same time. And then lastly is adjourning. It's -
The project is finished and the people end up moving on to something else or a
new team’s formed, or some members leave and new members come forward.
Now clarifier on this. It looks like the linear process with the graph,
but it's really not. it's cyclical is what I would say.
So some groups may never get to performing. We hope they do.
That's the pinnacle, that's what we want all groups to be at.
But a lot of times they don't.
Some groups stay in storming throughout the whole time that they're as a group
when sometimes they'll get to norming and then they'll go backwards and go back
to storming, or maybe even go back to forming,
because a new member is added and a member that they've had on the team for
quite a while leaves.
So know stages can repeat themselves and it can go backwards and kind of go
forward as time goes on. So that is a quick description of kind of the process.
And as you can see, productivity does increase as we go throughout time.
So once again, as you go through the stages,
the first one seems like it's somewhat productive,
but that's because people aren't really acting like themselves and showing their
true colors. They're trying to just like you would, when you meet a new person,
put forward your best foot and - and,
and act at your best behavior. And that's a lot of what people do.
So it's almost a fake
personality that those people show since they're trying to be on their best
behavior. But then it kind of goes down in productivity as time goes on.
And then it goes back up where you're at
adjourning. In performing you're at your peak performance.
So that's kinda what it looks like once again,
as a graph format and know that productivity does increase as you get through,
some of those states.
So we're going to go ahead and start with forming.
And we'll go ahead and let you hear about this one.
I think Reshell, this is your slide. We'll go ahead and,
and let you kick off with this one. [Reshell]: Yeah. Katie, can you tell us
before I jump into this,
can you tell us a little bit about what was it about this presentation that
caught your attention and what you hope to gain?
[Katie]: Yeah, so I am the faculty staff advisor for the Iron N.
I just started last November in my position with the athletic department.
So I like had the responsibilities last year,
but not full transition to overseeing them.
So I just saw this one and thought it'd be a good session to tune in for,
and kind of just learn from and stuff because I've known with overseeing interns
in the past and stuff like every year is a new group and stuff.
So the dynamics change and stuff. So just helping them facilitate all of that.
[Reshell]: This, this is a good, this is a good jumping off point.
And I think that if,
if advisors or organization officers,
look at the stages of group development,
it will really help them as they move forward as a entity and overcome some of
the hurdles that groups find.
So the forming stage we call the honeymoon stage. This is where,
as Joe mentioned,
people are getting acquainted with one another, and they're meeting for the first
time is the friendly shakes, the nice little smiles and gestures,
and people are very, very, very polite
in this stage. They have a level of comfort in being in the group.
They exchange information, they really do avoid conflict.
And, at this stage,
because they're just kind of testing out who are the people and, you know,
I don't want to be, uh, I want to be accepted.
I'm not going to let my feelings per se get in,
and they're just kind of sizing each other up. And it's, it's that beginning.
Have you been in that situation
Before? [Katie]: Yeah, for sure. [Reshell]: Yes, we all have.
And we do many times. And sometimes - the thing about it,
we don't understand that that awkwardness is normal for this particular -
particular stage. The group is just coming together and just forming.
So, we have a clip
you can advance.
So here's some of the characteristics and behaviors, shyness, politeness,
social unease, lack of conflict.
And then also a lack of confidence sometimes not knowing where to jump in or how
to jump in.
Particularly if you see individuals that appear to be interacting in a
positive and favorable way towards one another.
[Joe]: So we'll go ahead now and share a little clip and what this is - is from the
we thought this would be a good way to go through and explain the process.
And so after we finished this clip,
there's a few questions that we'll ask and kind of see what you gained from
that. So I'll go ahead and play this clip,
and then we'll kind of come back together and chat.
[Film Clip]: I got to say, it's an honor to meet you officially.
I sort of met you. I mean, I watched you while you were sleeping. Dr. Banner.
Yeah, hi. They told me you’d be coming. Word is, you can find the cube.
Is that the only word I mean. Only word I care about. So,
how long am I staying?
[Clip restarts, pauses] I got to say it.
So with that clip, and this is kind of our question, what characteristics Katie,
did you see that kind of exemplify or represent that forming stage from those
various clips that we compiled?
[Katie]: The Hulk had social unease
because he didn't know really what had been talked about his reputation and
then politeness with Captain America and just introducing herself and,
they kind of exchange info with like production and like shaking the hands and everything.
[Joe]: Yeah, absolutely. Awesome.
Those are all accurate. And it, once again,
shows that unease and that a little bit of awkwardness that happens and you can
see people aren't really their true selves.
They're really hiding behind a mask at the beginning to try to gain,
some of that acceptance from other people.
So that's why we included that clip. So everything you said is, is,
is perfect! Reshell, do
you want to add anything else before we move on to our next stage?
[Reshell]: No, I think we go forward, let's go, keep going. [Joe]: All right.
[Reshell]: So you can ensure success at this stage by giving people a chance to spend time
with each other and get more acquainted,
make sure to help develop a positive and inclusive atmosphere, decide what are
our expectations as a group, and develop a climate of trust.
That's where a lot of those, you know,
and even though everybody thinks everybody says they hate icebreakers or get
those things really do help to bring the tensions down a little bit and help
give individuals insights to one another.
So it is helpful to kind of build that sense of we're going to help.
We're going to, we're going to not just let this morph into a group,
but we're gonna really be proactive and give some,
basic guidelines and structure to our getting acquainted.
[Joe]: All right, we’ll
move into storming now, our second stage.
So I always like to give a description for each one of these stages and call
this the resisting or testing stage.
So we've really gotten past the niceties and getting to know each other,
and this is where brainstorming can happen.
So we are trying to figure out what we're trying to accomplish as a group,
because we may be put together to accomplish a project for work or for school or
for something else. But even though that seems pretty clear, there's,
there's some sub goals or,
sub - different maybe assignments or delegations that need to happen for people to
get to that main goal.
So figuring out who's going to take on what responsibilities or what role is
really what has to happen,
but normally there's clashing that happens with the workstyle.
So I may be a very go getter and don't like to really take a lot of time to
and plan and organize where other people maybe need that time to think through
and plan and organize.
So the styles will start to clash and people will start to fight for power or
fight for the leader role.
And you'll start to see that when people have different expectations.
So I may think it's supposed to be done this way,
and somebody else may have a different idea on that. Or boundaries on what maybe
I'm assigning people.
If I'm trying to take that leader role and maybe pushing people too far,
we really are testing those boundaries and figuring out where people's
buttons are and where that point is that it's going to be too much.
So a lot of anger,
a lot of frustration that people are going to experience during this stage.
And it's going to continue to happen until those goals or expectations or rules
are really openly expressed and defined.
And it's just going to continue to happen, until those things are done.
But the team,
a lot of times will realize it can't live up to those early expectations or,
ideas behind what they were hoping to accomplish both for their mission and
their goals. And so they have to, through this point in time,
readjust and evaluate what actually needs to be done and how they're going to do
that. So I, once again called that the resisting and kind of testing.
Other characteristics, you're going to see,
we already mentioned it a little bit on that last side,
but a lot of excitement and exaggeration will happen because people are once
again, maybe have some really good ideas on what they'd like to accomplish,
but it's not going to be as easy as maybe what they think.
Or maybe there'll be some misperceptions where people will expect somebody to be
doing a certain role or task in they're not pulling their own weight so people
can get upset with that.
Or maybe people don't know the other members of that group,
as well as what they would want to.
So misperception of both people's actions and the things they say may be taken
out of context and, you know,
make other people upset or angry with those people. And the weaknesses and
strengths of people are revealed.
So if somebody is assigned something they're not really good at, you'll see,
maybe they're not very successful or not able to do that well.
And that might be
appear as if the person not trying to do their due diligence and their work and
they're slacking off,
but really it's just not their forte and why they're maybe struggling.
So once again, you're going to see a lot of,
overwhelmed and stressed out people.
And some maybe we'll even leave the team at that point because it's just too
much for them.
Or you'll see that people will build alliances and have sub-team meaning that
one leader may be fighting for power,
but there's somebody else that has a different vision and idea for the group and
how it works should be accomplished.
And there'll be two teams and kind of subdivide that.
So those are some characteristics and things you'll see when you're in that
stage. So once again,
we have another clip we'll play for you to show you an example of storming from
And then have you kind of point out what you've saw based on those last two
slides that are exemplified in the school.
So we'll go ahead and play this and continue on.
[Film Clip]: Stark! We need a plan of attack. I have a plan: attack.
If we don't stay focused, he'll succeed. We have orders,
we should follow them. Following’s really not my style.
And you’re all about style. Are you nuts? Jury's out.
You really have got a lid on it, haven’t you? What's your secret Miller, jazz bongo,
drums, huge bag of weed? Is everything a joke to you?
Funny things are. Threatening the safety of everyone on this ship isn't funny.
You're tiptoeing on big man.
You need to strut. And you need to focus on the problems Mr. Stark.
You think I'm not? Of the people in this room,
which one is it a) wearing a spangly outfit and b) not of use? Finally,
someone who speaks English. Is that what just happened?
It's good to meet you Dr. Banner,
your work on anti electron collisions is unparalleled,
and I'm a huge fan of the way you lose control and turn it into an enormous
green rage monster. That's the guy
my dad never shut up about wondering if they shouldn't [inaudible].
[Joe]: All right. Like I said,
there are some characteristics and behaviors in that that represent the storming
stage, but Katie, what did you see that you felt like exemplified that stage?
The best? [Katie]: Probably,
I mean, they overall have the shared vision cause I'm familiar with the movie,
but, in this scene,
it really seemed like they didn't have the shared vision where they were on
different wavelengths with planning and how to go on,
like the planning side. Like you mentioned,
like some people might be more of the planners and like some might be just
action-based, which was what Stark was. So no vision,
and then because of the no shared vision,
kind of the sub team alliance with like the people who were doing the planning
stuff versus Stark, it was like just action focused.
[Joe]: Yep. Exactly. Great. Thanks for sharing. We appreciate that.
So kind of some ways when you're in this stage on how you can make sure people
are successful or your team is successful,
is that the easiest thing kind of like that picture would be to relax and
refocus. That once again, those clashing personalities are going to happen,
that's inevitable, but if you can slow people down,
help them reassess the situation and the project,
and kind of find a way that they can all work together and kind of put what
we've had as struggles or problems or difficulties behind us and restart.
That's really one of the best ways to continue to be successful. And know that
conflict will continue,
and that if you handle it productively through the conflict management process,
everybody's going to be able to use that and actually be a positive thing that
happens because people are able to work through that conflict and find some
resolutions together. We want people during this time though,
to express their opinions. So once again,
if we have different working styles and somebody doesn't think that it's a great
way to go about the project, they should be able to express that opinion.
But if they do it in a very respectful way,
it's going to actually reduce group think and help people to be more successful
and also appreciating those group - group differences.
So when somebody does have a difference opinion, don't always cut it down,
know that that person has a different frame of reference or a background and
maybe has done something similar to what the project is going to be doing.
And so when they bring that difference of opinion,
it might be really valuable and maybe it's something different than you've ever
thought through or done, but just because it's different,
doesn't mean it's wrong.
And so allowing people to make sure they can express that. And also giving
feedback to people. So when they do give those different ideas,
don't cut it down, but just, uh, reassure them that, Hey,
thanks for sharing that and then discuss those ideas and whether it's a good
idea or a bad idea, but really appreciate the people for
putting themselves out there and suggesting something that might be helpful. And
then redefining the goal.
If it is going to be harder to accomplish what maybe the group wanted to do at
the beginning, redefine the goal, redefine the roles.
And if maybe people have too much responsibility, break those goals into smaller
achievable steps and reassign that work.
So it's more shared and maybe a little more even between the group people.
But also we do have to have a leader. Once again,
sometimes groups maybe think that nobody needs to be a leader,
but it just naturally will happen and
if we define one person as the leader that can kind of rally the troops and kind
of be the central means of communication.
So that's why we want to make sure to do that and then compromising with each
other, not all the time are we going to get our way,
but working in trying to combine ideas and be able to compromise is usually the
best way to be successful during that stage.
So now we're going to go into norming and all that Reshell kind of take the
[Reshell]: So norming is that unifying kind of,
we are now, as you said with the -
we know that the story of the Avengers and we know that they eventually come
but that begins to happen in that unifying stage where leadership becomes
resolved. We know who's leading.
our communication has to increase and does,
you address issues directly and head on,
but not members.
So it's not like something comes up and there's an issue and it's not pointing
fingers will so-and-so didn't fulfill or do what their part was.
But it's, there's an issue that we need to address as a group,
as an organization, how are we going to tackle that?
How are we going to get it done? And they're able to maintain,
focus on their purpose and their goal. And,
everyone is in it to win and everyone is participating.
And the skills and experiences of others are appreciated while they're in this
So it's where people can begin to function at their best and function without
that hesitation of being judged or
kind of put in their place. But rather than my,
what I'm bringing to the table is of a, is a value to this team.
And some of the characteristics they're eager to work with each other and engage
with each other.
they adapt to one another’s style and to one another.
Group identity and a sense of loyalty is established within the groups.
Disagreements may occur, but they can resolve it amicably
and there's no tension. It's one where groups
are usually happy to be together, enjoy being together and feel that that,
that they have a strong commitment to one another and to the organization and to
[Joe]: We'll go ahead and play this clip again to kind of show you norming and have you
point out what characteristics maybe you saw in this clip that exemplify the
[Film Clip]: It takes us a while to get any traction. I'll give you that one. You got a suit?
The suit up. Stark, we got him. Banner? Just like you said,
and tell him to suit up. Guys,
Call it, Captain. Listen up, until we can close that portal up, our priority’s containment.
Barton, I want you on that roof eyes on everything.
Call out patterns and strays and Stark. You've got the perimeter.
Anything gets more than three blocks out to turn it back or you turn it to
ash. Thor, you've got to try and bottleneck that portal – slow them down.
You got the lightning, light the bastards up. You and me, stay here on the ground,
we keep the fighting here. And Hulk?
[Joe]: All right. So Katie, once again,
what kind of behaviors did you see your characteristics that represent that
[Katie]: I’d say the identity and like the leadership was established
so they weren't all trying to say, Oh, I'm going to do this.
I'm going to do that. They had Captain,
America kind of just issuing instructions on where each people are going,
and there was no conflict with that. And they were kind of, they adjusted,
adapted to their strengths and they knew that their responsibilities were
associated with where strengths laid. [Joe]: Yeah, absolutely.
Awesome. Thanks for sharing.
So we'll let Reshell kind of finish up with one more kind of slide on how
during that stage,
what we can do to make sure that success continues to happen when we're in that
norming stage. [Reshell]: So individuals can be,
- you know what I was thinking as you were,
as you were talking and reflecting, because I think about the clip and,
and there was there was silence because, you know,
once it's determined who is responsible and the group gives the nod to that
person, then they,
again can begin putting strategies and things play in place to move the group
forward. And so,
if there is behavior, you know, the first,
the clip before where you're asked a question, Stark, you know,
I can't remember the exact lines, but his response was,
I don't dadadada. Where in this case,
people just step in fulfill the gro - fulfill the goal,
fulfill the role that they need to play within that organization.
And you get beyond the again,
that hesitation or the resistance, or
this is my thing to - we're in this together. And if we don't,
start smashing or putting things in right order as we need it to be,
then we ourselves might be destroyed. So
So one of our last second to last kind of stages is performing.
So it's slightly different than norming. And I think after you see the stage,
you'll kind of know
where you can see the distinguishing factors.
So the description that I like to give or a nickname would be well-oiled machine.
That yeah, and the norming, they did work together well, but in performing,
it's really a machine mentality where everything is just in its place.
There's developed systems and routines that make the project go smooth and
effectively, people really don't have to think.
It really just kind of happens if you've ever heard the word, it just flows, or
people are interdependent. That's really what that is.
Everybody has their own defined role. They know, and kind of have,
if we want to put it in a sports mentality
know where the other person is on the court. They can throw that no
look pass and know the person's going to be there because they just know the
team and know the other people's characteristics and personalities so well that
they can trust each other and really know things are going to be accomplished
effectively and know they can rely on that other person.
So they are all dedicated to accomplishing that mission and objective and goals.
And it's really easy to solve problems where even though in the norming,
they may have been able to solve the problem, in this stage
what happens is the team's really able to critique each other and to maybe fix
some of the processes or procedures that they're using to accomplish the goal
and maybe find a better way to do it.
But they're also able to celebrate when they are successful together as a group
and not just accomplish the goal, but celebrate together when doing so.
And the responsibilities are fluid.
So in the last clip where you saw captain America saying, Hulk
you need to go do this, Thor you need to go do this.
Those are very established and people kind of stayed in their lane and didn't go
outside of that. You're going to see in this next clip,
there is a very different mentality where those roles are more fluid and people
really change roles throughout time. And not because they're told to,
but because they naturally know people will go in and out of roles naturally and
step up and take responsibility when they need to,
and kind of step down and move into a different role when that means.
But also they're also open to new ideas.
So even though there's been defined roles and tasks and ways of doing things in
people are more than open to suggestions of new ideas and processes and
procedures, because sometimes those will make it more effective.
And if it doesn't work, they don't cut each other down.
They take those opinions and ideas and modify or critique them and make them
better or get rid of them altogether.
And then that performing stage deadlines are always met.
People don't even have to question whether or not it's going to get done by that
It just will because the team is dedicated and know that you're going to get it
done. And I always, lastly would say the production exceeds the expectation,
meaning we know we have a goal to accomplish,
but we're always going to do more than what that goal was because we worked
together so well.
And I think this next picture really shows that even though there's three people
there, I would always say that the sum is or the,
or the product is more than the sum of its parts. When you work together,
there's that synergy that's developed.
So even the three people are there when they work together,
you really have the work of three and a half people because they just work so
well together and play off of each other's strengths and really are able to
overachieve. And so part of that is that autonomy where people,
once again have their own defined roles and function in their own lane,
but at the same time can move in and out of those different responsibilities to
that they can get things done and do it in a way that's going to be the most
productive and efficient way.
But you're also going to see that additional people may be asked to step up and
do things that aren't even a part of the group. So the group at this point,
it's so comfortable in know where their weaknesses and strengths are,
that they're not afraid of admitting there's a weakness there and asking other
people outside of their group to maybe help or,
consult with them or add something to their project or responsibilities to help
them to be successful.
Also that resourcefulness people will go and think of new novel ideas,
but that energizes other people to come up with their own ideas and maybe modify,
change, and revise some of the old ways of doing things to make it better.
And when you're in performing, we know that it's not indefinite,
meaning that we're either going to go to the next stage adjourning,
or we're going to maybe move back into one of the previous stages.
If somebody leaves the group or
something happens and causes the group to have some inner group conflict or
responsibilities change, lots of different things can happen.
So know that people can regress and go backwards. But,
know that for the most part it's to either go forward or back,
but could be cyclical and repeat it.
So those are kind of some more of the characteristics or behaviors that you may
see when you're in that performing state.
So once again, here's another clip that shows performing,
and then we'll have you kind of,
once again mentioned some of those characteristics or behaviors you see in this
stage and why you think so we'll go ahead and play the clip and come back
[Film Clip]; Stark, got a stray sniffing your tail.
Just trying to keep them off the streets. But they can't bank worth a damn.
Find a tight corner. I will roger that. Want to get up there, you're going to need a ride.
I got a ride. Could use a boost though. You sure about this? Yeah, it's going to be fun.
You need men in these buildings.
There are people inside they're going to be running right into the line of
fire. You take them to the basement or to the subway.
You keep them off the streets. I need a perimeter, as far back as 39th.
I need men in those buildings lead to people down and away from the streets you
got it. We’re going to set up a perimeter all the way down at 39th street.
[Joe]: All right. So once again, kind of that same question.
What characteristics or behaviors did you see that exemplify the performing
[Katie]: So the group energy, just with all of them working together again,
but then also welcoming the outside help when they realized their target was
more of the problem and they couldn't answer the people.
So they had the police get involved and help do what they're good at doing so
that the Avengers can focus on the bigger issue.
I can't remember what it is, but yeah.
[Joe]: Yeah, absolutely. So, thanks for sharing that once again.
And we'll go ahead and,
have you kind of talk a little bit more at the end here,
but we were gonna talk about when you're in this stage, how can we ensure,
that success, right?
How can we make sure that we're in this stage we can continue to be successful
in group think is very common in this stage when you get so comfortable with
everyone else in the group and what roles and responsibilities we all have,
it could easily happen.
So we have to make sure to slow down or always keep our head on a swivel.
As I like to say,
reevaluate constantly to make sure we're not just coasting and that we fall off
a cliff like that picture would show if we would just continue on a normal as
And so the way to do that is just by continuing to communicate the progress that
we're making to make sure we're on our deadlines and following our checkpoints
and redefining roles, responsibilities, and tasks, as we go along,
if things do change or things need to be expedited or maybe sped up or slowed
down to make sure we're staying on track.
Make sure everybody's stating their intentions and their disagreements on
things. If they have them and not falling into that group,
think where just because somebody says something it's gotta be true,
it's gotta be accurate. It's gotta be the best way to do that.
And talking about deadlines,
making sure people know when that deadline is going to be hitting and how we're
going to accomplish that.
And then what resources might be needed because after group exists for awhile,
you may think that those resources you had were always going to be there,
but you never know what would happen if some of those resources are gone or
maybe you don't have all the members you previously had.
So you have to reevaluate how you're going to accomplish that goal,
having one last or two less people. But also the leader,
because there might be less work and more supervisory that needs to happen over
each of the group members. They could very easily start to micromanage and,
and critique, too - too much on that.
It's not a bad thing for them to critique,
but doing it too much could be more micromanaging and make people feel as if
they're not actually, doing the right thing or,
having somebody just look over their shoulder all the time.
So just hold each other accountable and then reevaluate the output or what we're
doing, continually throughout this phase.
And if there is any need to make sure that we're doing what we need to,
to stay on track, that's really what we need to do, at that point.
So I'll go ahead and kind of turn it over to Reshell,
to talk about our adjourningg phase.
And then we'll kind of have some last few questions for you and then we'll let
[Reshell]: So with this, with this stage,
it is okay after groups have accomplished their goals,
and sometimes - have you ever been in a group where everybody knows that we've,
we've been together, we've done what we said we were going to do now what?
The now what is let them go it's okay.
It's okay to say goodbye. It's okay to,
you know, tie up any loose ends that may be left.
but to move on in to do something different,
it doesn't mean that you have to part ways and you never see those individuals,
For the purpose that you were originally, came together,
if that goal has been accomplished, it is okay to adjourn and to,
move on. it's really important to celebrate.
I recognized what has been accomplished and,
and to reflect on that, because that celebration and reflection,
allows people to have closure to
a project or a process. And people really do look for that.
And, and without it, it it's like, are we done? Did we finish?
Is there something else that we should be
So the members usually have achieved their common goal.
They would determine how to retain their friendships with other members.
And they're happy for what they've achieved,
but do feel a sense a loss every year, for me,
I have students that come together, we plan events,
we interact regularly and then,
they graduate and the group changes and the dynamics change,
but you know, those friendships and those relationships that have,
that have been established, those remain.
And so really, I think as Tuckman postulated,
this model really was looking at how do we help groups build relationships,
commun - strong communication, to accomplish,
accomplish a common purpose and goal?
And that there are ways in which if we're aware of where we are and how we're
progressing through those stages,
the group much more apt to be successful in the long run. And the goals and
things are accomplished. Go ahead. No. Good.
[Joe]: All right. So we've got one more video clip here, and then we'll
ask you one last question here and then do some discussion questions.
[Film Clip]: They've gone their separate ways. Pretty, extremely far.
We get into a situation like this again, what happens then? They'll come back
[Joe]: All right. A lot shorter clip this time. But
one thing we we'd like to mention is during this stage,
the group's gone through all the stages. So it really is okay to say, Hey,
we're done. And just like that video showed we,
we don't re- regroup as a, as a unit unless we need to,
but we noticed right there that if we need the group to come back together and
save the world again, they'll naturally come back.
The group will re- reconvened when needed.
So that's really the kind of underlying note we wanted to make sure people got
from that one, rather than, I guess,
asking you to point out characteristics since it's so short,
that's really the takeaway.
We want everybody to gain from this a little clip.
[Reshell]: And then when they do reconvene,
because those relationships had been built,
it's easy for the group to come back together on a different,
maybe under a different circumstance from different places and to,
not necessarily just pick up from where they left off,
but it takes a lot less time to go back through those stages because there's
already familiarity with one another.
There's already some sense of how we communicate.
And so it, there may be a short-term cycling back through,
but it doesn't have to take as long as it did initially. [Joe]: Yup.
Awesome. So we're kind of on our discussion questions.
This is I think the best way for us to end and kind of have you give us some
feedback on these questions on how you could maybe utilize this information.
But the first question we wanted to kind of get some insight from you on is what
stage of group development best reflects the group or team you're a member of,
and then give an example, but kind of armed with this knowledge. What,
can you do to kind of move that group to that next stage?
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