Mathias 2021 Ucare presentation
My presentation for my 2021 ucare project.
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- [00:00:00.930]My UCare project was over the
microbials located in the maze
rhizosphere my professor that I
worked under was Dr. Van Dijk.
- [00:00:09.390]The purpose of this research was the
utilization of soil born microbials,
- [00:00:13.740]isolated from various soil samples to
increase growth efficiency of maize plants.
- [00:00:19.080]This in practice would reduce the amount of nutrients that would be supplied to the plant
- [00:00:23.470]artificially potentially affecting several
economic and environmental concerns.
- [00:00:29.070]The microbials being studied and
inhabit the rhizosphere of maize.
- [00:00:32.760]This is the seven or eight
millimeters of soil surrounding.
- [00:00:36.000]The roots is typically a
diverse microorganism community.
- [00:00:40.350]One specific quality we were
looking for in these microorganisms was the
- [00:00:44.910]capacity of supplying
nitrogen to the maize plant.
- [00:00:50.010]One of the first experiments I was a part of was utilizing azotobacter in the
- [00:00:54.990]greenhouse where the maize plants were
inoculated with the azotobacter in the
- [00:00:59.760]soil to observe its effects on maize
plants with varying nitrogen being
- [00:01:04.020]supplied. The first
observation was that
- [00:01:08.730]when the rhizosphere was collected,
- [00:01:10.680]azotobacter was not visually present
after five weeks of growth in the
- [00:01:14.430]greenhouse. The other bacteria in the soil dominated
- [00:01:19.280]what grew on the plate.
- [00:01:20.660]Making it impossible to tell if there
was azotobacter, with our resources, in
- [00:01:25.640]the rhizosphere during collection
and due to no significant
- [00:01:30.260]difference in growth.
- [00:01:31.280]The possible presence of azotobacter did not have an effect.
- [00:01:35.870]The only other significant observation
made was the difference in color of
- [00:01:40.850]the plants between nitrogen groups,
- [00:01:43.160]but no numbers were recorded
from chlorophyll analysis
due to the leaves being
- [00:01:47.690]shriveled up at collection time.
- [00:01:51.620]The next set of experiments were
done by inoculating maize plants in a
- [00:01:55.490]Hogland's agar.
- [00:01:57.050]This experiment was done in sterile
environment to directly track the
- [00:02:01.130]grouth of the inoculated
- [00:02:01.880]microorganism at the rhizosphere
in a solid media. In the first run
- [00:02:06.740]of this experiment,
- [00:02:07.790]different nitrogen concentrations were
used to see differences in growth due to
- [00:02:12.050]nitrogen availability. However,
- [00:02:14.900]due to the time period that
this experiment was ran over,
- [00:02:19.070]no difference in plant
growth were observed. However,
- [00:02:23.300]CRH one, two, three, four, eight,
- [00:02:27.410]50%4, azotobacter, Sr,
and nine mile were all
- [00:02:32.030]observed at the roots. It worth noting
that over the course of the experiments,
- [00:02:36.860]the amount of colony forming units in
the roots increase from the amount in the
- [00:02:41.510]inoculum, initially,
- [00:02:44.240]These are visuals of the plants grown
in the ice cream containers with
- [00:02:48.590]microorganisms isolated from
prairie and pasture soil samples.
- [00:02:54.320]This is one of the graphs used to form
equations to relate the optical density
- [00:02:58.880]of microorganism cultures, to the
amount of colony forming units
- [00:03:03.250]of the cultures. The equations
made for each microorganism were used
- [00:03:08.230]to make each inoculum
approximately the same amount
- [00:03:13.150]of colony forming units before
inoculation of maize plants,
- [00:03:19.240]The last experiments we were,
- [00:03:20.950]moving out of agar into
a glass bead hydroponic system.
- [00:03:25.750]The key difference we were trying to
observe was if these microorganisms could
- [00:03:30.490]or would stay in the rhizosphere
since they can move more, and the liquid
- [00:03:34.780]was drained every day. The draining of the liquid forced
- [00:03:38.950]all of the microorganisms to cling to
the roots or be removed from the system.
- [00:03:44.200]This experiment was done to see the
retention of microorganisms at the
- [00:03:48.970]roots, not to see the increase in
colony forming units of the
- [00:03:53.650]microorganisms at the roots. Of
the strains previously tested
- [00:03:58.420]azotobacter and nine mile
were tested in the system,
- [00:04:01.310]and showed diminishing numbers
over the course of the rhizosphere
- [00:04:05.530]collection. Due to the collection
being longer than that,
- [00:04:09.460]of the agar experience,
root length, shoot length,
- [00:04:13.150]and shoot mass were collected. However,
- [00:04:15.700]there was no significant
difference in any categories.
- [00:04:21.280]Some of the issues that arose in our
experiments limited how much we were able
- [00:04:25.510]to get results. First was the
germination of corn plants.
- [00:04:29.830]The seeds used to produce the corn plants
did not have a good germination rate.
- [00:04:34.120]And when the seeds did germinate,
- [00:04:36.100]they did so sporadically the
sporadic germination resulted in
- [00:04:40.960]plants of varying ages,
- [00:04:42.820]not allowing for comparison of
growth in later experiments,
- [00:04:46.870]the microorganisms we
were working with also have
- [00:04:51.640]not been handled for a long time,
- [00:04:53.770]making it difficult for us to find the
best way to culture these microorganisms.
- [00:04:58.510]We had to try several different methods
of culturing to get microorganisms,
- [00:05:02.560]to grow,
- [00:05:03.070]including several types of solid
and liquid media to make inoculums.
- [00:05:08.110]Their growth rate was also
sporadic causing problems,
- [00:05:11.380]with having microorganism
cultures ready for experiments.
- [00:05:17.080]COVID-19 also caused significant
problems by limiting the amount of time
- [00:05:21.610]available to conduct research and
limiting the personnel available in person.
- [00:05:27.210]Continuing research on microorganisms.
- [00:05:31.290]in the maize rhizosphere has
several topics of these previous
- [00:05:35.380]experiments can and
should be expanded upon. First,
- [00:05:39.700]these experiments should keep moving
towards experiments in soil.
- [00:05:43.300]This will make their results be more
significant for field applications.
- [00:05:47.170]Since there will be the competition
of natural microorganisms in the soil
- [00:05:52.210]of fields.
- [00:05:53.620]These natural microorganisms will alter
how the microorganisms, used in the
- [00:06:01.010]to increase growth,
will grow in the rhizosphere. Soil
- [00:06:06.140]well get the treatments using
microorganisms closer to the application
- [00:06:11.000]infields that are meant to
produce agricultural goods.
- [00:06:15.140]Next more repetitions of the
experiments already ran need to be done. Due
- [00:06:20.030]to some of the issues mentioned earlier,
- [00:06:22.190]not many replications were ran making
the gathering of significant results,
- [00:06:26.780]difficult. Specifically, the
hydroponics system needs more
- [00:06:33.520]repetition since not all microorganisms
have been used in that experiment.
- [00:06:37.250]The expansion of our
- [00:06:41.210]would also be beneficial towards the
goal of using microorganisms to increase
- [00:06:45.770]the growth of maze.
- [00:06:47.150]More soil samples have been collected
from my own family's pastures,
- [00:06:52.050]but have not been processed yet due to
the lack of manpower at working on this
- [00:06:55.460]project. Dr.
- [00:06:57.030]Van Dijk also did an outreach
project this last summer,
- [00:07:01.430]where soil samples were collected,
- [00:07:03.710]across Nebraska
and out of state
- [00:07:07.010]and these have also not been processed.
- [00:07:10.000]Thank you for listening to
my 2021 UCare presentation.
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