Parental well-being during early childhood: How does it relate to parental behaviors?
The objective of this study was to understand the relationship between parental well being and parental behavior. It also aimed to explore the consistency of observed and self-reported measures of parental behavior in parents of infants and toddlers.
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[00:00:02.010]Hi, my name is Evelyn Estrada,
[00:00:04.237]and I will be presenting my project over parental wellbeing
[00:00:07.900]during early childhood
[00:00:09.080]and its relationship to parental behaviors.
[00:00:12.520]My mentor for this project was Dr. Lisa Knoche.
[00:00:17.390]Parental efficacy has been defined
[00:00:19.230]as the parents' expectations about the degree
[00:00:21.443]to which they are able to perform completely
[00:00:24.230]and effectively as a parent.
[00:00:26.400]On the other hand, parental stress has been defined
[00:00:28.960]as the difficulties that arise from the demands
[00:00:31.780]as being a parent.
[00:00:33.640]Both parental efficacy and parental stress have been linked
[00:00:36.667]to children's developmental outcomes.
[00:00:39.867]Previous literature has also identified a limited range
[00:00:43.615]of research on the relationship between self-reported
[00:00:47.170]and observed parental behavior measures with mixed findings.
[00:00:50.691]With that being said, the objective of this research is
[00:00:54.180]to understand the relationship between parental wellbeing
[00:00:56.835]to parental behaviors and the consistency of observed
[00:01:00.650]and self-reported measures of parental behaviors.
[00:01:04.838]My first question is how does parental wellbeing,
[00:01:08.062]measured as stress, parental efficacy, and social support,
[00:01:12.008]relate to their parental behaviors?
[00:01:14.540]My second question is
[00:01:15.810]how do parents' self-reported behaviors relate
[00:01:18.180]to observed parental behaviors?
[00:01:21.624]The sample of this study consisted
[00:01:23.360]of 152 parents and 152 children.
[00:01:26.865]The data was drawn from a longitudinal study
[00:01:30.110]of the Getting Ready intervention that focuses
[00:01:32.887]on getting children ready for school.
[00:01:36.963]All families from this study have a low-income status,
[00:01:40.360]and the children are enrolled
[00:01:41.860]in center-based childcare programs.
[00:01:45.561]In order to measure the observational parental behaviors,
[00:01:49.027]the Parent/Caregiver Involvement Scale was used
[00:01:52.190]to code 15 to 30 minute videos.
[00:01:54.569]It is composed of 11 subscales,
[00:01:57.050]all rated on amount, quality, appropriateness.
[00:02:00.030]The 11 subscales were then factor analyzed
[00:02:02.630]into six different factors,
[00:02:04.080]including amount factors, with constructive behaviors,
[00:02:07.613]quality factors, with warmth and sensitivity,
[00:02:11.200]harsh and abrupt parenting, and adaptability.
[00:02:14.540]And lastly, the appropriateness factors,
[00:02:17.040]with anticipation of child's needs
[00:02:19.490]and scaffolding child's learning.
[00:02:22.299]The Healthy Families Parenting Inventory
[00:02:24.970]is a self-reported measure and was used
[00:02:27.355]to measure both parental wellbeing,
[00:02:30.227]using the subscales of parental efficacy
[00:02:33.210]and social support.
[00:02:34.572]And it was also used
[00:02:36.690]to measure the self-reported parental behaviors
[00:02:40.060]using the parent-child interaction subscale.
[00:02:44.330]Finally, the Parenting Stress Index was used
[00:02:47.700]to measure the parental wellbeing.
[00:02:49.720]It was scored on a 5 Likert scale.
[00:02:54.865]Here is parent's gender and marital status.
[00:03:01.000]And as you can see, the mean age
[00:03:02.797]of the parents was approximately 29 years old.
[00:03:08.310]As you can see, almost half
[00:03:09.675]of the parents spoke a language other than English
[00:03:13.320]to their child.
[00:03:14.288]About half of the sample were parents of color,
[00:03:17.582]and about half of the parents were Hispanic.
[00:03:22.601]Almost half of the sample had some college and associates,
[00:03:27.021]or a four-year degree,
[00:03:28.862]and some parents were employed and/or going to school.
[00:03:35.150]Here is my child sample.
[00:03:36.785]Overall, the mean age of the children was
[00:03:39.820]about 14 months old.
[00:03:42.920]Here are my descriptives for parental wellbeing.
[00:03:45.803]And as a summary, stress,
[00:03:48.601]which was analyzed using a t-score,
[00:03:51.536]had a mean average of 43.90
[00:03:54.450]and a possible range of 0 to 100.
[00:03:57.072]This means that parents were below average on their stress.
[00:04:00.712]Social support's mean average was 21
[00:04:04.740]with a possible range of 5 to 25.
[00:04:07.460]And parental efficacy's mean average was 24.72
[00:04:12.199]with a possible range of 6 to 30.
[00:04:14.855]So overall, both social support
[00:04:17.701]and parental efficacy levels were relatively high
[00:04:21.139]in this sample.
[00:04:23.840]For the descriptive of the Parent-Child's Behaviors,
[00:04:26.757]the orange are all the observational parental behaviors,
[00:04:31.739]and the blue one is the self-reported behavior.
[00:04:36.133]all the observational variables had a possible range
[00:04:38.750]of 1 to 5, and all their means were relatively high.
[00:04:42.660]The self-reported measure had a mean of 45.04
[00:04:46.790]and a possible range of 10 to 50.
[00:04:50.470]And so, in this case, the mean was also relative high.
[00:04:55.387]Moving on to my results.
[00:04:57.332]So for the first question
[00:04:59.648]on how does parental wellbeing relate
[00:05:03.570]to their parental behaviors?
[00:05:09.080]So I ran a regression analysis.
[00:05:12.469]And overall, no significant associations were found
[00:05:17.540]between any of the wellbeing measures
[00:05:20.270]and the observed parental behavior measures.
[00:05:22.309]However, there were some significant results when looking
[00:05:25.211]at the self-reported measures.
[00:05:28.710]So higher parental stress levels were associated
[00:05:31.670]with lower parent-child interactions
[00:05:34.156]and higher parental efficacy was associated
[00:05:37.131]with higher parent-child interactions.
[00:05:40.830]However, this was only true
[00:05:42.500]for the self-reported parental behavior measure.
[00:05:46.419]For my second question
[00:05:48.050]on how did parents' self-reported behaviors relate
[00:05:51.250]to their observed behaviors?
[00:05:52.853]So for this one, I ran a correlation analysis.
[00:05:58.064]And overall, no significant results were found.
[00:06:02.350]So observed parental behaviors was not related
[00:06:05.560]to self-reported parent-child interactions.
[00:06:10.113]So overall, like previous research,
[00:06:12.880]higher parental efficacy led
[00:06:14.720]to higher parent-child interaction scores,
[00:06:17.119]and higher stress levels led
[00:06:19.380]to lower parent-child interaction scores.
[00:06:22.140]However, this was only true for the self-reported measure,
[00:06:25.360]as no relationship was found on the observed measures.
[00:06:28.517]And contrary to previous research,
[00:06:31.230]no relationship was found between social support
[00:06:33.890]and self-reported or observed parental behavior.
[00:06:37.948]Also, like previous research, self-reported
[00:06:41.370]and observed parental behaviors were not
[00:06:45.650]Some possible reasons of why this happened in this study is
[00:06:49.050]that both measures could have considered different things
[00:06:51.730]when looking at parental behavior.
[00:06:53.574]Another reason is
[00:06:54.940]that the observed measures only considered parental behavior
[00:06:58.090]from a 15 to 30 minute video,
[00:07:00.295]whereas the self-reported measure considered
[00:07:02.710]overall parental behavior.
[00:07:04.114]And lastly, parents could have overscored their behavior
[00:07:07.380]in order to fulfill social norms.
[00:07:10.770]With this being said,
[00:07:11.830]future research to identify more consistent measures
[00:07:14.550]of parent-child interactions
[00:07:16.172]in order to have more accurate data,
[00:07:18.690]and early childhood programs should focus
[00:07:21.027]on reducing parental stress and improving parental efficacy
[00:07:24.343]in order to improve parent-child interaction.
[00:07:29.450]I would like to thank anyone who partnered
[00:07:31.270]with Getting Ready, as well as the Getting Ready staff.
[00:07:33.803]I would also like to thank UCARE for providing me
[00:07:36.610]with this grant to conduct my own research.
[00:07:39.100]Lastly, this research is supported
[00:07:40.582]by Early Head Start University Partnership grant,
[00:07:43.579]awarded to doctors, Lisa Knoche and Susan Sheridan.
[00:07:49.490]Thank you for watching my presentation.
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