Water quality issues in Rwanda
The main challenges to water quality in Rwanda and recommendations of possible solutions that can be implemented
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- [00:00:01.560]My name is Andromede Uwase[inaudible].
- [00:00:03.660]am a junior student at
university of Nebraska Lincoln,
- [00:00:07.020]and my project is about water
quality issues in Rwanda.
- [00:00:11.550]Water is very important
in sustainable development.
- [00:00:15.270]It is crucial for energy
and food production, human
- [00:00:18.990]life survival and other sectors,
- [00:00:22.290]but the UN report that
was conducted in 2009
- [00:00:27.090]shows that more than 2 billion people,
- [00:00:29.550]worldwide face water stress in
their countries and the report
- [00:00:34.410]that was conducted the
2013 shows that one in nine
- [00:00:39.360]people worldwide lack the
access to clean water,
- [00:00:43.110]either for drinking or other
consumption. Developing countries,
- [00:00:47.820]like Rwanda
- [00:00:48.620]and some other African countries
are most affected by the water
- [00:00:53.340]shortage and poor quality because
of the factors like fecal
- [00:00:58.320]materials, waste water
and climate change.
- [00:01:02.790]And this end up harming the
economic development and human health
- [00:01:07.560]in these countries.
- [00:01:09.900]Rwanda is a landlocked country in
East central part of Africa.
- [00:01:14.970]If you look on this map of Africa here,
- [00:01:17.670]you will see Rwanda in the
middle and Rwanda has
- [00:01:22.260]both the ground and surface water
sources and two main different basin.
- [00:01:27.480]These basins are Congo and Nile.
- [00:01:30.990]The purpose of my project was
to use the literature reviews
- [00:01:35.040]to understand and identify the main
challenges to water quality issues in Rwanda.
- [00:01:39.990]And recommend possible solutions
that can be implemented to solve these
- [00:01:47.130]Most Rwanda's groundwater
comes from precipitation and
- [00:01:51.960]Rwanda ground groundwater is the
primary source of fresh water and most
- [00:01:56.330]reliable in agriculture and domestic use.
- [00:02:00.300]And surface water of
Rwanda is composed by lakes
- [00:02:04.620]rivers, streams wetlands
- [00:02:08.880]And it's occupies 10.6%
of the country surface
- [00:02:15.390]ground and surface water
present 15% of the national
- [00:02:20.070]territory. The sustainable
- [00:02:24.480]agenda of 2030 brings
water quality issues to the
- [00:02:28.980]forefront of international action
to respond to the concerning
- [00:02:33.360]challenge that globally
threatens water quality in
- [00:02:37.950]Rwanda. The first issue
is fuel pollution.
- [00:02:43.200]This is the contamination
of water with pathogens.
- [00:02:47.580]Most groundwater source in
Rwanda especially rural areas.
- [00:02:51.720]are contaminated with these
pollutants from either human or
- [00:02:58.110]And they are the main cause of the
waterborne diseases and mortality
- [00:03:02.890]rate of children under age of five.
- [00:03:06.910]The study that was conducted in 2015 in 30
- [00:03:11.420]district of Rwanda to analyze
- [00:03:14.770]level in drinking water
showed the presence of fecal
- [00:03:19.210]coliform and Escherichia coli( E.coli)
- [00:03:22.240]these are the bacterias that indicate
when water has been contaminated
- [00:03:26.890]with this fecal materials from human
- [00:03:31.380]or animals. The second challenge
- [00:03:35.910]Is urbanization and
- [00:03:39.480]the UN report that was
conducted in 2014 on world
- [00:03:44.160]urbanization shows that by 2050,
- [00:03:48.480]the world could add 2.5
billion of urban population.
- [00:03:54.120]And it was estimated that
22% of water globally
- [00:03:58.920]gets used by the industries. However,
- [00:04:02.610]these industries discharged
massive amount of pollutants and
- [00:04:07.260]waste in the water sources .
- [00:04:10.950]The urban areas population have raised by
- [00:04:16.000]16.6% from 2002 to 2007,
- [00:04:20.810], And as the
- [00:04:25.890]there is a development
of industrial sectors,
- [00:04:29.550]50% of the industries
in Rwanda lack the access
- [00:04:34.500]to waste management.
- [00:04:36.810]And this cause the illegal release
of untreated discharge into the water
- [00:04:43.890]The third challenge is climate change.
- [00:04:47.520]Climate change impacts the water
cycle and put pressure on food
- [00:04:51.930]production and drinking water supplies.
- [00:04:55.410]The prediction shows
that less precipitation
- [00:04:58.860]and warmer temperature in the
- [00:05:02.940]subtropical and equatorial eastern
- [00:05:05.010]part of Africa where Rwanda is
located, may increase
- [00:05:09.780]the rate of desertification and
the increase in precipitation
- [00:05:14.970]cause the chemicals like
pesticides to run off. and the
- [00:05:19.800]increase of precipitation
cause also flooding,
- [00:05:22.890]which cause the water quality degradation.
- [00:05:27.300]to summarize these challenges
- [00:05:30.140]of water quality in Rwanda Fecal pollution
is the most significant challenge
- [00:05:35.190]because it contains the
infectious micro organisms,
- [00:05:38.880]which are threats to human
health. Ingestion of food,
- [00:05:42.870]which was contaminated by these
fecal materials can cause water
- [00:05:47.770]borne diseases and children death.
- [00:05:53.190]Possible solutions that I can suggest are
- [00:05:58.820]educating people about different ways of
treating water and manage the available
- [00:06:03.800]resources. Another one is
- [00:06:08.060]monitor and control,
the sources of emission,
- [00:06:11.900]also establishment of wastewater
and solid waste treatment
- [00:06:17.840]mostly by the industries also, uh,
- [00:06:23.540]the crop intensification program,
- [00:06:25.790]which will reduce the
use of chemicals ,
- [00:06:29.180]in enhancing the soil fertility.
- [00:06:32.210]So this will reduce the run off
of this chemicals to the water
- [00:06:36.620]sources. to summarize these solutions,
- [00:06:41.540]water quality monitoring is,
the main recommendation.
- [00:06:45.140]water quality monitoring is used to
alert about the current ongoing
- [00:06:50.180]and emerging threats and
problems to water sources, also with
- [00:06:54.440]the goal of maintaining
the quality of water
Establishment of new and
- [00:07:01.730]empowering existing water quality
monitoring strategies is my
- [00:07:06.140]main recommendation
- [00:07:07.730]It will help in the identification
of pollution sources before they
- [00:07:12.650]enter the water source and also
will provide the empirical evidence
- [00:07:17.930]to support the decision
- [00:07:20.960]to know the sources of
water that should be focused
- [00:07:26.810]So the materials that is that
is most needed to implement, uh,
- [00:07:31.310]these water quality monitoring strategies are
the technology or tools and the
- [00:07:36.200]equipment ,water
centers for research,
- [00:07:40.370]also the education and training,
- [00:07:43.130]to people who will be implementing these.
- [00:07:49.720]Also the main and important
one is to look for the fundings
- [00:07:54.790]and grants,
- [00:07:56.140]sources that can help in the
research and implementing these
- [00:08:01.090]strategies and actions.
- [00:08:04.960]And these are my references.
- [00:08:07.510]And to end i would like to thank my
- [00:08:11.500]advisor for this project,
Dr. Daniel Snow,
- [00:08:16.060]thank you for all the support and
guidance, in this project.
- [00:08:20.920]And thank you.
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