Long-Term Effects of Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs) and Positive Childhood Experiences (PCEs) on Depression and Anxiety in Adolescence
ACEs were identified risk factors for adolescent depression and anxiety. ACEs included:
Child maltreatment (physical, emotional, and sexual abuse; physical and emotional neglect)
Family dysfunction (parental divorce or separation, incarceration, violence, mental illness, and substance abuse).
PCEs were identified as protectives factors for adolescent mental health outcomes. PCEs included:
Parental warmth and father involvement within family
School connectedness and positive peer relationship within school
Collective efficacy within neighborhood
This study aims to examine the longitudinal effects of ACEs and PCEs within family, school, and neighborhood on depression and anxiety among at-risk adolescents.
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[00:00:01.120]Hi, thanks for watching this presentation, I am Dan Wang, a doctoral candidate in the Department of Child, Youth and Family Studies.
[00:00:11.176]Hi everyone, my name is Qingyu Jiang. I'm a doctoral student in the Department of Child, Youth, and Family Studies.
[00:00:19.424]Our study was advised by Dr. Choi.
[00:00:22.354]Our poster title is the long term effects of adverse childhood experiences, and the positive childhood experiences on depression and anxiety in adolescence.
[00:00:34.434]We will be going over our purpose of the study, method, and we are going into results, discussion, and future directions.
[00:00:42.763]Depression and anxiety are two serious mental health concerns.
[00:00:48.690]Adverse childhood experiences, including child maltreatment (such as physical and sexual abuse, emotional neglect)
[00:00:58.270]and family dysfunction (such as parental separation, incarceration, and violence) are risk factors for individual's mental health.
[00:01:10.813]Although previous studies have demonstrated the relationship between adverse childhood experiences and adolescent mental health.
[00:01:19.313]There are several gaps that need to be addressed.
[00:01:22.940]First, ethnic minority adolescents from socioeconomically disadvantaged families have been less represented in population-based studies,
[00:01:36.440]and the associations between adverse childhood experiences and mental health among this group are not well understood.
[00:01:44.490]Second, maltreatment and the family dysfunction of adverse childhood experiences are two different dimensions.
[00:01:53.578]And these dimensions are likely to be differently related to the adolescent depression and anxiety.
[00:02:01.353]However, few studies have examined these two dimensions of adverse childhood experiences on adolescent depression and anxiety.
[00:02:10.766]And finally, the adverse childhood experiences exposures at early stages increase the risk for later maladaptation.
[00:02:21.806]but few studies have investigated how early exposures to adverse childhood experiences affect adolescent depression and anxiety.
[00:02:31.878]On the other hand, both research and theoretical frameworks are well documented that
[00:02:38.094]positive childhood experiences within families, schools, and neighborhoods are protective factors against depression and anxiety.
[00:02:48.203]For the current study, therefore, we examined the longitudinal effects of adverse childhood experiences and positive childhood experiences
[00:02:58.794]within families schools, and neighborhoods on depression and anxiety among at-risk adolescents.
[00:03:05.982]Next, Dan will introduce us the method section.
[00:03:10.304]Thanks. In our study, we draw data from the Fragile Family and Child Wellbeing Study.
[00:03:17.694]It's a longitudinal cohort tracking children and their parents from child's birth to age 15.
[00:03:24.535]We used the subsample of 3,426 children and their environments.
[00:03:31.955]Our measures included adverse childhood experiences from birth to age nine, positive childhood experiences from children's age one to age nine, and the adolescent outcomes at age fifteen.
[00:03:49.634]For the adverse childhood experiences, it include child maltreatment and the family dysfunction.
[00:03:57.706]The positive childhood experiences include parental warmth at home, father involvement at home,
[00:04:05.152]school connectedness and positive peer relationships at school, and neighborhood collective efficacy.
[00:04:12.793]The outcomes are depression and anxiety.
[00:04:16.393]To be mentioned, the scales are either validated, or have being used in previous studies.
[00:04:24.029]For the analysis, we used the logistic regression and adjusted the effects of child sex, family, and the neighborhood characteristics.
[00:04:34.456]Looking at the results, the figures on the left side of "1" means protective factors, and on the right side means risk factors that increase the risk for depression and anxiety.
[00:04:49.876]We have five major findings.
[00:04:53.227]Regarding adverse childhood experiences, we found childhood maltreatment increased the risk only for later anxiety,
[00:05:01.605]and the family dysfunction increased the risk for both later depression and anxiety.
[00:05:08.258]Regarding the positive childhood experiences, we can see from the figure that parental warmth is the strongest protective factor against later depression and anxiety.
[00:05:20.627]It decreases the risk by around 30%.
[00:05:24.887]Father involvement, positive peer relationships, and school connectedness also reduce the risk for later depression and anxiety.
[00:05:35.114]Meanwhile, neighborhood collective efficacy protects adolescents only against later depression, but not anxiety.
[00:05:45.501]Next, Qingyu will talk about the discussion section.
[00:05:50.831]Moving forward to the discussion.
[00:05:52.389]Our findings suggest that maltreatment and family dysfunction of adverse childhood experiences are two different risk dimensions for adolescent depression and anxiety, instead of a single construct.
[00:06:07.990]Our study also revealed that positive childhood experiences in multiple environments
[00:06:15.405](that is within family, school, and neighborhood) contributed to decreased risks of maladaptation for at-risk adolescents.
[00:06:26.127]Also aligned with theoretical foundations, our findings provide supporting evidence for
[00:06:31.047]Positive Youth Development framework and the resilience framework
[00:06:37.527]that emphasize on building safe and nurturing environments for young children in adversities.
[00:06:43.756]These findings also encourage developing and implementing positive parenting training programs to support these families and their children.
[00:06:55.576]Future research may continue to explore how different combinations of adverse childhood experiences and positive childhood experiences across ages interact with one another,
[00:07:09.511]then contributed to adolescent mental health outcomes.
[00:07:13.806]Furthermore, future studies may incorporate the characteristics of ethnic minority adolescence, such as self stigma,
[00:07:23.523]as well their unique contexts, such as protective factors at home like grandparents’ support and teachers’ support within school.
[00:07:34.448]To conclude, we would like to acknowledge Dr. Choi for advising our study.
[00:07:40.839]Thank you so much for watching.
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