Writing for Students with Visual Impairments: A TVI National Survey
A research summary of a national teacher of the visually impaired survey on instructional writing practices.
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- [00:00:01.500]Hi everyone.
- [00:00:02.040]My name is Madison Bosilevac and I've
been a part of the project team for the
- [00:00:05.640]2020, 2021 school year. Today,
- [00:00:08.700]I will be presenting on my research
project writing for students with visual
- [00:00:13.050]a teacher of the visually impaired
national survey. students with visual
- [00:00:17.670]impairments are often mistakenly
thought to be illiterate or have great
- [00:00:20.910]difficulty learning writing skills,
- [00:00:23.130]a recent report from the American printing
house for the blind shows more than
- [00:00:26.490]50% of students registered with
APH are considered readers.
- [00:00:30.780]According to this information,
- [00:00:32.190]majority of students with
visual impairments are already
or are capable of being
- [00:00:36.540]literate. Writing is an important aspect
to study because it allows children to
- [00:00:41.100]communicate their knowledge,
allows teachers to assess
the students' knowledge of
- [00:00:45.000]concepts, And it has an effect
on learning and reading.
- [00:00:48.960]Although proficiency in writing has
been shown to predict student success in
- [00:00:52.290]future endeavors.
- [00:00:53.490]There is not enough research on the
writing skills and best instructional
- [00:00:56.640]practices for students with visual
impairments due to the lack of research,
- [00:01:01.080]teachers have no choice
- [00:01:02.220]but to make assumptions on these
students without proper research,
- [00:01:06.210]it is difficult to help students with
visual impairments to reach their full
- [00:01:09.240]potential in their writing project
view aims to explore writing
- [00:01:13.830]instructional practices for
students with visual impairments.
- [00:01:17.490]Our research questions
for this survey were,
- [00:01:19.860]do TVIs believe that writing instruction
is their responsibility to SVIss.
- [00:01:24.280]Believe they were prepared
to teach writing to SVIs.
- [00:01:27.870]We had three main purposes for conducting
the survey to investigate writing
- [00:01:33.390]TVIs beliefs related to writing and
collaboration with general educators,
- [00:01:38.070]and finally,
- [00:01:38.700]to help gain an understanding of how to improve writing instruction for SVIs
- [00:01:43.950]for our research design.
- [00:01:45.120]We chose a survey in order to
recruit as many TVIs as possible.
- [00:01:49.590]We identified a representative to
disseminate the survey from each state.
- [00:01:54.270]Once representatives were established,
- [00:01:56.040]the survey was sent out through
listservs and individual TVI emails.
- [00:02:00.270]Each potential participant received a
personal link in an email consent was
- [00:02:05.160]obtained prior to the start of the survey,
- [00:02:07.560]the email and cover page included details
of the purpose risks and benefits to
- [00:02:11.670]the participants. It was sent
out two times to the TVIs.
- [00:02:15.600]We found the survey had about a hundred
questions about the TVIs caseload,
- [00:02:20.610]general adaptations accommodations
for writing preparation,
- [00:02:24.810]to teach writing preparation, to
teach students with visual impairment,
- [00:02:29.130]beliefs and expectations related to
the writing of students with visual
- [00:02:32.130]impairment and collaboration
With general education teachers,
- [00:02:36.660]we received nearly 400 responses across
50 States with more responses coming in
- [00:02:41.250]each week here,
- [00:02:42.870]I have included a heat map of where we
have the most participants in the bottom
- [00:02:46.800]right corner. You can see the
key for the map, the darker,
- [00:02:49.410]the color of the state,
- [00:02:50.450]the more participants we got from that
state. research question Number one,
- [00:02:55.560]do TVIs believe that writing
instruction is their responsibility
- [00:03:00.550]on this slide?
- [00:03:01.330]I have included the responses to our
question is writing instruction other than
- [00:03:05.710]instruction in braille, part of
your responsibilities as a TSVI. Well,
- [00:03:10.420]almost exactly 32% of TSVIs has
responded with definitely yes,
- [00:03:14.950]over 18% believed the exact opposite
and responded with definitely not
- [00:03:19.810]with that being said,
- [00:03:20.860]that leaves nearly 50% of TVIs
who participated in the survey,
- [00:03:24.670]not being certain on.
- [00:03:25.900]If it is their responsibility
to teach writing to their SVI.
- [00:03:30.280]The following question is about if the
TVI thought that reading instruction
- [00:03:34.180]other than in braille was
part of their responsibility.
- [00:03:37.450]I felt this question was important to
include because writing and reading are
- [00:03:40.780]both equally part of being
literate. As you can see,
- [00:03:43.960]most of the percentages stayed within 1%
of the previous question about writing
- [00:03:48.040]instruction. However,
- [00:03:49.840]the might or might not category decreased
about 4% while the definitely not
- [00:03:53.800]category increased over 3% next,
- [00:03:57.490]I will present the data and research
results for question number two,
- [00:04:02.230]do TVIs believe they were
prepared to teach writing to SVIs.
- [00:04:06.340]This question focuses on TVI as having
the resources they need to incorporate
- [00:04:10.510]writing with their students.
- [00:04:12.340]16% of participants strongly agreed
that they have the resources they need.
- [00:04:17.230]That leaves over 80% of TVIs who took
the survey that are not fully confident
- [00:04:21.670]that they have the resources they
need to teach writing. Lastly,
- [00:04:26.110]this question focused on the TVI's
confidence in being able to adjust
- [00:04:29.800]difficulty level for their student
with visual impairment. As you can see,
- [00:04:34.690]33% of people strongly agreed.
27% of people, moderately agreed.
- [00:04:39.700]And 28% agreed slightly around
12% of people said they slightly
- [00:04:44.440]disagreed, moderately disagreed
or strongly disagreed.
- [00:04:49.090]One trend evident in this set of data
is that there is a large number of TVIs
- [00:04:53.410]who are divided in the roles of
reading and writing instruction.
- [00:04:57.250]Neutral responses indicate that they're
unsure of their role or that they do not
- [00:05:01.090]approach writing instruction uniformly
among students for the TVI is that
- [00:05:05.680]strongly disagree that it
was their responsibility.
- [00:05:08.260]It is assumed that the general education
teacher is providing this instruction.
- [00:05:12.610]There is also an assumption that they're
able to do this effectively without the
- [00:05:16.390]support of the TVI.
- [00:05:18.730]whether it is the TVI or the general
educator giving instruction.
- [00:05:22.480]It is crucial that the teacher knows how
to correctly support the SVI and that
- [00:05:26.290]there is communication between the TVI
and the general educator as to who is
- [00:05:30.520]providing writing instruction for them.
- [00:05:34.060]The data for our second research question
indicate many TVIs differed on whether
- [00:05:38.710]or not they would have
- [00:05:41.230]They need to incorporate
writing with their student.
- [00:05:44.200]A large number of TVI has also have
differing perspectives on if they could
- [00:05:47.800]adjust their students' writing assignment.
- [00:05:49.570]If they were having difficulty as
TVIs they are supposed to be one of the best
- [00:05:53.980]resources for a student with visual
impairment to learn from if a TVI does not
- [00:05:58.730]know how to accommodate a student,
- [00:06:00.380]that student will not be able to reach
their full potential in the classroom.
- [00:06:04.280]A lack of self-efficacy
development is needed in these
- [00:06:08.240]areas when training and employing
TVIs with the SVIs future
- [00:06:12.890]success heavily dependent on their
ability to write it is critical to
- [00:06:16.520]investigate these issues further
on an even more specific level.
- [00:06:21.560]Future research should focus on evaluating
who should be responsible for writing
- [00:06:25.340]instruction for SVIs. Furthermore,
- [00:06:28.190]how can TVIs receive professional
development to support them and taking on
- [00:06:32.240]the responsibility of writing future
research would also include perspectives
- [00:06:36.560]from general educators,
- [00:06:37.850]special educators and administrators
surveys on the practices and
- [00:06:42.290]responsibilities of these professionals
may help us put together a clear picture
- [00:06:46.250]on how a student who is visually impaired
receives writing instruction beyond
- [00:06:51.350]Further observation and interviews
could be beneficial in order to prevent
- [00:06:55.070]errors in self reporting and to
understand deeper the practices and
- [00:06:58.910]responsibilities of TVIs across
the country. Additionally,
- [00:07:03.140]research on communication practices
among TVIs general educators,
- [00:07:07.490]special educators and administration can
provide a deeper understanding of how a
- [00:07:11.330]decision is made on who gives the writing
instruction funding for this feature
- [00:07:15.920]research was provided by the Institute
of educational sciences and individual
- [00:07:20.630]funding was provided by UCARE
for the 2020, 2021 school year.
- [00:07:25.100]This research research was completed
with contributions by the project view
- [00:07:29.010]team. I was supervised
by Dr. Michael Hebert
- [00:07:34.730]here. You can see my references.
Thank you for watching.
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