Using Practical Strategies to Obtain Critical Mass inEmotional Understanding, Conversation, & Problem Solving
After attending this webinar participants will:
Be able to define the educational meaning of critical mass.
Learn the steps necessary to obtain critical mass.
Identify the three-part system for improving emotional understanding.
Verbalize the three parts of the Conversation Framework needed for a balanced conversation.
Utilize the components of the Problem Solving Chart and Advanced Problem Solving Chart to explain how to work a student through a problem situation.
icon search Searchable Transcript
Toggle between list and paragraph view.
[00:00:00.820]Welcome to today's webinar,
[00:00:02.320]Using Practical Strategies to Obtain Critical Mass
[00:00:05.640]in Emotional Understanding, Conversation
[00:00:07.900]and Problem Solving.
[00:00:09.770]My name is Kerry Mataya
[00:00:11.120]and I live in the Birmingham, Alabama area.
[00:00:13.770]I provide services for individuals
[00:00:15.900]with autism spectrum disorders, mainly in the areas
[00:00:19.220]of social development, problem solving,
[00:00:21.280]perspective taking, academic, self-awareness,
[00:00:24.240]behavior regulation and executive functioning.
[00:00:27.020]During the day I hold contracts with school systems
[00:00:30.190]after school, I do after-school social groups
[00:00:32.950]and in the summer I do summer camps.
[00:00:35.770]Don't we have a lot of fun?
[00:00:37.200]So I absolutely love every part of what I do.
[00:00:40.540]I did start this business
[00:00:42.370]and I've been able to build on all the things that I love.
[00:00:46.360]All right, so after attending this webinar
[00:00:48.150]participants will number one
[00:00:49.920]be able to define the educational meaning of critical mass.
[00:00:53.180]Number two, learn the steps necessary
[00:00:55.130]to obtain critical mass.
[00:00:56.770]Number three, identify the three-part system
[00:00:59.160]for improving emotional understanding.
[00:01:01.360]Number four, verbalize the three parts
[00:01:03.420]of the Conversation Framework needed
[00:01:05.540]for a balanced conversation and number five
[00:01:08.270]utilize the components of the Problem Solving Chart
[00:01:11.200]and Advanced Problem Solving Chart
[00:01:13.240]to explain how to work a student
[00:01:15.280]through a problem situation.
[00:01:17.000]In other words, we're gonna be talking
[00:01:19.400]about a relatively new concept of critical mass.
[00:01:22.170]We're gonna be defining it with educational meaning
[00:01:25.110]and learning the steps necessary to obtain it.
[00:01:27.550]Then we're gonna take that concept of critical mass
[00:01:29.760]and try to apply it to emotional understanding,
[00:01:32.800]conversation and problem solving.
[00:01:34.910]So more simply, it just looks like this.
[00:01:36.980]We'll talk about critical mass
[00:01:38.590]and how to apply it to these three areas
[00:01:40.800]of emotional understanding, conversation
[00:01:42.870]and problem solving.
[00:01:44.160]So I've tried to color code things
[00:01:45.550]to keep us organized today, as we go through these sections
[00:01:49.000]and we'll go ahead and start with critical mass.
[00:01:52.870]So what is critical mass?
[00:01:54.430]Critical mass is spontaneous generalization.
[00:01:56.960]So after instruction and experiences
[00:01:59.490]the learner can apply the information that they received
[00:02:02.670]through instruction and experiences to new situations.
[00:02:07.900]So what's happened is they've gained enough information
[00:02:11.470]that they can now apply elsewhere.
[00:02:14.020]They don't have to have instruction on that second part.
[00:02:16.140]They just know enough information
[00:02:17.630]that it automatically applies.
[00:02:19.350]So if we look at the picture in the bottom right
[00:02:21.850]the person's pushing a ball uphill.
[00:02:24.350]When you're pushing anything uphill like that
[00:02:26.480]it's gonna take a lot of energy and effort
[00:02:29.370]and you're gonna be out of your comfort zone
[00:02:30.900]and you might be sweating and it's hard
[00:02:33.290]but there hits a certain point where you get
[00:02:34.260]to the very top where you developed critical mass.
[00:02:37.700]And at that point that's where you know enough,
[00:02:40.590]you've worked hard enough, you've exerted enough energy
[00:02:44.070]to where now everything is downhill, it's easier.
[00:02:47.920]Okay, so again, you're like
[00:02:50.410]pushing hard out of the comfort zone
[00:02:52.020]you're setting new goals,
[00:02:53.130]you're learning new things.
[00:02:54.320]You're using a lot of energy.
[00:02:56.060]Then you get to that tipping point of critical mass
[00:02:59.040]and things now that you've learned, they make sense.
[00:03:03.550]Aha, let me now apply them, but it's much, much easier.
[00:03:06.870]Isn't it easier when you know how to do something
[00:03:09.160]and you understand it well.
[00:03:10.600]Isn't easier to apply it?
[00:03:12.740]Exactly, so that's what we're going for is that moment
[00:03:15.860]where that critical mass is achieved
[00:03:17.250]to where everything is easier from here.
[00:03:20.810]Okay, so in 2018, I coauthored a book
[00:03:23.017]"Excelling with Autism: Obtaining Critical Mass
[00:03:25.610]Using Deliberate Practice."
[00:03:27.250]So I will be referring to that.
[00:03:31.510]In the book we talk about what is deliberate practice.
[00:03:34.300]So if we're gonna develop critical mass
[00:03:36.360]using deliberate practice, what is it?
[00:03:38.550]It's an intentional practice
[00:03:40.207]but there are four components to it
[00:03:42.180]and you're gonna use these four components
[00:03:44.690]under the guidance of an expert coach
[00:03:46.630]such as a teacher or mentor.
[00:03:49.570]And that's important because as we're teaching students
[00:03:51.840]with ASD for you, you may be that teacher
[00:03:54.830]or maybe you're the coach
[00:03:56.010]or mentor teaching other teachers how to teach.
[00:03:59.350]And we're gonna be looking at these four specific areas
[00:04:01.910]because if they're not embedded, then we're not
[00:04:05.150]as intentional and systematic as we need to be
[00:04:07.810]about using deliberate practice to learn anything
[00:04:11.050]to the point of critical mass.
[00:04:15.050]Okay, so who is Ericsson
[00:04:16.550]and what was he talking about with deliberate practice?
[00:04:18.590]Well, he's basically a Swedish psychologist.
[00:04:21.520]He's internationally recognized as the researcher
[00:04:24.260]in a psychological nature
[00:04:25.850]of expertise and human performance.
[00:04:28.090]So he wrote a book
[00:04:28.923]"Peak: Secrets from the New Science of Expertise"
[00:04:32.630]and it's absolutely fascinating.
[00:04:34.300]He looks at expert performance when people have
[00:04:37.040]really mastered music, chess sports, and he's really looking
[00:04:40.520]at that concentration practice beyond one's comfort zone.
[00:04:46.270]So, if somebody is gonna learn something
[00:04:48.590]really, really well, many times they're gonna have
[00:04:50.440]to push themselves out of the comfort zone to do something
[00:04:53.120]that's hard to really make it to that next level.
[00:04:56.620]He really is looking at how do expert performers
[00:04:59.610]acquire their superior performance.
[00:05:01.420]And there's so many quotes that he said
[00:05:03.930]that I found either online or within his book
[00:05:06.220]that I just thought were fascinating.
[00:05:07.697]"If you as a parent,
[00:05:09.470]have more or less just trained your child,
[00:05:11.460]that's quite different
[00:05:12.450]from preparing your child to be an independent performer
[00:05:15.540]who's actually in control of their training
[00:05:18.010]so that once they reach an adult level
[00:05:20.440]they will be actually able to take over responsibility
[00:05:24.070]for their development."
[00:05:25.580]This is what we want for students with ASD.
[00:05:27.580]We want responsibility for their development.
[00:05:29.940]We want them in control of their training.
[00:05:32.040]We want them wanting to know what they need to work on
[00:05:34.730]and being able to work on it.
[00:05:35.810]We wanna see independence.
[00:05:36.950]We want them to be prepared for that.
[00:05:39.160]I think that's awesome.
[00:05:41.030]He also said,
[00:05:42.077]"If you keep doing what you've been doing
[00:05:43.700]you're gonna be limited
[00:05:44.880]in how much you can actually improve your performance."
[00:05:47.880]Okay, that's so true.
[00:05:49.330]So maybe if we want different results
[00:05:50.920]we have to do something different.
[00:05:53.540]He also looks at motivational driving forces.
[00:05:56.450]So what are the motivational driving forces
[00:05:58.440]that really reward people for sustaining this commitment
[00:06:01.340]to improving across a lifetime?
[00:06:04.270]So if you think about people performing their craft
[00:06:06.850]of chess or violin, people spend hours, countless hours
[00:06:11.470]of practice becoming an expert in these areas
[00:06:14.360]if they're wanting to be the best.
[00:06:15.930]But I think of myself and here I am with flowers
[00:06:18.380]in the bottom right corner
[00:06:19.840]nobody had to tell me to research ASD.
[00:06:23.220]And nobody's had to tell me
[00:06:24.340]to stay up reading a book about it.
[00:06:26.420]I am self motivated to learn.
[00:06:28.570]So that really got me focused
[00:06:29.870]like, how do I become an expert in this area?
[00:06:32.920]Well, for me, it's learning.
[00:06:35.040]And so I'm craving this learning.
[00:06:36.540]I wanna be better.
[00:06:37.373]I wanna know more.
[00:06:38.300]I wanna become more of an expert on this topic
[00:06:40.630]so I'm gonna research this topic within ASD.
[00:06:44.220]And yes, I seek out mentors
[00:06:46.160]but the motivation is on me to seek out those mentors.
[00:06:52.320]And I'm gonna come back and apply that
[00:06:54.120]but basically, there's a fundamental truth
[00:06:55.920]about any sort of practice.
[00:06:57.620]If you never push yourself
[00:06:58.880]beyond your comfort zone, you will never improve.
[00:07:01.520]And I found that to be true for me.
[00:07:03.560]Okay, so if I never look at any more research
[00:07:06.070]or if I never read more books that I'm not gonna improve
[00:07:08.650]on what I know about ASD, well, I wanna improve.
[00:07:11.410]So, I'm kind of pushing myself out of my comfort zone
[00:07:14.280]spending time that I could be doing something easier
[00:07:16.950]trying to interpret something
[00:07:18.410]that may be a little bit harder.
[00:07:20.010]Okay, so this makes sense to me.
[00:07:21.726]I have done that many of times
[00:07:23.930]to push myself beyond my comfort zone.
[00:07:26.800]So this is great, yes, but let's take another look
[00:07:31.170]at those four areas of deliberate practice.
[00:07:33.410]How can we apply this information to someone with ASD?
[00:07:36.290]And that's what I'm really fascinated by.
[00:07:39.050]Okay well, to be able to do that I think we really need
[00:07:41.090]to understand responses to conflict
[00:07:43.390]because when the going gets tough and the tough get going
[00:07:46.000]that's only partial amount of people.
[00:07:48.070]Not everybody gets going
[00:07:49.710]just the tough who are a lot of times the fighters.
[00:07:53.290]They're gonna fight for what they want,
[00:07:54.630]they're gonna keep going.
[00:07:55.760]Some of those people are gonna be saying,
[00:07:56.860]I can do it, I can do hard things.
[00:07:59.660]But you also have the flight response
[00:08:01.450]and the freeze response.
[00:08:03.690]And those are also responses to conflict
[00:08:05.570]that people either naturally have or they've learned.
[00:08:08.360]So this is Unofficial Kerry Criteria.
[00:08:11.580]You won't really find it online
[00:08:13.000]but to me, this is how I interpreted my brain.
[00:08:15.410]The fight response to conflict is the person who's like
[00:08:17.900]I can win sometimes even I'm right
[00:08:20.650]and they're gonna keep going forward.
[00:08:21.880]They believe in what they believe in.
[00:08:24.850]Okay, but you also have those who are flight.
[00:08:26.490]I can escape, I don't have to be here.
[00:08:29.530]Let's look though at the freeze response
[00:08:31.470]I can't win or escape, I feel utterly helpless
[00:08:34.410]and that one, if we're trying to get somebody
[00:08:37.120]to achieve critical mass and get to that point
[00:08:40.140]of spontaneous generalization
[00:08:42.690]how do we do that when they won't even get started
[00:08:45.180]because they feel utterly helpless.
[00:08:47.500]So I think this is really important to understand
[00:08:49.850]because the same way that somebody with ASD
[00:08:52.790]is going to use deliberate practice be different
[00:08:56.260]than neuro-typical peers or adults.
[00:08:59.380]In this quote,
[00:09:01.187]"Learned helplessness is the giving up reaction
[00:09:05.270]the quitting response that follows
[00:09:07.710]from the belief that whatever you do doesn't matter."
[00:09:11.290]And Arnold Schwarzenegger said that
[00:09:12.840]and this picture makes me so sad.
[00:09:14.350]It just makes me think of a horse who's been tied
[00:09:16.210]to a metal pole and it's just learned.
[00:09:18.230]Hey when my reins are attached, I'm not going anywhere.
[00:09:22.180]So even though it's attached to a plastic chair
[00:09:24.400]that the horse could easily take anywhere it doesn't move
[00:09:27.730]because it's learned the more I pull
[00:09:29.900]it doesn't really matter.
[00:09:32.330]So I think as we look at these four areas
[00:09:34.510]of deliberate practice that are necessary
[00:09:36.910]for achieving critical mass
[00:09:39.210]what we really need to talk about is at Bridgeway Services
[00:09:42.190]this is the company that I own in Birmingham, Alabama.
[00:09:46.670]What worked for us?
[00:09:48.570]And so for example, under developing specific
[00:09:52.310]and meaningful goals while provide in categories.
[00:09:54.940]I didn't even know it,
[00:09:56.210]but we've been doing that since 2004, 2005
[00:09:59.530]of trying to categorize things so we can explain it
[00:10:02.780]that has helped our students to have better goals
[00:10:06.570]and it's helped us to achieve critical mass
[00:10:08.660]with many, many individuals.
[00:10:11.390]Picking skills that are not implicitly learned
[00:10:13.870]by students with ASD.
[00:10:15.060]So like maybe flexibility is not naturally learned
[00:10:18.520]and it's not necessarily something that people talk about
[00:10:22.100]but we've over-focused at Bridgeway on flexibility.
[00:10:25.450]So we actually say flexible equals willing to change
[00:10:28.190]and I have a slide about that in the problem solving section
[00:10:31.340]but we over-focused on that as a goal
[00:10:35.190]and we work towards achieving critical mass in that area.
[00:10:39.670]So I'm gonna fly through these because you can go back
[00:10:42.440]and you can look at these and see what applies for you
[00:10:44.820]but we're really gonna talk about them
[00:10:46.190]throughout our time together on this webinar.
[00:10:50.420]With those four areas of deliberate practice
[00:10:52.410]we basically repeat the process over and over again
[00:10:54.730]until spontaneous generalization occurs.
[00:10:59.360]So we're looking for that it generalizes spontaneously
[00:11:03.030]without having to teach them in every setting.
[00:11:07.060]When I first started the business, the way I would say it
[00:11:08.920]is when they get it, they've got it.
[00:11:11.500]They understand it, they can apply it.
[00:11:13.160]So if that's the case, what did they actually get?
[00:11:15.630]They got increased self motivation, increased confidence
[00:11:18.700]and self-esteem and increased experiences.
[00:11:22.930]So there's a lot of important research
[00:11:24.610]that's been done on categories
[00:11:26.410]that's more related to knowing that people with ASD
[00:11:30.000]interpret and form categories differently than others
[00:11:32.770]or you may see research on students with ASD
[00:11:35.850]paying more attention to detail rather than big picture.
[00:11:39.640]But the research I wanna talk about with categories
[00:11:42.190]is by Marjorie Bock.
[00:11:43.590]So she successfully taught skills using categorization
[00:11:48.000]in her research and then she discussed it.
[00:11:50.750]So in one particular research study
[00:11:52.780]that she did on sorting laundry
[00:11:55.100]this is the information from the research.
[00:11:57.810]Here at the very end
[00:11:59.440]they found spontaneous skill generalization.
[00:12:02.750]When I heard that I was on a plane
[00:12:04.610]or when I read that, I guess
[00:12:05.800]I was on a plane and I went, oh my gosh, oh my gosh.
[00:12:08.860]I can not believe it
[00:12:10.200]because when you categorize things,
[00:12:12.680]you're able to teach them so comprehensively.
[00:12:15.220]You're teaching the categories to look for
[00:12:17.970]it makes sense to me
[00:12:19.010]that spontaneous skill generalization occurs.
[00:12:22.220]So if we're going to the point of critical mass
[00:12:25.220]then there is a really good chance that we need to help
[00:12:28.280]in the teaching phase set goals that involve categories.
[00:12:32.340]Teach the categories.
[00:12:34.500]That's been our key to success, defining the categories.
[00:12:37.460]So our brain typically creates categories
[00:12:39.680]to make sense of what we see.
[00:12:41.280]If we were to walk into the room and see this
[00:12:43.470]we might see a teacher and student
[00:12:45.570]we might see boys and girls,
[00:12:47.180]we might see smiling or not smiling.
[00:12:49.590]Your brain is gonna start to categorize things.
[00:12:52.310]Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday
[00:12:53.970]fruits and vegetables, big and little.
[00:12:58.050]But what if your brain
[00:12:58.900]wasn't giving you the same categories?
[00:13:00.770]So Temple Grandin and adult with ASD said in 1995
[00:13:04.950]that before she learned to categorize
[00:13:06.970]she processed each dog is unique
[00:13:09.590]and did not group them as dogs.
[00:13:13.150]Categories are very important to teach.
[00:13:15.610]So when we teach them a lot of times,
[00:13:17.580]we can get students to that ah-ha, I get it.
[00:13:20.790]And that's where we want to be.
[00:13:23.870]That tipping point of critical mass like, ah-ha, I get it.
[00:13:27.430]Now I'm going to apply.
[00:13:30.470]So in "Excelling With Autism"
[00:13:31.950]we talk about a research study that was done in 2015.
[00:13:35.460]40% of young adults with ASD never worked for pay
[00:13:39.120]into their early 20s compared to 99%
[00:13:42.360]of their typically developing peers.
[00:13:45.070]They also looked at rates of independent living
[00:13:48.030]81% live with family members or caregivers
[00:13:53.570]which was consistent across the spectrum
[00:13:55.620]from those who have a classic presentation of ASD
[00:13:59.080]to those who have average to above average IQs.
[00:14:02.400]So, even with all that we knew before 2015
[00:14:05.750]that would those supports we were putting in place
[00:14:07.930]we were not seeing huge percentages of employment
[00:14:11.040]or living independently.
[00:14:14.010]And that really needs to change.
[00:14:16.670]When we are looking at developing critical mass
[00:14:18.600]in social situations,
[00:14:20.370]what we found in the "Excelling With Autism" book
[00:14:22.650]is just the opportunity for practice and experience
[00:14:27.580]was just low.
[00:14:31.010]So in this chart, if we look at social play
[00:14:34.880]for preschool students engage with others
[00:14:36.840]during a one-hour playtime in 2007,
[00:14:39.900]we find then the neuro-typical student
[00:14:41.750]engaged in social play about 90% of the time
[00:14:45.570]whereas a student with ASD engaged about 30% of the time.
[00:14:49.440]That's a big amount of difference
[00:14:51.200]if you think about social play
[00:14:52.730]as being practice opportunities.
[00:14:56.050]Same for when we're looking at play formats
[00:14:58.610]for preschool children
[00:15:00.500]we're looking at solitary play.
[00:15:02.970]Look at all the black, where it says child with ASD
[00:15:06.080]that black represent solitary play for preschool children.
[00:15:10.260]Compare that to the NT child which is neuro-typical child
[00:15:13.400]of the percent of time that the neuro-typical child
[00:15:15.550]is engaged in solitary play, big difference.
[00:15:17.960]Again, huge difference
[00:15:20.300]in the amount of practice opportunities.
[00:15:23.880]In "Excelling With Autism" we also talk about
[00:15:25.810]a sample of skills that facilitate life success.
[00:15:28.900]And I've just picked three from that
[00:15:30.213]that we'll go into more detail about today.
[00:15:32.760]So those three areas are emotional understanding,
[00:15:35.580]conversation and problem solving.
[00:15:37.890]So we're gonna look at using those four areas
[00:15:40.150]of deliberate practice within the areas
[00:15:44.490]of emotional understanding, conversation
[00:15:46.700]and problem solving.
[00:15:49.720]At the end of each section, I'm going to say,
[00:15:52.210]give me three and I'm going to offer ways that you can say
[00:15:56.410]give me three of, and whenever you're asking a student
[00:15:59.740]with ASD to give you three of something
[00:16:01.530]you're just asking for cognitive flexibility.
[00:16:04.440]What happens at Bridgeway is that at first
[00:16:06.650]the student may have no issues or hesitation
[00:16:08.990]providing the first response.
[00:16:10.640]Sometimes they do, if they're new
[00:16:12.470]but the student takes longer to give response to
[00:16:15.170]a lot of times, the response will be just out there
[00:16:17.810]or it shows a lack of understanding of the topic.
[00:16:20.100]But many times the student cannot think of a third response
[00:16:23.270]no matter how much time has been provided.
[00:16:25.250]You could allow 20 minutes to pass
[00:16:26.890]and they still can't think of a third
[00:16:29.260]unless you've been practicing the skill.
[00:16:31.550]So when you're setting goals
[00:16:33.360]this is an important skill to think through
[00:16:35.940]how can you embed this within your goals?
[00:16:39.310]So hopefully you guys are doing well
[00:16:41.170]again, critical mass is spontaneous generalization.
[00:16:45.140]So we're gonna be talking about emotional understanding.
[00:16:47.290]How do we get to the point of spontaneously generalizing
[00:16:51.430]emotional understanding to the point of critical mass?
[00:16:55.790]How do we actually get the point
[00:16:57.500]where now they get it, they've got it
[00:16:59.160]now they're applying this information on their own.
[00:17:01.520]So, today we're not talking about self-awareness,
[00:17:03.880]we're not talking about self-regulation.
[00:17:05.800]These are great resources for that
[00:17:07.500]Kelly Mahler's "Interoception"
[00:17:09.730]Dr. Brenda Smith Myles and Dr. Aspy's
[00:17:12.127]"High-Functioning Autism and Difficult Moments."
[00:17:14.190]Great resources for those areas.
[00:17:16.130]We're just talking about emotional recognition for today.
[00:17:20.010]So do they recognize whatever the emotion is
[00:17:22.353]that the other person is feeling?
[00:17:24.740]So these look like categories but I wanna point out
[00:17:27.550]that some individuals with ASD get stuck,
[00:17:30.410]they think that a person has to be covering their mouth
[00:17:33.040]to show that they're tired, or they have to have pigtails
[00:17:35.970]or if you look at the yellow chart
[00:17:38.000]the girl in the bottom right
[00:17:40.370]even though the students have different skin color
[00:17:42.880]they're girl on the right is surprised.
[00:17:44.087]and so some students learn you've got to have your hands
[00:17:46.110]to the side and your mouth wide open to be surprised.
[00:17:49.000]And so they're stuck on that.
[00:17:50.040]So we need a little bit more variety.
[00:17:52.470]Many times I see well-intended teachers and therapists
[00:17:54.930]giving the answers rather than teaching a process
[00:17:57.880]for students to figure it out on their own.
[00:18:01.920]Some resources can even lead a child to the right answer
[00:18:04.490]by the way that the question was asked
[00:18:06.520]on the back of a picture card.
[00:18:08.410]So for example, the picture card may say,
[00:18:10.520]why is the little boy tired?
[00:18:12.790]Now we've just told the student
[00:18:14.460]that the little boy is tired.
[00:18:15.510]They don't have to figure that out on their own.
[00:18:17.690]And we're wondering
[00:18:18.580]why do they not have critical mass in this area?
[00:18:20.500]Why are they not spontaneously generalizing it?
[00:18:23.320]They're not generalizing it because the way we taught
[00:18:25.460]the goal and the way we taught the skill was giving them
[00:18:28.760]the answer instead of teaching them to look for it.
[00:18:32.090]If somebody doesn't know that somebody is tired
[00:18:33.880]'cause they can't recognize it
[00:18:36.240]then they're gonna do something different
[00:18:38.840]because they don't even recognize it.
[00:18:40.390]They're not gonna say a certain thing or act a certain way
[00:18:43.050]because they didn't pick up on the emotion to begin with.
[00:18:47.610]So what you're gonna see of how I've broken this down
[00:18:49.760]is within each section,
[00:18:51.470]right now we're talking about emotional understanding.
[00:18:53.630]I'm gonna let you know when we're talking about
[00:18:55.390]a specific area of deliberate practice.
[00:18:57.300]So right now we're talking about the first area
[00:18:59.490]of deliberate practice
[00:19:00.950]which is developing specific and meaningful goals.
[00:19:04.387]And so when we talk about this area
[00:19:06.020]I'll give you this little chart and you'll see
[00:19:07.630]that's what we're talking about.
[00:19:09.060]So I have slides and I will provide
[00:19:11.250]all of this in a document for you elsewhere
[00:19:12.890]where you can look at these goals intensely
[00:19:14.880]but basically the first thing is to set a specific
[00:19:17.970]and meaningful goal that you can measure.
[00:19:20.090]It's important to implement
[00:19:21.700]and you would do that.
[00:19:23.100]So here, if you look at the bottom one
[00:19:25.900]your goal may be using pictures
[00:19:27.730]that the student will identify subtle emotions of others
[00:19:30.800]and we'll justify three reasons why the person
[00:19:33.540]may feel that way, using ideas relevant to the picture.
[00:19:37.060]Okay, maybe that's your goal.
[00:19:38.390]Maybe you pick something from one of these other slides.
[00:19:41.780]What you need to know is
[00:19:43.100]there needs to be a process for mastery.
[00:19:45.160]So you can set goals, but just know
[00:19:47.340]if you practice recognizing skeptical
[00:19:50.940]and you just practice it a picture cards
[00:19:53.330]that may not lead you to critical mass.
[00:19:55.960]To get more real life you may do picture cards
[00:19:58.760]and then video clips and now natural environment.
[00:20:01.350]So there still is a process for learning it
[00:20:05.080]and you keep that in the back of your mind
[00:20:06.370]when you're doing goal setting.
[00:20:08.830]When I'm doing goal setting
[00:20:10.000]I always determine the categories first.
[00:20:12.130]So these are a couple of visuals
[00:20:13.850]that will give you copies of
[00:20:15.510]that have just made it the test of time at Bridgeway.
[00:20:19.370]We've had so many students use these categories
[00:20:22.270]that I have confidence that for many of you
[00:20:25.350]if you try to implement these soon
[00:20:28.140]that they will work for you.
[00:20:29.720]So we teach kids to look at face, body, objects.
[00:20:32.440]We teach them to look for eyebrows, eyes and mouth
[00:20:35.790]when they look at the face
[00:20:37.330]and when they're looking at the face
[00:20:38.700]we try to get them to interpret whatever they need to
[00:20:41.700]from the eyebrows, eyes and mouth
[00:20:43.130]and figure out what emotion that would be.
[00:20:45.840]We do have two different sets.
[00:20:48.280]One would be just regular emotion words
[00:20:50.360]the other one's advanced.
[00:20:51.860]Why do we have two lists?
[00:20:53.270]Because if you look at the middle top
[00:20:55.700]of the advanced emotion words, it says flirtatious.
[00:20:58.760]I don't teach flirtatious to a kindergarten student.
[00:21:01.400]Okay, it just doesn't go on their list.
[00:21:04.050]You can adapt these to fit the needs of your student
[00:21:06.790]but for the most part, you want to give a comprehensive
[00:21:10.390]or as comprehensive list as you can
[00:21:13.440]that has the majority of emotion words
[00:21:16.190]that your student will see
[00:21:17.890]and if they're all on one list
[00:21:19.390]they're gonna do a lot better learning that skill
[00:21:22.090]in the categories so well
[00:21:24.890]that it moves to the point of critical mass.
[00:21:28.150]When you're goal setting, these are things to think of.
[00:21:31.200]I take all of those emotion words
[00:21:33.180]and I make a file folder for each one of those words
[00:21:37.030]and then I find Google images.
[00:21:38.900]So here I would Google search angry
[00:21:40.880]and I might find these pictures.
[00:21:42.530]I think it's important to have young and old,
[00:21:44.430]guy and girl, different skin colors.
[00:21:47.230]Here would be a Google search of confused.
[00:21:49.580]I want people to know that if they see that one top picture
[00:21:53.710]in the top left for the boy touching his head
[00:21:55.870]that that has only one person confused.
[00:21:58.510]You don't have to be touching your head to be confused
[00:22:01.730]but these all provide great opportunities
[00:22:03.710]to look at eyebrows and the differences in their eyebrows
[00:22:06.300]but you can very easily see that crease
[00:22:07.990]and how the eyebrows are narrowing in.
[00:22:09.910]So we talk about that.
[00:22:10.820]A lot of times when people are confused, they might do that
[00:22:13.310]but it can also mean something else.
[00:22:17.710]Within deliberate practice we wanna set those goals
[00:22:20.780]of what it is that we're working on
[00:22:22.520]but we also need to ensure focus.
[00:22:24.980]So we're gonna be talking about the area
[00:22:26.260]of deliberate practice of ensuring focus.
[00:22:29.100]If you use video clips, keep them short.
[00:22:31.260]We're not talking about 20 minutes
[00:22:32.740]and then we go back and talk about it.
[00:22:34.630]We're talking about a 10 second clip.
[00:22:38.570]We're talking about 20 second clip.
[00:22:40.230]Most of my students already have time with attention
[00:22:42.780]so they're not really going to get much
[00:22:44.820]out of a 20 minute clip.
[00:22:46.180]If it's something that's really hard
[00:22:47.670]and we need to break it down along the way.
[00:22:50.070]Use visual supports until the categories are mastered.
[00:22:53.600]That helps ensure focus
[00:22:54.930]that they're looking at the right categories.
[00:22:58.470]Create still pictures when needed from the video
[00:23:00.830]and I'm gonna show you how I've done that before
[00:23:02.860]but that makes it easier to break down
[00:23:04.910]the face, body and objects.
[00:23:07.510]Provide encouragement, support
[00:23:09.600]pause the video as much as necessary
[00:23:11.590]and take as much time as needed
[00:23:13.060]possibly coming back to it next session or week.
[00:23:15.750]Instead of giving the student the answer
[00:23:17.430]I would much rather you ensure their focused
[00:23:19.840]on learning the process and say, you know what?
[00:23:22.020]Let's stop this for today.
[00:23:23.440]We will come back to this next week
[00:23:25.170]and then come back to it next week.
[00:23:26.790]And sometimes that break between
[00:23:28.740]can also help a student to ensure focus.
[00:23:32.030]Always, always, always prompt the process not the answer.
[00:23:35.820]So this is what I've created for all of our staff.
[00:23:39.020]If they're gonna do an inference session with somebody
[00:23:41.610]they would say what's happening in the picture.
[00:23:43.950]Okay, it could be that, anything else?
[00:23:46.470]Basically you get down to the point where
[00:23:47.890]if they don't get it right
[00:23:48.770]then we break it down by face, body, objects.
[00:23:51.130]Let's look at their faces.
[00:23:52.230]What do you notice about his face?
[00:23:53.860]Say they don't notice anything
[00:23:55.150]then we break it down even further
[00:23:56.730]into the categories of eyebrows, eyes, and mouth.
[00:23:59.460]Let's look at his eyebrows.
[00:24:00.990]What are his eyebrows doing?
[00:24:02.010]Are they up, down, narrowed?
[00:24:03.860]Just make sure that you're not giving the answer.
[00:24:05.860]So many times people without even thinking about it
[00:24:08.010]are like see how his eyebrows are down.
[00:24:10.800]So are they down?
[00:24:11.880]And just because the student says, yes
[00:24:14.090]doesn't mean that they actually got it correct.
[00:24:15.740]They were just answering questions that you asked
[00:24:17.357]and it seemed to be that
[00:24:19.610]because that was the only option you gave.
[00:24:23.560]So when they look at this picture,
[00:24:25.390]I would want them to work towards seeing
[00:24:26.870]the eyebrows, eyes and mouth that he sad
[00:24:29.260]but then I'd go a step further
[00:24:30.600]if my goal was the one we talked about earlier
[00:24:33.130]to give three reasons why he might be feeling that way
[00:24:36.250]I would want them to pick up the fact that
[00:24:37.630]it looks like he's at the beach.
[00:24:39.000]So what are three reasons why he'd be sad?
[00:24:40.930]Well, one is maybe he got to the beach
[00:24:43.410]and realized he didn't have his bathing suit.
[00:24:45.720]A second one and it needs to be completely different answer
[00:24:48.780]is maybe his mom told him it was time to go
[00:24:51.150]and he wasn't ready so he had to get back on his clothes
[00:24:53.380]and head home.
[00:24:55.520]Those are the sorts of things when looking at a picture card
[00:24:57.610]that I would want them to be able to do.
[00:25:00.770]The third area of deliberate practice
[00:25:02.940]in the area of emotional understanding
[00:25:04.420]is just communicating outcomes.
[00:25:06.380]And this one's fairly simple.
[00:25:07.740]Whatever your goal is, communicate it.
[00:25:10.630]I'm going to ask you to give me three reasons
[00:25:12.790]of why he might be sad.
[00:25:15.500]So now they know that they're gonna be
[00:25:17.070]giving you three reasons.
[00:25:19.080]A lot of times we'll use the feedback
[00:25:20.700]from those Manila folders.
[00:25:22.340]If they say that emotion is annoyed
[00:25:24.880]and it's really not annoyed,
[00:25:26.100]then I will take the emotion file out of annoyed
[00:25:29.010]and we compare it side by side
[00:25:30.350]with whatever we're looking at
[00:25:31.700]and we kind of talk through it
[00:25:33.060]and I communicate the whole time of
[00:25:35.530]I'm gonna look through everything that you think it is
[00:25:38.440]and we're gonna compare
[00:25:39.273]and we're gonna take your answer seriously
[00:25:40.860]and we're gonna really study it.
[00:25:42.090]And I'm communicating all of that to my students.
[00:25:46.240]In the fourth area of deliberate practice in the section
[00:25:48.960]of emotional understanding,
[00:25:50.030]it's just assisting the learner
[00:25:51.240]to move out of his or her comfort zone.
[00:25:55.220]So pick age-appropriate and realistic
[00:25:57.300]picture cards and video clips.
[00:25:59.280]Sometimes the picture cards and video clips
[00:26:01.080]that we use are just too easy.
[00:26:03.280]So move them out of the comfort zone.
[00:26:05.160]That's going to help towards getting
[00:26:06.860]that spontaneous generalization
[00:26:08.350]where they're able to do it in real life.
[00:26:10.720]If you're using only picture cards, start using video clips
[00:26:14.020]start using more subtle emotions when ready
[00:26:16.630]and to keep yourself organized
[00:26:17.810]maybe you pick five or 10 emotions
[00:26:19.470]that you'll practice first.
[00:26:22.630]Linguists systems has a couple of cards sets
[00:26:24.670]but I just wanted to say, I use a lot of these
[00:26:27.050]but I don't read this stuff on the back, if I'm being honest
[00:26:29.330]but it's the way that I teach you is just different.
[00:26:31.880]In this picture, I have students that will say
[00:26:34.260]that the person in purple is breaking into the car
[00:26:37.070]and the person in the blue is calling for help.
[00:26:42.120]And whenever you realize a person with ASD
[00:26:44.300]interprets the picture like that
[00:26:45.670]and you realize I need to teach face, body, objects
[00:26:49.300]because part of the objects and the way we talk about it
[00:26:52.220]is they would notice that sun, they would notice the dog.
[00:26:55.330]They would notice the tongue sticking out
[00:26:58.160]and when they notice those things,
[00:26:59.750]I mean it's usually like when you point out the sun
[00:27:01.810]or you start dragging your fingers
[00:27:03.540]so they label all the objects they go, oh,
[00:27:07.197]because they didn't even notice it to begin with
[00:27:08.980]because they're not scanning the same way you and I might
[00:27:12.690]but whatever you're using, go back to those categories
[00:27:16.080]and keep teaching the categories
[00:27:17.500]so you're prompting the process, not the answer.
[00:27:21.190]So this would be a video clip that I'd use
[00:27:23.010]from "Dolphin Tale" this is how I'd use it.
[00:27:25.300]We might freeze frame on the scene,
[00:27:27.010]look at eyebrows, eyes and mouth.
[00:27:28.800]We might try to get them to figure out
[00:27:30.970]what the emotion is that he might be feeling.
[00:27:33.080]It's pretty typical that you can label
[00:27:34.630]several different emotions
[00:27:36.360]and if they can justify why he'd be afraid,
[00:27:38.500]why he'd be shocked in a bad way,
[00:27:40.320]why he'd be surprised in a bad way.
[00:27:41.800]I'll go with that if it makes sense.
[00:27:46.330]Then we might look over to the mom.
[00:27:48.160]Let's look at her eyebrows, eyes and mouth.
[00:27:50.010]She's smiling but her eyebrows are down
[00:27:52.320]that's usually negative
[00:27:53.890]and so that gives us a real life subtle opportunity
[00:27:56.440]to talk about what that emotion is.
[00:27:58.090]And again, it doesn't have to be one emotion
[00:27:59.870]it can be several.
[00:28:02.380]For older kids, I might use this kind of clip
[00:28:04.470]with "This Is Us"
[00:28:06.070]and if we just look at Mandy Moore on the right
[00:28:08.890]let's just look at her eyebrows, eyes and mouth.
[00:28:11.990]We're looking her eyebrows eyes and mouth.
[00:28:15.120]It's starting to change.
[00:28:16.500]Wow, her eyebrows have really changed there
[00:28:18.850]which means her emotion has probably changed too.
[00:28:21.340]So we keep watching it
[00:28:22.590]and each one of these freeze frames
[00:28:24.770]we have paused the video to really talk about.
[00:28:27.540]And then at the end of this little part
[00:28:29.480]they show the hands and she pulled her hand away
[00:28:33.230]which also tells us information.
[00:28:35.300]This is why I love video clips.
[00:28:36.940]They just provide a play-by-play of changing of emotions
[00:28:40.720]but if a student watches that three to five second clip
[00:28:44.280]and they watch it in real time, they miss all of it.
[00:28:47.990]A lot of times, if they've not practiced video clips before
[00:28:50.293]they're very, very relevant.
[00:28:52.630]So, as I said I would give you an embedded skill
[00:28:54.870]that you can embed in the emotional recognition piece
[00:28:57.840]and we've sort of talked about this throughout
[00:28:59.600]but just give me three emotions that could be.
[00:29:02.130]Give me three reasons
[00:29:03.360]he or she might be feeling that emotion
[00:29:05.320]but I want you to do this intentionally embedded it in
[00:29:08.160]because it will make a big difference.
[00:29:10.630]All right, so hopefully you all are doing okay.
[00:29:12.660]We're making some good time here.
[00:29:14.940]So let's go into conversation.
[00:29:19.170]Conversation is what you see and what you hear.
[00:29:22.600]I think a lot of times we think of conversation
[00:29:24.350]as being what you hear
[00:29:26.970]but it's also what you see.
[00:29:28.670]So you can look up a couple of these resources
[00:29:30.870]they're fun, basically Volkswagen Beetle Commercial.
[00:29:34.230]My students usually think he's a robber
[00:29:36.070]but he does pay for what he is purchasing
[00:29:38.620]and in the car, the guy in the green mask says,
[00:29:41.117]"Hey, you do realize you left your mask on."
[00:29:44.010]Well, because my students with ASD see the mask
[00:29:46.270]and they think robber they miss all those other clues
[00:29:49.550]but that whole scene, it's also conversation.
[00:29:52.550]It's two people talking and they're missing it.
[00:29:54.740]They're missing it because what they see
[00:29:57.150]in the video is confusing them.
[00:29:59.120]So we need to make sure when we're teaching conversation
[00:30:01.400]that we're also teaching what is seen.
[00:30:03.550]So it's what is seen and heard.
[00:30:05.960]Movie clip "Pursuit of Happyness."
[00:30:07.840]It's a lot of dialogue.
[00:30:09.020]You've got Will Smith that runs out of an apartment.
[00:30:11.150]He looks panicked.
[00:30:12.320]He says to the guy at the cash register
[00:30:14.820]in the red shirt,
[00:30:15.653]"Hey have you seen Linda and Christopher."
[00:30:17.490]At the same time,
[00:30:18.890]the other guy with a blue, long sleeve shirt he is saying,
[00:30:22.237]"Hey, did you see that Neti game?"
[00:30:24.160]And it's important in this conversation to realize
[00:30:27.520]that the guy in the blue that's asking
[00:30:29.380]about the Neti game completely misses the fact
[00:30:32.178]that Will Smith's characters panicked
[00:30:34.010]and he's looking for someone.
[00:30:36.030]This whole clip and I think for my clip,
[00:30:38.070]it's maybe 40 seconds
[00:30:39.350]is so confusing to students from Asperger's.
[00:30:41.800]So if you wanna go recreate this
[00:30:43.400]you can just pull up "The Pursuit of Happyness."
[00:30:45.580]It was put out in 2006 and you can find the scene
[00:30:48.930]within there where he's looking for Linda and Christopher.
[00:30:51.440]There's some really good scenes in there
[00:30:52.700]that you can use for more advanced students.
[00:30:56.490]All right, so I just wanna make sure
[00:30:58.150]we're on the same page about conversation.
[00:30:59.910]For me, it's what you see and hear
[00:31:02.430]and you need to get to the point
[00:31:03.640]if you're gonna have critical mass
[00:31:05.350]in the area of conversation that you get
[00:31:07.420]to what you see and hear.
[00:31:09.530]So let's go ahead and talk about developing specific goals
[00:31:12.327]in the area of conversation.
[00:31:14.800]So I've attached several of them here.
[00:31:17.390]You can go back and look at these later
[00:31:19.379]it has to do with telling stories, asking questions.
[00:31:22.330]Many people are good at writing goals for conversation.
[00:31:25.630]I would also say we provide a process for mastery
[00:31:28.390]that we'll talk about in a minute
[00:31:29.720]that it's a step-by-step process.
[00:31:32.560]When we're determining goals.
[00:31:33.820]It's also important to determine the categories.
[00:31:36.530]Is your student working on what the topic is?
[00:31:39.180]Are they working on recognizing light, medium and heavy?
[00:31:42.620]Are they working on asking questions, telling stories
[00:31:45.340]making comments, what are the categories?
[00:31:48.700]These are a couple that I use
[00:31:50.150]at Bridgeway Services with students
[00:31:52.950]and these are also things that I wrote
[00:31:54.410]about in the book "Talk With Me" that I co-authored
[00:31:57.880]which is a step-by-step conversation framework
[00:32:00.810]for teaching conversational balance and fluency.
[00:32:04.000]I want the conversation to be balanced.
[00:32:05.540]I want it to be fluent.
[00:32:06.770]Here's the steps there.
[00:32:07.720]Step one, step two, step three
[00:32:09.530]and the right here
[00:32:11.040]we say that step one is identifying the topic.
[00:32:14.570]It's really hard to join in a topic
[00:32:17.250]if you don't know what the topic is.
[00:32:18.940]So if the topic is always given, it's no shock
[00:32:22.440]that the student isn't developing critical mass in that area
[00:32:25.290]to spontaneously generalize it
[00:32:27.160]because they're missing a whole step
[00:32:28.410]that they needed to learn.
[00:32:31.470]So there was the research study that was done in 2015
[00:32:34.930]where they were looking at transition into young adulthood.
[00:32:37.700]Basically they did percentages and found out
[00:32:40.260]as conversation ability, increased basically connection
[00:32:44.170]feeling of connection increased
[00:32:46.070]and so did the lack of social isolation.
[00:32:50.510]Social isolation decreased
[00:32:52.760]as conversation ability increased.
[00:32:54.620]So the more somebody was able to talk
[00:32:56.490]the less socially isolated they felt
[00:32:58.900]but what I loved is that as conversation ability increased
[00:33:02.630]so somebody is better at conversation
[00:33:04.980]so did the percentage of young adults
[00:33:07.010]who ever had a job in their early 20s.
[00:33:10.280]So we're seeing a higher percentage of people ever employed.
[00:33:13.480]It doesn't mean that they kept their job
[00:33:15.220]but basically the more conversational they were
[00:33:17.620]the more had been employed
[00:33:19.590]at some point in time during their early 20s.
[00:33:22.700]So basically, wow!
[00:33:24.100]I mean like conversing employment it's telling me
[00:33:28.070]that there is some connection between the two.
[00:33:31.890]So as I said, in our conversation framework
[00:33:33.980]step one would be identifying the topic.
[00:33:36.370]There's times when you're just trying
[00:33:37.940]to have the student listen to an audio
[00:33:41.030]and you want them to pick out
[00:33:42.520]whatever the conversation topic is.
[00:33:44.630]So I'm gonna play this, not the whole thing
[00:33:47.310]but I want you to hear this guy's voice
[00:33:49.400]because some students,
[00:33:50.330]they get used to hearing certain voices
[00:33:51.990]and they don't understand when somebody talks like.
[00:33:54.080]One thing that football does is
[00:33:56.830]it prepares the player to perform well after football.
[00:34:02.000]So some people will say
[00:34:03.320]that was really hard to hear.
[00:34:04.910]It was hard to hear
[00:34:05.920]but this is also helping a student to achieve critical mass
[00:34:09.510]in this area to figure out the topic.
[00:34:11.480]If they only could pick out
[00:34:12.620]the topic when mom and dad are talking
[00:34:14.530]they're gonna be at a huge disadvantage later in life.
[00:34:18.190]Sometimes in step one, we're talking about, all right
[00:34:21.700]you've heard the topic.
[00:34:23.110]Yes, the topic is on pets,
[00:34:25.910]but was the topic light, medium or heavy?
[00:34:28.230]Because I've had students switch from their dog passing away
[00:34:32.860]and somebody else says speaking of pets,
[00:34:35.350]blah, blah, blah, blah, blah.
[00:34:36.630]Okay, yes the topic appeared to be pets
[00:34:38.770]but it was pets very heavy
[00:34:40.120]and now you're telling a funny story about your dog
[00:34:43.010]and you've switch it to a light conversation.
[00:34:45.200]You missed the topic.
[00:34:47.280]So at this step
[00:34:48.720]these are some of the things that you need to work on.
[00:34:50.500]These are some of the categories that you needed to define.
[00:34:54.760]Step two, once you're able to identify the topic
[00:34:57.530]in step one, you move on to step two
[00:34:59.000]and that's balancing the conversation with questions
[00:35:01.580]stories, comments, within zero to two seconds.
[00:35:05.580]This is what a balanced conversation
[00:35:07.030]would look like with four people.
[00:35:08.920]So you see that with four people
[00:35:10.730]you may get two, three stories
[00:35:12.420]you're getting a few more stories
[00:35:14.090]but everybody's participating
[00:35:15.500]and I always say to be balanced
[00:35:17.300]you have to have something in every column
[00:35:19.360]asking questions, telling stories, making comments
[00:35:21.760]but you also have to try to be balanced with everybody else.
[00:35:25.340]So if you've told five stories,
[00:35:27.410]whoa, that's great that you've got something in that column
[00:35:30.100]but if nobody else has any in the telling stories column,
[00:35:34.010]then you're out of balance.
[00:35:36.000]You're out of balance with the people.
[00:35:37.800]So you're either out of balance with yourself
[00:35:39.750]or you're out of balance with the other people.
[00:35:41.750]So if you look at the top unbalanced
[00:35:44.270]even though person four is asking a lot of questions
[00:35:47.170]they're out of balance with the other people
[00:35:49.010]because maybe they're asking so many questions
[00:35:51.620]that the other people can't jump in
[00:35:53.580]but you'll also see this if the group is mismatched
[00:35:57.000]and you've got one person who's super social, talks a lot
[00:36:00.050]and the other people who are just quiet.
[00:36:01.810]In the past when I've put together a group,
[00:36:03.550]I've had a group of really quiet people
[00:36:07.210]so that they're not overshadowed.
[00:36:08.640]And so the other person
[00:36:09.960]doesn't have to taper themselves back
[00:36:11.660]'cause if I need them to taper themselves back
[00:36:14.710]but if they're having to completely mute themselves
[00:36:16.870]to wait 45 seconds for somebody to ask the question
[00:36:20.010]I don't know that I'm teaching that person correctly
[00:36:22.510]to his needs.
[00:36:24.900]In a larger group, this is what a balanced
[00:36:27.020]conversation would look like
[00:36:28.380]and I just want you to see that.
[00:36:29.950]Usually if you have eight people
[00:36:32.020]telling stories is going to be a lot less
[00:36:34.450]because each person really, even in a longer conversation
[00:36:37.270]only has time to tell about one or two stories
[00:36:40.240]but you will see a much higher level
[00:36:42.220]of making comments because every story that's told
[00:36:44.930]I want the other people engaging
[00:36:46.520]to show that they're listening.
[00:36:49.370]All right, so label your paper.
[00:36:50.640]You can use this as data collection,
[00:36:52.120]questions, stories, comments
[00:36:53.590]you can do it on a dry erase board
[00:36:55.060]and take a picture of it after.
[00:36:56.720]But it's pretty simple
[00:36:57.710]you don't have to have anything fancy
[00:36:59.220]to do that tallying mark chart.
[00:37:01.760]This would be another visual support
[00:37:03.590]that I would use is just question starters
[00:37:07.080]if certain students need prompts.
[00:37:09.060]I try not to tell them exactly what to ask,
[00:37:11.480]but I will give them a list of question starters
[00:37:14.750]to help them get along their way
[00:37:16.410]if they're working on that part
[00:37:17.780]of questions, stories, comments.
[00:37:20.341]So once they've mastered asking questions, telling stories
[00:37:23.600]making comments within zero to two seconds
[00:37:26.020]then we move on to bridging the topic.
[00:37:27.397]And I will be honest it took me seven years
[00:37:29.380]to realize that this was a step.
[00:37:31.440]I had a student she and her peer
[00:37:33.620]were having a four and a half minute conversation
[00:37:37.380]And I like chocolate but four and a half minutes
[00:37:39.190]talking about it was a little much for me.
[00:37:41.210]Basically, they didn't know how to get
[00:37:42.620]from chocolate to another topic
[00:37:44.670]and that opened my eyes tremendously.
[00:37:46.730]So we basically use the same chart
[00:37:49.100]from step one where they're figuring out the topic
[00:37:51.330]except for here we write down the starting topic
[00:37:54.790]of what they're talking about
[00:37:56.220]and then we go down the list and say
[00:37:57.900]is that part of people in lives?
[00:38:01.979]Hobbies and interests?
[00:38:03.645]And we go down and we basically give them
[00:38:05.970]the broader category so that
[00:38:08.410]say, they're talking about pets.
[00:38:09.990]Does pets have to do with people in lives?
[00:38:12.940]So if I'm gonna bridge the topic
[00:38:14.590]I might say, speaking of things going on with you
[00:38:18.810]I know you've got a dog, but what else is going on?
[00:38:21.260]And that helps me get from dogs
[00:38:23.130]and pets to things going on in their life
[00:38:25.700]and there's no telling at that point
[00:38:27.060]what they're gonna say.
[00:38:28.320]It could be that they are reading a book
[00:38:30.460]that they watch to show,
[00:38:31.970]that they had a snow day
[00:38:33.760]and it will get you completely over to a different topic.
[00:38:37.190]So those would all be goals that we had set
[00:38:39.790]and remember, we would set the categories.
[00:38:41.700]The categories are really, really important
[00:38:43.960]in developing specific and meaningful goals.
[00:38:46.160]But now let's talk about ensuring focus.
[00:38:48.560]Use age-appropriate audio clips
[00:38:50.610]to replicate a group conversation when needed.
[00:38:53.130]I cannot tell you how important this is.
[00:38:55.640]Keep the audio clips short and manageable.
[00:38:57.330]Again, you don't want a 20 minute audio clip.
[00:39:00.890]It's just not manageable.
[00:39:02.320]A lot of times we're having to pause so much and go back.
[00:39:06.280]If you're insuring focus,
[00:39:07.360]pause the audio clip as much as necessary.
[00:39:09.530]Sometimes you're going to pause it after
[00:39:11.640]whoever's on the audio says three words
[00:39:15.240]'cause I have some students that
[00:39:16.980]when they go to repeat back what was said
[00:39:19.040]they're not even hearing the vocabulary the same way.
[00:39:22.620]If you're doing the tally mark chart to ensure focus
[00:39:25.350]don't allow a 20 minute conversation to go on
[00:39:27.760]without saying, so-and-so, you've asked this many questions,
[00:39:31.190]you've told this many stories.
[00:39:33.010]They need to check in to kind of know where they stand
[00:39:35.970]but you don't want 20 minutes to go by
[00:39:37.730]and be practicing wrong
[00:39:39.080]because they didn't ask any questions in that period
[00:39:41.080]if that's their goal.
[00:39:43.160]As I said in the previous section
[00:39:44.860]use visual supports until the categories are mastered
[00:39:47.580]provide encouragement, support, take as much time as needed
[00:39:50.560]possibly coming back to something the next week.
[00:39:53.580]So if you're insuring focus
[00:39:55.867]you're also increasing motivation.
[00:39:58.440]So you've got to increase the motivation.
[00:40:00.370]The more motivated somebody is the more focused they are.
[00:40:02.810]So sometimes I'll say things like
[00:40:05.020]conversation is only asking questions,
[00:40:07.110]telling stories and making comments.
[00:40:09.320]You have to do one of those three things
[00:40:10.770]to be in the conversation.
[00:40:11.840]I'm gonna help you get good at it
[00:40:13.400]and I may say that to be encouraging,
[00:40:15.640]but also to say it's not as hard as you're thinking it is.
[00:40:18.830]It's only these three sections and you can learn it.
[00:40:20.950]It makes it manageable which for a lot of people
[00:40:23.380]helps motivate them.
[00:40:25.450]As I said, in the previous section
[00:40:27.060]prompt the process not the answer
[00:40:31.300]The third area of developing critical mass
[00:40:34.370]using deliberate practice is communicating outcomes.
[00:40:37.280]So how do we do that in conversation?
[00:40:39.940]I mean, again, communicate the expectations.
[00:40:41.880]I'm going to ask you to give me at least
[00:40:44.070]three follow-up questions that you could ask.
[00:40:47.700]And so also in communicating outcomes
[00:40:50.000]you may have a peer that gives feedback.
[00:40:52.640]You may have a peer that says,
[00:40:54.740]hey, I used to be working on asking questions,
[00:40:58.820]I learned it and listen to Ms. Kerry,
[00:41:00.980]it really works, it's a lot easier for me now
[00:41:03.400]and sometimes when a peer is communicating the outcome
[00:41:06.000]that the student's gonna have,
[00:41:07.450]oh my gosh, it makes my life so much easier
[00:41:09.450]and I see progress more quickly, I see that buy-in.
[00:41:13.540]When you're communicating outcomes
[00:41:14.920]this tally mark chart is helping you to do that.
[00:41:17.200]I am expecting you to have something in these columns.
[00:41:19.690]I'm expecting for it to be balanced.
[00:41:22.770]This type of data collection is immediate feedback.
[00:41:26.090]It helps ensure focus,
[00:41:27.870]it communicates outcomes
[00:41:29.480]and it's also long-term data on specific goals.
[00:41:31.810]It's helpful in all these areas
[00:41:33.290]needed for deliberate practice.
[00:41:36.380]And lastly, in this section we need to assist the learner
[00:41:38.940]to move out of his or her comfort zone.
[00:41:42.270]A couple of things I'm gonna point out here
[00:41:43.790]is if a student is not ready for conversation with peers
[00:41:47.400]create or use an audio clip
[00:41:49.340]to replicate the pace of the conversation.
[00:41:51.950]I do have some groups that I have permission to audio record
[00:41:55.030]and say, I have one person in the group
[00:41:56.650]that's still working on figuring out the topic.
[00:41:58.750]I will audio record the others
[00:42:00.870]and then either before the group next week
[00:42:03.000]or at the end of group we'll go back and listen
[00:42:05.250]to parts of that audio recording
[00:42:06.790]and see if they can figure out the topic.
[00:42:08.950]We would use the audio clips
[00:42:10.020]they've been very, very helpful.
[00:42:13.540]You can have a student ask a question on familiar setting.
[00:42:17.320]You can have a student stand up while having conversation.
[00:42:19.760]Some are so comfortable being behind a table
[00:42:21.860]and sitting down that the reason why it's not generalizing
[00:42:25.100]is they're not pushed out of their comfort zone
[00:42:27.080]to do it while standing up.
[00:42:28.980]Maybe they're not pushed to do it
[00:42:30.760]with having background noise
[00:42:32.060]so those would be embedded in part of your goals.
[00:42:34.890]Push them out of their comfort zone.
[00:42:36.810]Add a new person to the structured conversation setting.
[00:42:39.490]Maybe they're used to the people that they talk with.
[00:42:42.080]Consider going from a group conversation
[00:42:43.950]to a one-on-one conversation.
[00:42:45.550]Group conversations can make it a lot easier.
[00:42:48.870]Go from a smaller group to a larger group.
[00:42:51.300]The timing can be a lot more difficult.
[00:42:53.670]You will see that to be true.
[00:42:54.700]If somebody is used to jumping in and timing being easy,
[00:42:57.580]try jumping in when you have eight to 10 people
[00:43:00.180]it's a lot harder if you haven't practiced it.
[00:43:02.510]So push your student out of the comfort zone.
[00:43:04.840]And then lastly, in this section, again,
[00:43:06.930]the embedded skill of give me three,
[00:43:08.620]you can say, if you're working on mastering
[00:43:10.520]the conversation topics list, you can say
[00:43:13.290]give me three topics from the conversation topics list
[00:43:16.170]and they've got to come up with three
[00:43:17.600]or give me three topics you can talk about with him or her.
[00:43:20.830]Give me three up questions on topic.
[00:43:23.200]Give me three different ways to bridge that topic.
[00:43:25.390]I did that yesterday at group.
[00:43:26.910]So if you said, give me three up questions on topic,
[00:43:30.140]a lot of times I'll point to the person
[00:43:32.320]and they know that that's what they're supposed to do.
[00:43:35.230]And then almost point up to the ceiling
[00:43:37.080]and then I come back and point them again
[00:43:38.520]and they know that's the second follow-up question
[00:43:40.420]point up on the ceiling, back at them again.
[00:43:42.180]They know that that's the third follow-up question.
[00:43:44.270]And then that way I'm not having to prompt throughout.
[00:43:46.770]They know what's expected
[00:43:48.480]but they also know I'm gonna get them to ask
[00:43:50.510]three follow-up questions that helps
[00:43:52.530]with the cognitive flexibility.
[00:43:55.730]All right, so hopefully you all are doing well.
[00:43:57.610]We are gonna move to our third and final section,
[00:44:00.030]which is problem solving.
[00:44:02.860]This is random but basically just giving you some ideas
[00:44:06.050]for things that you can look up online
[00:44:07.640]if you're looking for video clips
[00:44:09.600]this is something I would use for high school kids.
[00:44:12.467]"It's Not About the Nail."
[00:44:13.560]Basically Google search it if you're looking
[00:44:15.180]for a cool video clip that helps with problem solving
[00:44:18.370]and figuring out what the problem is.
[00:44:20.670]Basically what you see if you haven't seen it before.
[00:44:23.463]We'll just leave it at that.
[00:44:24.710]Again, I would say high school and up age kids,
[00:44:27.580]it's a lot of fun.
[00:44:28.820]So let's jump right into the four areas
[00:44:30.480]of deliberate practice.
[00:44:32.030]Number one, again,
[00:44:33.130]we need to develop specific and meaningful goals.
[00:44:36.400]So this section I'm gonna help you all out.
[00:44:38.620]So I've created a checklist of problem solving goals
[00:44:41.150]for individuals with high-functioning ASD.
[00:44:44.010]This was created in 2016, it's fairly comprehensive
[00:44:47.820]although it's not completely comprehensive
[00:44:49.950]it just has goal setting ideas
[00:44:51.750]and you can look at a few here but it is very practical
[00:44:55.100]and I bet you'll be able to find something
[00:44:56.670]within all those pages that would work
[00:44:59.110]in developing specific
[00:45:00.340]and meaningful goals for problem solving.
[00:45:03.580]Problem solving is a little bit tricky
[00:45:05.070]because there's so many different ways to go with it.
[00:45:07.380]I don't say here's my process for conversation
[00:45:10.180]or here's my process for learning emotional understanding.
[00:45:13.220]Those to me are a little bit easier.
[00:45:15.350]The process of what I usually use is the levels of learning.
[00:45:19.340]These are 1984 levels of learning research article
[00:45:23.700]awareness, recognition, recall,
[00:45:25.690]application, generalization, maintenance.
[00:45:28.370]You're gonna wanna go through
[00:45:29.470]each of those sections with problem solving.
[00:45:32.390]As I've said in the other things
[00:45:33.580]when you're setting goals, determine the categories.
[00:45:35.900]So there are a lot of categories that I'm about to give you
[00:45:38.950]but basically this is Problem Solving Chart
[00:45:42.140]and the Advanced Problem Solving Chart.
[00:45:44.360]I'm terrible at naming things, I'm sorry
[00:45:45.950]but they are practical and that is what I call them.
[00:45:48.730]You can call them something different.
[00:45:51.080]These are some more categories.
[00:45:52.470]What worked, what didn't work, what to do differently.
[00:45:54.780]There's a group work evaluation based off
[00:45:56.650]of those three things where you give a little more detail
[00:45:59.810]some more categories are compromising
[00:46:02.210]and the categories could be majority vote
[00:46:04.210]first, and then brainstorm.
[00:46:06.610]So let's talk about those in more detail.
[00:46:08.210]What is the Problem Solving Chart?
[00:46:09.980]It's basically an evidence-based strategy
[00:46:12.520]to teach individual problem solving skills.
[00:46:14.830]So it's basically helping the student with ASD
[00:46:17.070]to solve his or her own problem.
[00:46:21.260]So they would come up with a problem situation
[00:46:23.960]and then we look at here are four options
[00:46:26.170]of how you can solve that.
[00:46:27.840]You can seek help from an adult.
[00:46:29.310]You can talk it out and compromise.
[00:46:30.700]You can let it go move on, or you can let it bother you.
[00:46:32.930]Which one are you gonna do?
[00:46:34.390]This right here can take somebody six months,
[00:46:37.540]eight months to learn.
[00:46:38.730]You're not gonna embed it in one day and it start working
[00:46:41.660]and I think a lot of teachers would love for that to happen.
[00:46:44.100]They'll say it didn't work.
[00:46:45.170]I tried it this week.
[00:46:46.290]You have to embed it in a lot of real life situations
[00:46:48.780]and be talking through the same situations.
[00:46:51.420]Many times you'll have a student saying
[00:46:52.860]I let it go and move on
[00:46:54.350]and they did, they're still letting it bother them.
[00:46:56.060]So they really have to learn
[00:46:57.360]how to understand those categories.
[00:46:59.660]And as you see on this, it says, ignore and move on
[00:47:01.990]and I'm saying, let it go.
[00:47:03.370]This was the original chart and it did say ignore
[00:47:06.070]and I had a student that said,
[00:47:07.677]"You're making me feel like I have to ignore my problem
[00:47:09.950]and that's not okay to have feelings."
[00:47:11.610]And that's why we changed the wording.
[00:47:13.360]This has been tested with a lot of people
[00:47:15.410]and it has been very successful.
[00:47:17.510]We do have variations of it.
[00:47:18.980]You can put pictures with it
[00:47:20.510]or this is probably the most common variation
[00:47:22.860]is that for some people we'd add
[00:47:24.450]the take a five minute break
[00:47:26.200]and in that adding, taking a five minute break
[00:47:28.760]we didn't put that in the main chart
[00:47:30.380]because all students don't need it.
[00:47:33.020]And if you start teaching a kid to take a five minute break
[00:47:35.440]when they don't need one, I think that that's a disservice.
[00:47:38.800]So everybody can choose from those other four options
[00:47:41.940]of seeking help, talking it out compromise,
[00:47:44.100]letting it go, moving on and letting it bother you
[00:47:46.360]but this five minute break is just for those people
[00:47:48.930]who really need a chill
[00:47:50.410]before they handle something that's hard.
[00:47:52.980]So eventually over time
[00:47:54.320]kids did better with the problem solving chart.
[00:47:56.450]And then I found, hey, there is an issue with a teacher
[00:48:00.260]and they're not solving it
[00:48:01.540]but man, they're so good at problem solving.
[00:48:02.960]Why is that?
[00:48:04.430]And then this chart was created
[00:48:06.180]and it's basically where a student with ASD
[00:48:09.210]had a hard time correctly identifying
[00:48:11.190]the other person's problem
[00:48:13.050]but if they were able to figure out
[00:48:14.320]the other person's problem,
[00:48:15.510]then their solution would have been different.
[00:48:17.670]This offers a level of perspective taking
[00:48:19.940]and it gets away from solving my own problem
[00:48:22.510]to now I'm gonna solve my own problem
[00:48:25.020]within our problem.
[00:48:26.800]And so step one is my problem.
[00:48:28.770]Step two is their problem.
[00:48:30.790]Step three is our problem together
[00:48:33.940]and how we're gonna solve it.
[00:48:35.400]This has been really successful too.
[00:48:37.930]If you have questions about how to use this
[00:48:39.700]you're welcome to email me or ask me additional questions.
[00:48:43.020]Today I'm giving you an overview of these things
[00:48:45.180]so that you know that they're possible.
[00:48:46.950]I would say that most of you are gonna be able to take in
[00:48:48.910]and implement it by just looking at this chart.
[00:48:52.550]Other categories and skills to teach
[00:48:55.270]in problem solving is flexible.
[00:48:57.530]A lot of times we'll teach flexible, willing to change.
[00:49:00.010]It lends itself very nicely to just yes or no.
[00:49:02.730]Were you willing to change?
[00:49:03.990]Yes or no.
[00:49:05.040]A lot of times at first
[00:49:06.210]most of my students are not flexible.
[00:49:07.770]Especially if you're working on a skill
[00:49:09.530]you may have to tie it to external reinforcement.
[00:49:13.120]Another area that I showed
[00:49:14.360]on a previous slide was compromising.
[00:49:16.080]These are the categories of compromising
[00:49:18.170]majority vote, first then, brainstorming.
[00:49:21.290]Rock paper scissors is a way that you can compromise
[00:49:25.130]but you're not gonna see 30 year olds in a board meeting
[00:49:27.740]doing rock paper scissors or flipping a coin.
[00:49:30.420]You're gonna see the team of people voting
[00:49:32.460]and they're gonna go with what the majority says
[00:49:34.900]and if they can't agree
[00:49:36.010]then first they're gonna try Susan's idea
[00:49:38.430]and then they're gonna try Matthew's idea.
[00:49:40.980]Those things are very acceptable at the upper ages.
[00:49:44.210]So I wanted to come up with categories to compromise
[00:49:46.740]that are timeless.
[00:49:49.410]This was out of necessity.
[00:49:51.230]I realized that many of my students did not go back
[00:49:54.110]and self-reflect what was working
[00:49:56.250]and make changes about what was not working.
[00:49:59.150]And so we did this at a science camp
[00:50:01.100]when I watched a group of four kids basically go up
[00:50:04.590]and repeat the same mistake over and over again.
[00:50:07.140]My hair turned gray instantly that day
[00:50:09.130]and the next day I came back with what worked
[00:50:11.240]what didn't work, what to do differently
[00:50:12.680]and we've been using it for problem-solving ever since
[00:50:15.640]this provides great categories, it's great goals
[00:50:18.790]and it can really help towards self-reflection
[00:50:23.110]and then goal setting for what to do differently.
[00:50:27.450]This is another fun one that we've used.
[00:50:29.160]It's basically in my mind a backwards first then.
[00:50:32.340]The bottom is still the then, but it's like
[00:50:34.560]say I want to stay in class.
[00:50:37.350]Well, if I want to stay in class, what do I need to do?
[00:50:40.650]I need to sit in my chair or I need to listen.
[00:50:45.100]I need to be quiet.
[00:50:46.390]I need to raise my hand.
[00:50:48.460]Whatever it is that they need to do in the positive
[00:50:51.380]to be able to get whatever's in that second box.
[00:50:54.110]This is a version of problem solving.
[00:50:55.810]These are some of the categories that you can have
[00:50:58.100]and goals that you can have for your student
[00:50:59.680]just depending on who you're working with.
[00:51:02.760]This is one of my favorites.
[00:51:04.020]It's really based on just basic cognitive behavioral therapy
[00:51:07.470]where your thoughts become your feelings
[00:51:09.150]your feelings become your actions
[00:51:11.180]and your actions influenced the outcome
[00:51:13.380]or result that you receive.
[00:51:14.810]Basic cognitive behavioral therapy.
[00:51:16.620]I've just made it really visual.
[00:51:18.150]What I'm teaching a student here is
[00:51:19.920]if you have a negative thought
[00:51:21.120]it's gonna go all the way down that track.
[00:51:23.290]So if you want a green outcome, a good outcome
[00:51:27.910]you're not gonna get that from a red thought.
[00:51:29.610]So you would have to change your thoughts to get over there.
[00:51:32.100]This is another way I've showed it to them
[00:51:34.120]is basically red is gonna lead to red.
[00:51:35.980]Green is gonna lead to green.
[00:51:37.490]You don't have red leading to green or green leading red
[00:51:40.920]and that makes sense for some kids
[00:51:43.340]if you wanted to make a binder of these
[00:51:45.180]and use it for data collection
[00:51:46.900]then here is a version of this chart
[00:51:49.420]that has just the green outline and the red outline
[00:51:52.330]so that it prints more easily
[00:51:54.400]but the students still get the color coding.
[00:51:56.650]Again, this is a version of problem solving
[00:51:59.420]and solving problems that may be something
[00:52:02.370]that you need to work on with your student
[00:52:04.470]and it would be a goal that you would set.
[00:52:05.780]I just wanna show you some of the categories that I use
[00:52:07.970]and there's a lot I know, it's crazy.
[00:52:10.620]I love problem solving.
[00:52:11.530]All right, so those are a few of the goals
[00:52:13.950]probably the majority of the goals
[00:52:15.410]that I would have for students about problem solving.
[00:52:17.820]You kind of just pick one of those and go with it.
[00:52:19.700]Again, I've got that whole checklist
[00:52:21.700]that you can look through
[00:52:22.650]to find other great goals on problem solving.
[00:52:25.710]Then let's use this other area
[00:52:27.010]of deliberate practice and ensure focus.
[00:52:29.550]You've got to get their buy-in.
[00:52:31.790]I would always decide
[00:52:33.270]on one main problem solving goal at a time.
[00:52:35.890]You're not gonna work on all those visual supports at once.
[00:52:37.980]In fact, please don't.
[00:52:39.290]Pick one that is really needed
[00:52:41.540]and kind of move forward with it.
[00:52:43.330]You're gonna use that visual support
[00:52:44.940]until the categories mastered and along with the other one,
[00:52:48.190]encouragement, support take as much time as needed
[00:52:51.070]possibly coming back to it the next week.
[00:52:53.760]All right, so if we're talking about
[00:52:55.120]motivation and problem solving
[00:52:57.210]I've just outlined a couple of steps
[00:52:58.940]that I think are super important.
[00:53:00.970]Number one, the student has got to agree
[00:53:02.790]that what he or she is doing is a problem.
[00:53:06.040]And if they don't, then you're gonna have a hard time
[00:53:08.810]teaching problem solving.
[00:53:10.620]So you've got to show them somehow that it is a problem
[00:53:14.590]and many times you saying that it's a problem
[00:53:16.887]and it bothers you is not gonna impact your student
[00:53:18.833]with ASD whatsoever.
[00:53:21.140]So just like other students think,
[00:53:24.040]they don't care whether their students think,
[00:53:25.410]in fact, they'll stop caring about
[00:53:26.880]whether the students think if you mentioned that.
[00:53:29.470]So they've got to have buy-in
[00:53:31.460]and agree that what they're doing is a problem
[00:53:33.000]but you've got to find something that impacts them.
[00:53:36.330]Number two, the student has to understand
[00:53:38.130]why it's a problem
[00:53:39.950]and number three, they've got to have opportunities
[00:53:42.100]to practice replacement skills and experience success.
[00:53:45.930]Think about how much negativity
[00:53:47.300]many of our students with ASD experience
[00:53:49.270]in these problems situations.
[00:53:51.350]They go back to that learned helplessness
[00:53:53.010]that I'm just gonna give up on trying
[00:53:55.190]'cause it didn't work.
[00:53:56.100]And many times you'll find a student says,
[00:53:58.130]in first grade I had a teacher that...
[00:54:00.760]and they've held onto one memory
[00:54:02.440]where they didn't have success
[00:54:05.010]and therefore they will never try it again
[00:54:06.710]and you've got to break past that.
[00:54:09.700]Providing successful opportunities is key.
[00:54:11.820]This was in one of our groups and at overnight camp.
[00:54:16.120]And I will say this shows just Mr. Brad
[00:54:19.240]teaching the skill of how to compromise
[00:54:21.350]and then this shows them at overnight camp
[00:54:23.210]there's zero adults over there.
[00:54:24.650]They're leading a majority vote on their own.
[00:54:26.880]It does transfer.
[00:54:28.950]Scripting can also be an effective way to ensure focus.
[00:54:32.220]Oh, well, no big deal.
[00:54:33.300]I can't tell you how many kids I've worked with
[00:54:34.700]on just that phrase.
[00:54:35.850]They're gonna feel like it's a big deal
[00:54:37.150]or I'll try, it's huge.
[00:54:40.530]So we use scripting with hundreds of kids
[00:54:42.870]to learn to say things to replace
[00:54:44.920]whatever that negative thing is that they're wanting to say
[00:54:47.330]and if you need to pair additional reinforcement with that
[00:54:51.540]Yesterday I was at a school
[00:54:52.750]and there's a kid that doesn't wanna leave the classroom
[00:54:55.260]when he's upset
[00:54:56.510]and one of the things that we're gonna try
[00:54:58.080]and I've tried it with several students before
[00:54:59.850]and this is just the student is basically if he gets up
[00:55:02.960]and he leaves the room quietly and calmly when asked
[00:55:07.100]he is gonna get five minutes of an electronic break
[00:55:09.350]and so I had to talk to the teacher
[00:55:10.780]about whether or not he would take advantage of that
[00:55:13.410]and when he gets it and how
[00:55:15.160]and again, I've had it really work
[00:55:16.820]because I've had to place this external reinforcement
[00:55:19.560]with a very specific behavior
[00:55:21.730]and with the student, it's like, okay, no big deal
[00:55:24.820]he needs to get up and walk out
[00:55:26.100]but he's gonna be learning this phrase.
[00:55:29.100]The third area of deliberate practice
[00:55:31.080]and problem solving is communicating outcomes.
[00:55:33.830]So communicate your expectations.
[00:55:35.450]We're gonna go back
[00:55:36.283]and we're gonna discuss this afterwards.
[00:55:37.750]We're gonna see how it went.
[00:55:39.410]Use data collection to track strategies used
[00:55:43.153]and a lot of times I'll share
[00:55:44.180]those sorts of things with students.
[00:55:45.840]Remember when this went well,
[00:55:47.840]you can use picture and video feedback
[00:55:49.740]on the goals to communicate the outcomes.
[00:55:52.100]Also, as I mentioned in the previous section
[00:55:53.920]receive peer feedback.
[00:55:55.310]Sometimes peers communicating the outcomes
[00:55:58.320]of what can happen can be so effective.
[00:56:02.060]Here's some examples of data collection.
[00:56:04.200]At the very least, if you use the Problem Solving Chart
[00:56:07.310]seek help from adult, maybe in this pretest
[00:56:10.610]that's what they always do.
[00:56:12.050]They always are tattle telling and seeking help
[00:56:14.060]and having somebody else do it for them.
[00:56:16.920]Talk it out and compromise, rarely.
[00:56:19.210]Let it go move on, rarely.
[00:56:20.870]For some kids, I put never in several of those columns.
[00:56:23.600]Let it bother you sometimes.
[00:56:25.820]If you want to get more detailed
[00:56:27.520]you can use this Problem Solving Effectiveness chart.
[00:56:31.550]You would be looking at the effectiveness
[00:56:33.310]whether things were prompted or independent.
[00:56:35.800]You're just getting a little bit more information.
[00:56:38.920]I've even added this into point charts.
[00:56:41.650]So for student after each class
[00:56:44.300]we had questions that he would have to answer
[00:56:46.910]so we would track his response and then the adult response
[00:56:50.380]and if they matched then he would get two points.
[00:56:53.470]If they matched and it was like no response here.
[00:56:56.130]So like, did I complain?
[00:56:57.240]No, the adults said no, two points
[00:56:59.410]but if he said ,yes,
[00:57:00.690]and the adult said, yes, he would get one point for honesty
[00:57:04.340]and that was because this student needed to work on it.
[00:57:06.210]But what I want to point out
[00:57:07.360]can you tell where he had issues with letting things go?
[00:57:10.310]If you look where it says circle
[00:57:12.670]and it says let a problem go
[00:57:14.787]and PE is an extra five points.
[00:57:16.840]Let a problem go in math or civics, extra 10 points.
[00:57:20.320]Walk into the hallway when asked
[00:57:21.770]without complaining extra 10 points.
[00:57:24.270]Okay, can you tell where we were having issues?
[00:57:26.750]When we put those extra points
[00:57:27.880]this worked for the student
[00:57:29.330]and this is all about individualizing
[00:57:31.330]but we were working on it problem solving.
[00:57:34.860]And lastly, the fourth area is just assisting the learner
[00:57:38.050]to move out of his or her comfort zone.
[00:57:41.350]So we may have them initiate the majority vote.
[00:57:44.030]We may have them lead the discussion on what worked.
[00:57:47.110]A lot of times if they have to lead the problem solving
[00:57:49.310]it can be a lot harder.
[00:57:51.820]And lastly, embedded skill would be, give me three.
[00:57:54.070]Give me three things that worked.
[00:57:55.400]Give me three things that didn't work.
[00:57:57.320]Give me three things you could do in that situation.
[00:58:00.020]Give me three things that may be causing the problem.
[00:58:02.360]Three things that might happen,
[00:58:04.040]three clues that helped you know that.
[00:58:06.370]What are three things you noticed?
[00:58:08.000]But I'm always telling kids to give me three.
[00:58:10.620]We are at the conclusion of our webinar
[00:58:13.560]but stay on for just a second.
[00:58:14.810]We will do the questions at the end.
[00:58:17.270]I wanna thank TASN so much for having me on.
[00:58:20.520]It is a privilege to share this with you.
[00:58:22.060]I know I've given you a lot of information.
[00:58:24.540]As a thank you,
[00:58:25.373]you are welcome to use my visual supports
[00:58:27.340]for your personal use within your home or school.
[00:58:31.650]These visual supports are not to be used
[00:58:33.520]for sale or mass distribution.
[00:58:35.410]Please, please, please be respectful to use the resources
[00:58:38.910]for the intended use of helping students with ASD
[00:58:41.970]to understand difficult concepts.
[00:58:44.530]Remember that a support is only a support
[00:58:46.780]if it's necessary and helpful.
[00:58:49.910]I try to only use supports when they're necessary
[00:58:52.400]and when they're helpful.
[00:58:54.860]And I just want to share something
[00:58:56.340]that a social group leader, she came up and saw our staff.
[00:58:59.140]Since we talked about conversation,
[00:59:00.890]one of the things I wanna highlight that she sent me was,
[00:59:02.977]"I was dismayed to see that my teens
[00:59:05.620]couldn't carry on an on-topic conversation
[00:59:08.010]for more than one and a half minutes
[00:59:09.700]without becoming silent
[00:59:10.930]or making a drastic change in topic."
[00:59:12.990]Why is that?
[00:59:14.370]Because before she was providing the topic
[00:59:16.300]she had it structured for their success, that was awesome
[00:59:19.270]but we weren't really teaching the categories
[00:59:21.500]and therefore we weren't seeing the transfer of skills.
[00:59:23.960]So in this one area
[00:59:25.170]we wanna see the categorical teaching
[00:59:27.780]teach the categories, teach them to think
[00:59:30.000]on their own and you will see big change.
[00:59:33.590]All right, so again, thank you for joining me.
[00:59:35.400]It has been a privilege.
Log in to post comments