Video 6 - 2020 Virtual Nebraska Soybean Day and Machinery Expo
Considerations for late-season weed control in soybeans (Wisconsin Cropping Systems Weed Seed Movement Via Combines Case Study), Nick Arneson, Weed Science Outreach Specialist, University of Wisconsin-Madison
icon search Searchable Transcript
Toggle between list and paragraph view.
[00:00:11.400]Okay, next we turn to Nick Arneson.
[00:00:14.360]And Nick is an outreach specialist
[00:00:16.700]at the University of Wisconsin.
[00:00:17.840]He's part of the weeds team up there, and welcome Nick.
[00:00:23.230]We miss ya buddy,
[00:00:24.340]but glad you're doing well up there.
[00:00:28.180]And I'm glad we didn't have to play Bucky Badger this year.
[00:00:33.440]Hey thanks, Keith, can you see my screen
[00:00:35.460]and hear me okay?
[00:00:36.293]Yes, I see your screen.
[00:00:38.520]You're a little weak on audio.
[00:00:40.450]You could crank up the volume a little maybe.
[00:00:42.730]Okay, let me see if I can help with that here.
[00:00:49.220]Okay, so is that any better?
[00:00:55.230]That any better there for you Keith?
[00:00:57.363]Yeah, that level is a little better, yes.
[00:01:00.030]Okay cool, let's see if I can-
[00:01:01.470]Hopefully that's okay for y'all here.
[00:01:03.610]So as Keith said, Nick Arneson.
[00:01:05.690]Originally from Nebraska, went to school there.
[00:01:08.280]Now here in Wisconsin.
[00:01:10.730]Just wanna say thank you for everyone
[00:01:12.500]for the opportunity to be here.
[00:01:13.850]Thank you Keith for everything.
[00:01:15.770]Before we made it up here to Wisconsin
[00:01:17.820]and everything here now that we're here,
[00:01:19.660]so appreciate Soybean Board and Association.
[00:01:23.320]So as Rodrigo said,
[00:01:24.990]I'll be talking about the late season aspects,
[00:01:27.230]specifically one project that I worked on
[00:01:30.830]exclusively over this year.
[00:01:32.710]And this is talking about combines.
[00:01:35.640]So first I just wanna acknowledge Dan Smith,
[00:01:38.680]Nutrient Pest Management Program up here.
[00:01:41.450]He was kind of one of the leaders
[00:01:44.370]that are starting this combine work that we've done.
[00:01:47.700]And the work with him
[00:01:49.240]and the Nutrient Pest Management Program
[00:01:50.880]has been invaluable for us being able
[00:01:52.660]to get this information out to our stakeholders.
[00:01:56.070]So just in general,
[00:01:57.950]I wanna do a little overview here
[00:02:00.020]of what the WiscWeeds Research Coalition is,
[00:02:03.620]and that's just a product of what this project is
[00:02:06.380]of something we started a year and a half ago
[00:02:08.640]and where we're going with it forward.
[00:02:10.720]And then kind of the rationale why we did this study.
[00:02:14.360]And then what this study is,
[00:02:16.160]the Weed Seed Movement via Combines.
[00:02:18.230]So this is a study that we conducted over the last year.
[00:02:23.100]So just the research coalition you can see,
[00:02:25.680]I'm not gonna go into depth here.
[00:02:28.020]But I just wanna show
[00:02:29.380]that these are a couple of projects that we've done.
[00:02:32.370]And so this all started with the idea
[00:02:34.320]of how do we do projects that are farmer-driven problems
[00:02:38.340]that farmers suggest to us?
[00:02:40.100]And that how can we then do research that provides solutions
[00:02:43.820]that can be used here and now
[00:02:46.603]as we know that things changed so rapidly in agriculture
[00:02:50.980]and the problem pests that we're dealing with?
[00:02:53.920]So we have a variety of what we've done has been
[00:02:58.150]resistance screenings for different weeds.
[00:03:00.670]So we have a big comprehensive waterhemp project.
[00:03:04.090]Alex Rosa, Dr. Alex Rosa
[00:03:05.870]who had just gotten his degree from Nebraska
[00:03:08.060]just conducted one with Marestail here.
[00:03:10.130]And then we've also had a student,
[00:03:12.240]Jose Nunez from Brazil work with fall panicum.
[00:03:14.710]So we've had a couple of different projects,
[00:03:16.680]and this is where the combine study came out of as well.
[00:03:19.540]So if you're interested in the work that we're doing
[00:03:21.450]with the research coalition,
[00:03:23.310]I encourage you to check out our blog.
[00:03:25.360]That information's available in the chat.
[00:03:27.380]There's a lot of cool resources online of what we're doing.
[00:03:33.214]So just to start things off,
[00:03:35.420]we've talked a lot about giant ragweed and waterhemp.
[00:03:39.150]As Rodrigo's said, these are the primary troublesome weeds
[00:03:42.720]that we're dealing with in Wisconsin.
[00:03:44.580]So I just wanted to highlight some things here.
[00:03:46.630]And remember, we're talking waterhemp.
[00:03:48.590]A lot of what we're describing with waterhemp today
[00:03:50.980]can be transferred over to the same kind of biology
[00:03:54.490]as Palmer amaranth which we know
[00:03:56.010]is a big problem in Nebraska.
[00:03:59.000]So these graphics might be
[00:04:00.030]a little small, hard to interpret.
[00:04:01.670]I got some bullet points here just to highlight
[00:04:03.830]what we're looking at.
[00:04:05.090]And the whole take home here
[00:04:06.830]is that at the end of the season when we're in our...
[00:04:11.110]Coming into harvest, we know that the majority of the seeds
[00:04:14.580]that are on the plants,
[00:04:15.820]the standing plants of giant ragweed and waterhemp
[00:04:18.510]are still on that plant.
[00:04:20.070]So they haven't shattered.
[00:04:21.130]They're not in the soil yet.
[00:04:22.620]They're still on that plant.
[00:04:24.040]So that provides us a unique opportunity
[00:04:26.680]to try to stymie that weed seed movement from field to field
[00:04:31.030]by figuring out ways that we can get those plants
[00:04:33.340]out of the field by roguing them
[00:04:34.840]or hand culling before we send the combine through.
[00:04:37.710]Or something that we looked at today
[00:04:39.550]about if we're getting into the combine,
[00:04:41.580]how we can manage that.
[00:04:43.310]So another point of reference here
[00:04:45.140]is that the larger the waterhemp plant,
[00:04:47.770]the more seeds that are produced.
[00:04:48.990]And we know how large waterhemp plants
[00:04:50.450]can get, same with Palmer.
[00:04:52.100]But also regardless of the size,
[00:04:53.870]we're still retaining close to 100% of our seeds
[00:04:56.950]at the end of the year.
[00:04:59.670]So on top of that,
[00:05:00.510]we're just looking just briefly
[00:05:01.910]at seed longevity in the soil.
[00:05:04.120]We know giant ragweed if you can control it
[00:05:06.460]in the first few years,
[00:05:07.790]you're not gonna have such a big problem
[00:05:09.160]in seed's survival after burial in the soil.
[00:05:13.840]Waterhemp's a different story,
[00:05:15.370]and I believe the similar case with Palmer.
[00:05:18.540]So even if we try to maintain
[00:05:23.640]and control our weeds on a year-to-year basis,
[00:05:25.630]we still have the seed bank we need to be worrying about.
[00:05:27.710]And we don't wanna be moving seeds from fields
[00:05:30.110]that don't have weed problems from fields that do.
[00:05:36.680]So the key here is that we need to destroy these weeds
[00:05:40.730]or figure out a way that we can reduce the movement
[00:05:42.910]of the seeds into the seed bank.
[00:05:44.840]And also if we have herbicide resistance,
[00:05:46.920]then limiting the spread from field to field.
[00:05:51.470]So here's something we borrowed from Dr. Mark Loux
[00:05:54.340]in the Ohio State University, some images here.
[00:05:56.460]And this is something about...
[00:05:57.690]We just wanna talk about how are the weeds
[00:05:59.310]getting into your field,
[00:06:00.280]and how are they spreading?
[00:06:01.840]And so we know that there's a variety of ways
[00:06:04.640]that we're moving seeds in the field,
[00:06:06.300]some of which we don't have control over, right?
[00:06:08.140]Like the waterfowl feeding and moving.
[00:06:10.390]We see some good data
[00:06:11.760]showing the movement of seeds with that.
[00:06:14.100]But also up here in Wisconsin specifically,
[00:06:16.610]feed, seed, bedding, manure,
[00:06:18.270]those are all important.
[00:06:19.430]Now what we're trying to dial in today is the equipment.
[00:06:22.340]Now Keith said earlier this is the machinery day,
[00:06:25.040]but we're kind of skipping that expo.
[00:06:26.630]Now Keith, I wanna show you that we're gonna talk
[00:06:29.180]a little bit about machinery here in my talk.
[00:06:31.270]And so we can't put a combine in your shed
[00:06:34.420]or your office right now.
[00:06:36.140]But I can take you virtually into a combine
[00:06:38.080]with the project that we did.
[00:06:39.690]So this picture might show a scenario
[00:06:41.700]that you've seen before.
[00:06:43.010]The edge of your field,
[00:06:44.290]bed of weed's gone to seed.
[00:06:45.480]You think, "Oh, it's just the corner.
[00:06:47.200]Not gonna be a big deal."
[00:06:48.210]You go right through with your combine,
[00:06:49.730]Heck, this might be where your combine
[00:06:51.290]spit out all that dust from the last year before
[00:06:54.340]when you started up this year.
[00:06:56.550]Go through it, spread it a little bit, okay?
[00:06:58.410]It's not a complete infestation.
[00:06:59.860]We're gonna handle it this year
[00:07:00.870]with the good layered approach program.
[00:07:03.910]Guess what, some go to seed.
[00:07:05.300]Next thing you know we spin the combine through,
[00:07:07.170]and we got a whole fields worth of waterhemp or Palmer.
[00:07:10.960]And I know we've unfortunately have all seen a field
[00:07:14.170]at that scenario, so that's something we'd like to avoid.
[00:07:17.860]So as I said before,
[00:07:19.920]before I came to Wisconsin
[00:07:21.250]Dan and Rodrigo had put together
[00:07:22.870]these combine cleaning clinics.
[00:07:24.570]So they shared the information I've shared with you today.
[00:07:28.140]And then they went through the process
[00:07:29.710]of why we should think about cleaning our combine,
[00:07:32.340]what you can do to clean your combine,
[00:07:34.943]and what you need to do it,
[00:07:36.890]and what kind of time, and where you should focus.
[00:07:39.370]And then they would always end the combine cleaning clinic
[00:07:42.070]with cleaning a combine,
[00:07:43.600]regardless of it had been cleaned before or not.
[00:07:46.860]And what happened is six out of six
[00:07:49.230]of those combine cleaning clinics,
[00:07:51.010]those combines contained weeds that they found
[00:07:53.830]just in that cleaning demonstration.
[00:07:56.810]So we put together this project.
[00:07:58.240]The idea is to look at a couple of critical components
[00:08:00.870]based on some of data that's been shared
[00:08:03.420]by other extension programs
[00:08:05.060]in the past of commercial combines
[00:08:07.550]and see where are they hiding seeds,
[00:08:09.610]and are they moving them?
[00:08:11.470]So what happens is we put out a call
[00:08:13.410]to our producers and our agronomists,
[00:08:15.650]and we say please look at these four areas.
[00:08:18.700]Clean the material, we put together a video,
[00:08:20.560]show them what to do.
[00:08:22.040]And then they went ahead,
[00:08:23.350]and we got nine combines with four particular areas
[00:08:26.220]that I'll highlight in the next slide.
[00:08:28.350]And what we got is a variety
[00:08:30.170]of size samples and different materials.
[00:08:32.760]So we're kind of calling this all foreign material
[00:08:35.150]which I'll reference later.
[00:08:37.550]So these were mixed with soil and potting mix.
[00:08:41.010]And then we put them in the greenhouse,
[00:08:42.360]and let them sit, and just watered them daily.
[00:08:44.210]And then after two weeks,
[00:08:46.300]we went and we looked at the amount of weeds that are there,
[00:08:49.400]what weeds are there, and took some photos.
[00:08:53.700]So here's the four areas that we looked at.
[00:08:55.770]The combine head, the feeder house,
[00:08:58.670]the rock trap, and the rotor.
[00:09:00.010]And so these areas were selected
[00:09:02.250]based on some previous data that had been shared
[00:09:05.240]with a variety of extension programs
[00:09:07.650]that put together of why you should clean your combine
[00:09:10.170]to reduce weed seed movement.
[00:09:12.380]And then we went and we took these to the greenhouse.
[00:09:15.380]So the first thing I'm gonna do
[00:09:16.540]is I'm gonna walk you through each of those components.
[00:09:19.990]And we're gonna look at just some pictures.
[00:09:22.370]Because for me and if you're like me,
[00:09:24.130]the pictures are gonna tell you a heck of a better story
[00:09:26.440]than the data will at the end.
[00:09:28.090]Because this was more of a demonstration than a trial
[00:09:31.330]in which we are trying to be a publication, right?
[00:09:33.220]We're trying to drive this home,
[00:09:34.900]that there's an opportunity here that we can stop,
[00:09:38.490]at least reduce some of the movement of the seeds
[00:09:41.680]from field to field in our season.
[00:09:44.630]So here's a picture from the combine head.
[00:09:47.310]And I highlighted the couple of the weeds we found.
[00:09:49.590]And just something I wanna show you is here in the black
[00:09:51.750]the number is the number of total weeds we found
[00:09:54.390]in each of those samples.
[00:09:56.220]And then the red is the number of species,
[00:09:58.000]so kind of the diversity we found in each one.
[00:10:00.800]And you see a wide range.
[00:10:02.040]We go from 600 here in one, primarily grass,
[00:10:06.260]versus just one species, one individual.
[00:10:12.098]So take a look at the feeder house, similar story, right?
[00:10:15.040]We're finding a variety of weeds.
[00:10:18.150]And corn and soybeans,
[00:10:19.830]so let's not forget about that too, we are moving.
[00:10:21.960]And technically when you think about weeds are,
[00:10:24.490]we're still managing corn in soybean fields the next year.
[00:10:28.140]We're managing soybeans and corn fields the next year.
[00:10:30.230]So these are issues
[00:10:31.070]that we should be thinking about as well.
[00:10:33.350]Now here's pigweed, and you can see
[00:10:35.111]this was three species and we had 100.
[00:10:37.160]There is a lot of pigweed.
[00:10:38.676]Pigweed's a really small seed.
[00:10:39.930]Rodrigo touched on that earlier.
[00:10:41.740]So this is an opportunity here.
[00:10:45.950]And then we look at the rock trap.
[00:10:47.560]And so same story here, a couple of different weeds.
[00:10:50.700]We had some hemp.
[00:10:51.800]We do work with industrial hemp up here,
[00:10:53.710]and that's likely cause of that.
[00:10:56.080]But basically the take home from all of this
[00:10:58.800]is that there's a diversity between samples.
[00:11:02.610]But I wanna highlight one last one here on the rotor.
[00:11:06.300]That this is the only one sample of the 34 that we did
[00:11:10.140]that didn't have any single weed in it.
[00:11:12.600]So our methodology is not perfect,
[00:11:15.660]but we're finding weeds everywhere we go.
[00:11:20.420]So here is just a bit of data that I wanna show
[00:11:22.550]that we kind of extrapolated based on some other research
[00:11:25.640]that had been done before us.
[00:11:26.980]So I just wanna highlight first on the left.
[00:11:29.680]So I talked about that foreign material.
[00:11:31.500]So this is what we removed from the combine area.
[00:11:35.240]So we extrapolated that up to up 100 grams
[00:11:37.720]for comparison between the samples.
[00:11:40.120]And far and away, the combine head
[00:11:42.730]is just where we were getting the most weeds.
[00:11:44.590]And that's what we're seeing in the raw data as well.
[00:11:47.120]And you're seeing that the top is going to be
[00:11:52.780]combine head and feeder house.
[00:11:55.530]Now if we take it over here
[00:11:56.750]and this is data that we took from Hanna et all 2009.
[00:12:00.540]And this is where they looked at the grain residual
[00:12:03.930]and time requirements for combine cleaning.
[00:12:05.920]So they cleaned five combines,
[00:12:07.760]took an average of the amount of foreign material
[00:12:10.580]they're getting from areas within those combines,
[00:12:13.270]and then how much time it's gonna take.
[00:12:15.430]And what we found with our data
[00:12:17.000]with extrapolation from theirs
[00:12:18.810]is that again this combine head is gonna be the big driver
[00:12:23.060]for where we're gonna find our weeds,
[00:12:24.600]so that front half of the combine.
[00:12:26.620]And with what we see,
[00:12:27.520]the rotor is one area
[00:12:29.430]where we aren't picking up as many weeks.
[00:12:32.700]So just a summary,
[00:12:33.880]we had almost 100% contained viable weed seed.
[00:12:37.170]And I feel like this is one of those things
[00:12:38.930]that we all knew, right?
[00:12:40.570]And that's why we did this study
[00:12:41.980]is we knew there were gonna be weeds in the combine,
[00:12:44.890]weed seeds in the combine,
[00:12:45.797]but we needed some data to back it up.
[00:12:48.490]As I mentioned, the combine heads contained almost 50%,
[00:12:52.660]followed by feeder house and rock trap.
[00:12:54.510]And remember rock trap is a few less samples
[00:12:56.190]but still had a fair amount of seeds.
[00:12:57.660]So you can see that's an area of focus as well.
[00:13:00.450]In general, grass and pigweeds dominated,
[00:13:03.350]common lambsquarter as well.
[00:13:05.140]And we had other weeds,
[00:13:06.410]but those are really ones that we know
[00:13:08.140]are common problems here in Wisconsin,
[00:13:09.950]and we weren't surprised to find that
[00:13:11.950]being one of the leaders of the board here.
[00:13:15.180]And then of course like I mentioned before,
[00:13:17.160]corn and soybeans were found in these samples as well.
[00:13:19.470]So that's something we wanna be thinking about
[00:13:22.030]as we consider whether or not we have the time
[00:13:25.140]for cleaning a combine.
[00:13:27.660]So that's one of the main pushbacks we get
[00:13:30.820]when we share this information
[00:13:32.220]in the combine cleaning clinic.
[00:13:34.310]We understand that harvest is a difficult time
[00:13:37.090]to spare time for anything.
[00:13:39.260]And this is something we wanna pay attention to
[00:13:44.010]and think about it may seem like a lot of time now,
[00:13:48.280]but if we spend a little time now can we save ourselves
[00:13:51.950]some time and money down the road
[00:13:53.350]with taking something of that selection pressure
[00:13:55.530]off our pre and post-herbicides, right?
[00:13:58.330]So hopefully we can stop the spread.
[00:14:00.180]So we think that in 30 minutes,
[00:14:02.020]you can target these four components
[00:14:04.250]based off of the video that Dan put together
[00:14:06.670]about how you can do this
[00:14:08.670]which I'm gonna share on the next slide,
[00:14:10.220]and that information will be available.
[00:14:12.210]But I think what I really wanna drive home
[00:14:14.340]from the data that we found
[00:14:15.540]is just prioritize that front half.
[00:14:17.500]If you can't clean your entire combine,
[00:14:19.990]think about the combine head
[00:14:21.130]and feeder house as your main focus.
[00:14:24.730]As I'd like to mention as Dan recommends
[00:14:27.010]using a leaf blower, air compressor, don't...
[00:14:30.090]Water can make it difficult to get that material
[00:14:32.470]out of the combine.
[00:14:33.930]And of course, wear PPE,
[00:14:36.620]ear, eye, and respiratory protection.
[00:14:38.690]Absolutely important while you're working
[00:14:40.650]with materials like this.
[00:14:44.800]So what are some of the things you can do
[00:14:47.240]to make sure that you can limit your weed seed spread?
[00:14:51.270]So removing the fields before harvest.
[00:14:53.460]This is something that is
[00:14:55.140]difficult to convince someone to do,
[00:14:58.090]but it really can help you prevent that spread.
[00:15:02.000]You see some fields going to seed,
[00:15:04.620]call up a couple of friends
[00:15:05.630]and go out there and go out there together,
[00:15:07.010]and take down those weeds,
[00:15:08.420]and get them out of the field
[00:15:09.720]so that they don't re-enter the seed bank.
[00:15:12.690]You wanna go and harvest your clean fields first
[00:15:16.840]and then go to your weedy fields last.
[00:15:19.220]Another one that Dan came up with
[00:15:20.690]was throwing a bag of wood shavings through to combine.
[00:15:22.970]That might be able to grab some of the areas
[00:15:25.680]within the combine that are harder to get to
[00:15:27.820]with the air compressor.
[00:15:29.810]There's a video here that Dan put together about how to...
[00:15:33.630]Walks you through these steps, that you can be available.
[00:15:35.990]You can find that through our blog.
[00:15:37.780]Additional information that you find
[00:15:39.540]from other universities as well,
[00:15:41.320]and then a comprehensive bulletin on what we shared today.
[00:15:44.970]As I mentioned before and shared the link in the chat,
[00:15:47.330]Delores was nice enough to put some of our resources online
[00:15:52.610]and I appreciate that.
[00:15:53.870]And additionally, other resources we have.
[00:15:56.990]Again, I wanna thank everyone for this opportunity
[00:16:01.420]and then Keith, and all the group, and the board,
[00:16:04.790]and the association for allowing us
[00:16:06.210]to come back and do this.
[00:16:07.043]This has just been a great opportunity.
[00:16:10.000]I hope that this has been a fruitful for you, I do.
[00:16:13.660]We we're very excited to be able
[00:16:15.300]to come home virtually at least and give this talk.
[00:16:18.440]So I'd be happy to entertain
[00:16:19.820]a few questions before break, Keith.
[00:16:24.610]I have a question, Nick.
[00:16:29.500]Has there been any work done that might suggest
[00:16:32.220]a draper head on soybeans versus a auger feed
[00:16:37.380]is different in terms of weed seed collection?
[00:16:42.450]Sure, yeah, so unfortunately I couldn't really speak-
[00:16:46.080]Give you a real accurate answer to that.
[00:16:48.500]I'm sure that work's being done.
[00:16:50.450]And I guess when you think about how each works,
[00:16:53.150]you could expect differences.
[00:16:55.160]But we haven't done anything specifically.
[00:16:58.090]We are doing some work at the University of Missouri
[00:17:00.620]right now looking at header loss, thresher loss,
[00:17:04.170]and then gonna couple that with work they're doing
[00:17:06.230]with the Harrington Weed Seed Destructor
[00:17:08.590]and kind of seeing where are we losing the seeds most?
[00:17:12.877]How is it going through the combine?
[00:17:14.870]And all that jazz for sure.
[00:17:17.170]That was my next question
[00:17:18.420]about the Weed Seed Destructor attachment
[00:17:21.500]to the combine if that...
[00:17:22.570]Yeah, we haven't done any work with that.
[00:17:24.549]But Dr. Kevin Bradley at the University of Missouri
[00:17:27.600]is leading an effort there.
[00:17:29.280]And we're doing some supplemental work just to identify
[00:17:32.650]how much of those weeds are going through the combine
[00:17:35.950]or getting lost before they even get
[00:17:37.900]to the combine themself.
[00:17:39.580]Okay, yep, good work.
[00:17:42.500]Appreciate your contribution to today's program, Nick,
[00:17:46.640]and wish you well and stay safe.
[00:17:49.230]And hopefully we can come together face-to-face
[00:17:53.340]down the road again.
[00:17:54.580]Absolutely Keith, now don't go
[00:17:56.150]and retire before I can get back, all right?
[00:17:58.040]I kind of need to come give you a hard time there
[00:18:00.490]down in Mead next time I'm home.
[00:18:02.370]Okay, sounds like a plan.
[00:18:04.780]Thank you again, we're gonna take a break here
[00:18:07.810]for about 10 minutes.
[00:18:09.050]We'll be back at two o'clock.
[00:18:10.440]So another interesting topic we're gonna address
[00:18:15.100]is related to quantity and quality of soybeans
[00:18:20.520]from farmer's fields here in Nebraska.
[00:18:22.480]So please come back and join us.
Log in to post comments