Episode 002: Automation and Strategic Harvest Technologies
Farmers everywhere understand the importance of harvest logistics and measuring productivity. In colder climates, efficient harvest operations are critical for ensuring that field losses are minimized and crops are out of the field before inclement weather arrives. In warmer climates, efficiently harvesting peanuts between consistent rain events can pose a challenge and increase the threat of freeze damage to the crop. On this episode of "FarmBits," Dr. John Evans, assistant professor of Agricultural and Biological Engineering at Purdue University, discusses the topics of harvest logistics and yield mapping. John first shares his perspectives on logistical challenges that farmers face and steps that farmers can take today without significant capital investments to increase their efficiency. After discussing those important aspects of harvest, he addresses the major problems for farmers that should be addressed with digital solutions. One problem is the issue of deciding whether harvested products should be transported immediately to an elevator or processing facility, or if they should be temporarily transferred to on-farm storage. Digital solutions that leverage positional data and machine to machine connectivity could provide significant benefit to farmers in this scenario. The episode concludes with John talking about automation and the future of yield mapping resolution at the frontiers of digital harvest technology.
"I think the actual autonomous navigation is not too far off. I think there's a lot of work to be done, however, in terms of machine vision. We're in a very complicated environment. We're trying to look through corn, trying to look through beans, to identify things that aren't supposed to be there." - John Evans
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Podcast Twitter: @NEDigitalAg
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Opinions expressed by the hosts and guests on this podcast are solely their own, and do not reflect the views of Nebraska Extension or the University of Nebraska - Lincoln.
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[00:00:09.870]Jackson: Welcome to the FarmBits Podcast:
[00:00:12.020]of Nebraska Extension Digital Agriculture.
[00:00:14.680]I'm Jackson Stansell,
Samantha:and I'm Samantha Teten,
[00:00:17.060]Jackson: and we come to you each week to discuss
[00:00:19.160]trends, the realities, and the value of digital
[00:00:23.000]Samantha: Through interviews and panels with
[00:00:26.150]producers, and innovators from all sectors
[00:00:28.280]of digital technology, we hope that you step
away from each episode with new practical
[00:00:33.070]knowledge of digital agriculture technology.
[00:00:37.530]Jackson: On this second full episode of the
[00:00:41.370]episode, we are pleased to welcome Dr. John
[00:00:44.059]Evans, assistant professor of Agricultural
and Biological Engineering at Purdue University.
[00:00:48.820]Samantha: John got both his bachelor's and
[00:00:51.350]degrees from the University of Kentucky in
[00:00:53.899]Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering, and
his Ph.D. in Biological Systems Engineering
[00:00:58.949]from the University of Nebraska - Lincoln.
[00:01:00.809]While at the University of Nebraska he met
his wife, Rachel, who is from southeast Nebraska,
[00:01:05.930]and they now live in West Lafayette, Indiana,
with their dog Maggie.
[00:01:10.420]Jackson: His research interests primarily
[00:01:13.200]machine logistics optimization, machinery
[00:01:15.970]automation, data acquisition, and data management
[00:01:20.620]All of these research topics pertain directly
to harvest operations, particularly future
[00:01:24.940]innovations expected in harvest operations.
[00:01:27.450]Samantha: Farmers understand the logistics
[00:01:30.050]that the harvest season presents, and they
[00:01:32.001]also understand the importance of measuring
crop productivity in the field.
[00:01:35.720]Jackson: Today, we will talk with Dr. Evans
[00:01:38.970]these topics - harvest logistics and yield
[00:01:41.720]mapping - to gain an understanding of contemporary
technologies and to glean some insight into
[00:01:46.340]opportunities for innovation that may make
farmers lives easier during harvest.
[00:01:51.150]Samantha: Here's our interview with Dr. John
[00:02:00.280]So John what do you think are some of the
growers greatest challenges during the harvest
[00:02:05.490]John: Oh I think it's that coordination of
[00:02:10.160]So trying to make sure that your very expensive
machines are you're not putting more hours
[00:02:16.069]on those than you need to, but also the coordination
[00:02:19.739]You know often it's seasonal labor and how
do you get in there and make sure that they're
[00:02:24.719]productive and not sitting around waiting
on you to get done with things.
[00:02:29.420]And that's a big challenge and there are so
many variables, it's pretty daunting.
[00:02:35.060]Jackson: Sure can you speak to a few of those
[00:02:38.530]that a farmer might need to consider when
[00:02:40.739]they're planning those harvest logistics around
[00:02:44.719]John: You know, a few of them are going to
[00:02:47.469]actual machinery needs, so you need to match
[00:02:51.250]your labor to your machinery which is often
a whole other challenge in itself, but then
[00:02:57.489]the timing around that.
[00:02:58.909]So when is that labor going to be there and
is it going to coincide well with when you
[00:03:06.959]actually need to have it there.
[00:03:08.109]So often weather is a big factor in that,
especially around soybeans.
[00:03:12.680]You don't ever know, it's hard to know sometimes
when soybeans are going to be ready to cut
[00:03:19.859]depending on the level of dew or humidity
it could be 8 AM or it could be 2 PM so how
[00:03:28.329]do you manage that?
[00:03:30.739]And once you start going, how do you manage
some of the outside factors like wait lines
[00:03:35.920]at the elevator?
[00:03:36.920]You know, that's stuff that you can't predict
but you have to deal with, and if you aren't
[00:03:42.669]nimble and you don't have a back up plan you
can end up sitting and waiting for a long
[00:03:47.310]time, and you want to try and avoid that as
much as possible.
[00:03:51.040]Samantha: So with these challenges and you
[00:03:53.870]having a back up plan, how much time do you
[00:03:56.709]think growers should spend on planning their
[00:04:00.709]John: I don't know if there's a specific number
but I think a lot of it starts even before
[00:04:08.239]Most people are already doing this but if
they're not they need to think about it is-
[00:04:14.169]trying to time up the maturity of their crops
so that everything is not ready to go at once
[00:04:20.820]because then you start getting into field
losses which we also want to avoid.
[00:04:25.770]But then if you go through the season getting
up to pre-harvest there's a lot of work in
[00:04:31.030]terms of you had a plan in the spring but
depending how the summer went that may not
[00:04:37.040]be viable anymore.
[00:04:40.229]Going through doing scouting and looking and
seeing when you think each field is actually
[00:04:44.199]going to be ready, having a plan for the order
of those fields, and it may not actually work
[00:04:50.759]out, but you need to have some idea going
[00:04:54.889]And I would say a lot of producers especially
owner-operators who are in the combine spend
[00:05:02.570]a lot of time thinking about harvest logistics
in the cab.
[00:05:09.070]I know a lot of the ones I've worked with,
they're constantly thinking about that in
[00:05:12.389]addition to all the other things they have
going on with trying to manage the harvester
[00:05:18.560]And so like I said, I don't know if there's
a specific number but there's a lot of time
[00:05:25.190]that should go into it.
[00:05:27.140]Jackson: Sure, and you kind of already spoke
[00:05:29.190]in terms of soybeans you know and different
[00:05:31.680]soybean maturities and how weather and field
conditions can affect that harvest logistics
[00:05:36.620]planning, I guess looking more into and considering
in the context of the derecho that came through
[00:05:43.199]in Iowa this year for example, how can some
of those field conditions that are affected
[00:05:48.600]by weather impact how you go about planning
your harvest logistics?
[00:05:52.400]And maybe getting some of those still standing
crops before getting into your more lodged
[00:05:57.120]areas, stuff like that?
[00:05:58.509]John: Yeah so it can be quite challenging.
[00:06:01.430]Like you said, I already mentioned soybeans,
you know the variability in when they're actually
[00:06:06.330]going to be ready to run and even when you
have to stop, but another good example of
[00:06:14.000]that like you mentioned is if you have downed
corn planning for that.
[00:06:17.949]That's going to take a lot longer to get through,
usually requires some more equipment, so that's
[00:06:24.669]a whole other challenge in addition to soil
versus crop conditions.
[00:06:31.789]Your crop may be ready to run but in areas,
like if you have a bottom field that has poorly
[00:06:39.680]drained soils, you probably shouldn't be on
that because you're going to do more damage
[00:06:43.650]in the long run.
[00:06:45.610]Being able to work around that, so maybe that
field was in the plan but maybe you skipped
[00:06:52.699]that one to go on and do a field that's actually
ready from a soil and crop condition perspective.
[00:06:58.599]There's just a lot to think about.
[00:07:02.509]Samantha: So can you speak to why this is
[00:07:05.639]what are the potential savings associated
[00:07:08.080]with having a really efficient harvest plan
versus maybe one that's not so efficient?
[00:07:13.419]John: The two obvious ones are going to be
[00:07:16.770]labor cost and your machinery cost.
[00:07:18.261]You obviously don't want to pay for more labor
than you need because you have bottlenecks
[00:07:25.850]in your system and people are just sitting
around doing nothing.
[00:07:28.770]At the same time you don't want to put more
hours on your machinery but probably the biggest
[00:07:31.590]one is going to be your field losses.
[00:07:35.080]If you're not getting in and out in an appropriate
amount of time and you get pushed back into
[00:07:39.960]late November or early December, then your
chances of a weather event coming through
[00:07:46.789]that are going to increase your field losses
really starts to get more and more.
[00:07:52.780]We always worry about wind with corn especially
when it gets brittle and you know we worry
[00:07:59.050]about snow with soybeans taking them down
so we need to be as efficient as possible
[00:08:01.819]getting in and out of the fields.
[00:08:04.990]Samantha: What do you think is the best thing
[00:08:07.879]can do today to help them improve their harvest
[00:08:13.090]John: I think there's the simple approach
[00:08:18.610]being analytical about identifying bottlenecks.
[00:08:22.090]That's something that doesn't really take
any money, it just takes a little bit of time
[00:08:25.629]in terms of figuring out what's really taking
[00:08:29.969]Is that you're constantly waiting on trucks
because you don't have enough or because your
[00:08:36.640]elevator is slow and you spend hours in line
[00:08:41.670]So really trying to identify those pinch points
and looking at ways to alleviate those.
[00:08:48.060]That's something that farmers can start out
with and a lot of them are doing that already.
[00:08:52.740]But then, you need to take an extra step to
say, ok lets start taking a log of how much
[00:08:58.670]time I actually spent waiting on the truck
to get back.
[00:09:02.029]Then you can really start putting numbers
to the evidence you've seen in terms of how
[00:09:08.339]much time it's costing you in the field.
[00:09:10.770]And then you can start looking at ok well
I can afford to get another truck if it saves
[00:09:16.370]me x amount of time.
[00:09:17.860]So that's kind of the base approach, but then
you can start, you know as you get more into
[00:09:23.570]that, you can start getting into some of these
new offerings from different companies.
[00:09:26.780]But I think in the next few years, we are
going to see a lot more coming out from the
[00:09:34.150]Jackson: So are there any good softwares or
[00:09:37.589]there that can help farmers make decisions
[00:09:40.700]about you know how to be more efficient?
[00:09:43.600]Can they evaluate some of those savings or
is that something we are still waiting on
[00:09:50.250]John: We are starting to see some of that.
[00:09:53.260]We've got companies like CropZilla that are
working on trying to help farmers make harvest
[00:09:58.970]plans or just whole farm plans really.
[00:10:03.690]And then from the, and that's really more
on the order of fields you are going to go
[00:10:10.900]And then terms of actual in field logistics,
you are starting to see more companies look
[00:10:16.100]A lot of big three ag companies are looking
[00:10:19.250]They haven't really rolled out anything to
date but there are some smaller companies
[00:10:23.290]like Solinmac, for in field logistics.
[00:10:28.050]And I would say, one thing that is yet to
really be harnessed, at least wide spread,
[00:10:35.899]is the power of IoT and connected machines.
[00:10:39.860]So you know, that's kind of a color barrier
because most manufacturers are pretty good
[00:10:47.810]at handling their own machines, but most people
don't have a fleet of purely green machines,
[00:10:53.949]especially when you talk about the whole system.
[00:10:57.060]John Deere doesn't make a semi-truck.
[00:11:00.730]And so they aren't really good at handling
that aspect which is really a big one.
[00:11:07.370]And so I think that is going to be really
big going forward is connected machinery and
[00:11:11.820]building some intelligence around that.
[00:11:14.320]Help the farmers so he is not sitting there
spending a lot of his time thinking through
[00:11:21.360]these harvest logistics while he is in the
cab and getting some help there is going to
[00:11:25.649]be big in the future.
[00:11:27.240]Jackson: So kind of synthesizing a few of
[00:11:30.570]of the last few questions, you have talked
[00:11:33.740]a little bit about how there is an opportunity
for IoT and connected machines and you know
[00:11:38.660]trying to communicate across machines.
[00:11:40.490]I know Sam and I have talked to growers who
have said that their biggest issue is trying
[00:11:46.660]to figure out if they should send the truck
to town with grain or if they should send
[00:11:50.160]it directly to the grain bin.
[00:11:52.580]You know, and obviously data communication
across machines is a huge issue trying to
[00:11:58.440]make this all work.
[00:12:00.610]So growers are kind of in a situation right
now where their piece mealing it between several
[00:12:04.570]different apps where they have just a regular
tracking app that they are trying to use to
[00:12:08.910]see where the truck is in relation to the
field they are harvesting at.
[00:12:14.959]Is there an opportunity here for a third party
company to step in and you know, operate off
[00:12:19.850]the CANBUS systems on these different machines
and you know, try to coordinate them and try
[00:12:25.421]to get this into an application?
[00:12:27.199]Or what are your thoughts there?
[00:12:29.520]Yeah, I think so and I have seen it happen
one time with FarmMobile.
[00:12:36.930]They have, I have seen a planter based system
where they have been able to put together.
[00:12:43.149]I think the biggest issue right now with them
is, at least from the growers' perspective,
[00:12:47.949]is the cost of the equipment and then the,
at least right now, all they are getting back
[00:12:55.550]is essentially, the positional data in terms
of, I mean they might get some information
[00:13:00.740]from their grain cart, but to really make
this system more powerful, we need a kind
[00:13:05.670]of a "brain" around it.
[00:13:07.959]So that it can essentially, you this is another
set of data that producer right now has to
[00:13:14.660]ingest and turn into information, you know.
[00:13:16.810]So if we can take some of that information
burden off of them and say integrate some
[00:13:20.570]stuff from Google, or any kind of mapping
software, and say "okay, my truck is here",
[00:13:24.820]and tell the operator based on todays operations,
we think your truck is going to be back here
[00:13:32.959]in 30 minutes or he is already on his way
back and we know that it should take him 10
[00:13:39.830]minutes to get back.
[00:13:40.920]And really start to turn more of that data
into information for the farmer.
[00:13:44.720]I think there is a big opportunity there.
[00:13:45.959]You look at Google right now and you pull
up a business and see when they are usually
[00:13:52.970]busy, you know getting that kind of technology
to the grain bin or you know, to the elevator
[00:13:59.520]level would be helpful.
[00:14:00.870]I don't know how we get there, but that is
one that continually, it is such a big piece
[00:14:07.110]of the pie that producers do not have any
[00:14:11.120]The more we can do to help solve that, and
at least give them insight into what is going
[00:14:17.091]on there, the better off we are going to be.
[00:14:19.130]And I don't know how you do it, because most
elevators are not going to be very forthcoming
[00:14:23.980]of that, because they don't want to drive
business away from them, and so, the way Google
[00:14:30.920]does it with businesses is just huge numbers
and you are not going to have that with elevators
[00:14:38.350]or most elevators.
[00:14:39.350]So, I guess I think that is one thing that
is worth looking into is how to get past that
[00:14:49.149]As you said, it is so big for planning um
and also in terms of, I think that also justifies
[00:14:56.350]a lot more on-farm storage.
[00:14:59.709]So you know if you have enough farm storage,
you can start using that as a buffer and you
[00:15:09.480]don't have to take anything to an elevator
until you have a rainy day and you are just
[00:15:13.660]pulling it out of your own bins.
[00:15:15.410]I have seen people do that where, that way
they know what their system is going to look
[00:15:22.820]That is really interesting.
[00:15:23.820]Samantha: It is also really interesting like
[00:15:24.820]regions of the US have different amounts of
[00:15:27.930]Like I think Nebraska has a lot of on-farm
[00:15:30.070]John: Yeah, you know, especially around.
[00:15:32.540]You know it is also interesting regionally
how the density of elevators.
[00:15:39.910]So you know, where my wife is from in southeast
NE, there's a quite a few small elevators
[00:15:49.339]that they can pick and choose, but you know,
I kind of thought it would be similar here
[00:15:55.649]in West Lafayette, but talking to the Purdue
farm managers, there's really not many options.
[00:16:03.600]And they are even consolidating even more
because of you know, OSHA regulations, like
[00:16:07.250]the companies, like ADM, don't want to spend
a lot of money on small elevators so they
[00:16:13.310]consolidate more and now guys are having to
truck 40-45 minutes and don't know what the
[00:16:18.810]line is going to be.
[00:16:19.830]So it gets really prohibitive and really incentivizes
a lot of on-farm storage.
[00:16:24.430]Samantha: That is interesting.
[00:16:27.670]So switching gears a little bit, where do
you think harvest operations are heading with
[00:16:35.069]Like will we get to the point of driverless
grain carts or combines?
[00:16:38.850]John: So I think we are already, with companies
like SmartAg, you already have some demos
[00:16:46.910]of driverless grain carts.
[00:16:48.940]Again, a lot of the big ag companies are working
[00:16:53.839]I think we will get there.
[00:16:56.029]I think grain carts will be the first domino
[00:16:59.980]Combines are going to be a lot trickier.
[00:17:03.160]We are already heading in that way in terms
of sub system automation.
[00:17:07.339]So if you look at most of the big machinery
companies offer some kind of process automation.
[00:17:17.380]They are looking at grain quality and then
doing the adjustments to the combine automatically
[00:17:23.559]So that is a big step.
[00:17:26.240]I think the actual autonomous navigation is
not too far off.
[00:17:30.440]I think there is a lot of work to do in terms
of machine vision.
[00:17:33.850]We are at a very complicated environment.
[00:17:36.540]We are trying to look through corn, look through
beans, to try to identify things that are
[00:17:41.140]not supposed to be there.
[00:17:42.440]And so I think there is a lot of work on that
and then on the legal side of it is, you know
[00:17:50.070]these are right now very big machines and
they are only getting bigger.
[00:17:53.130]And so at what point do you trust them to
not get loose, because if they do, they are
[00:17:57.730]going to cause a lot of damage.
[00:17:59.910]I think we will get there.
[00:18:03.059]Jackson: So you talked about, you just talked
[00:18:05.980]how machines are getting bigger, and I guess
[00:18:08.330]we have also seen some of this trend in the
automated machinery space to move towards
[00:18:14.460]Do you think that smaller autonomous vehicles,
or kind of swarm technology, will ever have
[00:18:19.510]a place, specifically in harvest operations?
[00:18:21.419]That is a good questions, I think, harvest
operations are going to be one of the tougher
[00:18:29.790]spaces to go smaller.
[00:18:31.770]Just because of the cost of technology and
[00:18:37.440]It really is an economy of scale there that
is working in the machines favor to get bigger.
[00:18:44.559]In other operations, it will certainly happen
[00:18:47.950]I think there is an opportunity, it is just
going to be as the cost of technology gets
[00:18:54.880]less and less and I don't know how long that
is going to take.
[00:18:56.940]But when you think about all of the sensors
you are going to need in one of these big
[00:19:03.610]machines, that is just going to multiply when
you get into swarms, so if you want good GPS
[00:19:08.370]accuracy, you need to have RTK, and that is
obviously not cheap.
[00:19:12.710]Um and then you know all of these other machine
vision components, you know, get cost prohibitive
[00:19:17.710]to go smaller.
[00:19:18.750]Right now at least.
[00:19:20.120]Jackson: Considering that same theme, you
know of being
[00:19:22.909]smaller, I have seen that some of the companies
[00:19:26.890]are kind of moving towards trying to get into
row by row resolution.
[00:19:30.510]I know last year, we had some data come in
from one of the new combines, it was coming
[00:19:36.180]in at around 5 hertz, and they were reporting
at you know, sub full-swath width resolution
[00:19:42.020]with their yield.
[00:19:43.660]And so, kind of getting into this idea of
yield mapping and yield data resolution, how
[00:19:51.100]much resolution do you really think we can
really get to for yield data without much
[00:19:55.980]error and what would be the technology pathways
we may take in order
[00:20:00.080]to get there?
[00:20:01.080]John: I think we can probably get, I think
[00:20:03.919]I think corn is going to be easier and I know
there are companies that are looking at using
[00:20:09.270]machine vision systems to try to get a distribution
of the grain coming in and then just saying
[00:20:17.130]we know what we got from the yield monitor,
this is how much volume we have and from the
[00:20:22.700]vision system we know the distribution of
[00:20:26.070]I don't know right now how accurate that's
going to end up being but for that we could
[00:20:33.060]definitely get down to the per row basis.
[00:20:36.300]Soybeans get a lot harder.
[00:20:38.130]It's really hard to tell that from a vision
system especially with the volume of plant
[00:20:45.320]So I think we will potentially get there,
and soybeans are also hard too because there
[00:20:54.190]maybe, the platforms are also often much wider
and so you really do need to get better resolution
[00:20:59.610]but it is like I said a much harder problem
[00:21:00.930]In terms of value, I think there is a lot
of value especially when we're using yield
[00:21:09.539]data maps to make prescriptions for fertilizer
and other inputs.
[00:21:16.690]Right now in terms of planting or applying
fertilizer we can get really spatially dense,
[00:21:23.100]I mean easily down to the row and along the
row as well.
[00:21:30.280]So I think it'll help, I think there's still
a lot of research to be done in terms of we're
[00:21:36.140]also adding in a lot of other data layers
like soil fertility that are still very sparse
[00:21:43.900]and that are cost prohibitive to go much denser.
[00:21:46.620]So that may end up being the limiting factor
[00:21:50.530]It's just, I think there's a lot more research
to be done around that area.
[00:21:54.390]Samantha: So to leave you with this, what
is the biggest
[00:21:57.679]piece of advice or message that you want to
[00:21:59.890]leave the listeners with?
[00:22:01.370]I think it's just to continue to try to get
better every year.
[00:22:06.250]You know, you don't have to go out and buy
the latest and greatest right now, even incremental
[00:22:11.049]change is going to help your operation.
[00:22:12.760]Like I said, farming is pretty unique in that,
especially in row crop grain, all of your
[00:22:21.559]income comes at the end of the year and how
you handle that harvest can have a big impact
[00:22:27.580]So if you can continue to get better, whether
that's through just manually tracking where
[00:22:33.070]your bottlenecks are and trying to resolve
those or it's incorporating some of this new
[00:22:38.180]technology, it's all going to help you in
[00:22:40.809]So just continue to work and get better at
your harvest efficiencies.
[00:22:49.549]Samantha: Thank you Dr. Evans for joining
[00:22:54.250]John was actually a former member of our research
lab so it was great to catch up with him and
[00:23:00.039]see how he's doing and the things he's working
[00:23:02.430]I thought he did a great job covering things
that growers can do or use today but also
[00:23:08.870]where we're going in the future.
[00:23:10.400]So my favorite part was when he talked about
how most people do think about their bottlenecks
[00:23:15.660]or things slowing them down, but maybe don't
actually write down a time that they're spending
[00:23:20.430]on that to then justify some big purchase
[00:23:24.140]Jackson: Exactly, and what was really interesting
[00:23:27.470]me, when John talked about the logistics issues
[00:23:30.230]of the trucks communicating with actually
the field machinery and trying to understand
[00:23:34.659]wait times at the grain elevator, and trying
to make decisions about "Do I take it to on-farm
[00:23:39.340]storage, do I take it to the grain elevator
[00:23:42.380]And where we could potentially go with that,
maybe using technology like what Google, Waze,
[00:23:46.240]what they already have out there - that's
really cool stuff.
[00:23:48.960](Yeah it is!)
[00:23:49.960]And I'm excited to see what research goes
on there in the coming years.
[00:23:56.510]So that's all for today's episode, I really
hope that you'll join us next week as we talk
[00:24:01.720]to Dr. Joe Luck about yield data quality and
also yield monitor calibration and yield monitor
[00:24:09.890]Samantha: Thank you for taking the time to
join us today
[00:24:12.299]on the FarmBits podcast.
[00:24:13.690]Jackson: We would like to thank Nebraska Extension
for their support of this podcast and their
[00:24:18.360]commitment to providing high quality informational
material to members of the agricultural community
[00:24:22.890]in Nebraska and beyond.
[00:24:24.670]Samantha: If you enjoyed this episode and
[00:24:26.900]like something you'd listen to each week,
[00:24:28.830]subscribe to the podcast and set your notifications
to let you know each time we release a podcast.
[00:24:34.400]Jackson: We would love to hear from you with
[00:24:37.279]so if you have comments or questions for us,
[00:24:39.659]please reach out to us over email at NEdigitalag@unl.edu,
on twitter @NEdigitalag, or in the reviews
[00:24:47.520]section of your favorite podcast platform.
[00:24:49.760]Samantha: See you next week on another episode
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