NE Space Law Week - (Student Session) The Space Court Foundation Presents Exploring Space Law Education: Leveraging Archives & Collections in Research
Moderator: Nathan Johnson — Executive Director of The Space Court Foundation. Speakers: Chris Hearsey — Chair, Space Court Foundation; Kris Gilliland — Director, University of Mississippi Law Library; Matt Novak — Reference Librarian, University of Nebraska Law Library; and Niklas Hedman — Chief of Committee, Policy and Legal Affairs Section of the United Nations Office for Outer Space Affairs.
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[00:01:33.330]Nathan Johnson - Exec. Dir. Space Court Foundation: Is a quick welcome to all those attendees who have already logged in for this panel session we'll wait just one more minute, and then we will begin.
[00:02:37.320]Nathan Johnson - Exec. Dir. Space Court Foundation: Hi, my name is Nathan Johnson and I am executive director of the space court foundation 501 C three educational nonprofit.
[00:02:45.570]Nathan Johnson - Exec. Dir. Space Court Foundation: That promotes and supports space law and policy education and the rule of law.
[00:02:50.100]Nathan Johnson - Exec. Dir. Space Court Foundation: I'm also an LLM class of 2015 alum of the University of Nebraska College of Law space cyber and telecommunications Law Program and I'm proud to have Nebraska as a partner at the space court foundation
[00:03:02.250]Nathan Johnson - Exec. Dir. Space Court Foundation: We are happy to be invited to present this panel as part of Nebraska space law week our topic is exploring space law education leveraging archives and collections in research.
[00:03:12.990]Nathan Johnson - Exec. Dir. Space Court Foundation: Our panelists represent law libraries international archives and research programs.
[00:03:19.500]Nathan Johnson - Exec. Dir. Space Court Foundation: I want to start with our hosts organization and geographically work our way around the globe. So our first speaker will be Matt Novak reference librarian at the University of Nebraska law library and professor of law.
[00:03:36.630]Matt Novak: When one minute to figure out microphone button first and then share my screen with you all.
[00:03:54.930]Matt Novak: Great. Hopefully, everybody's able to see my shared screen. Today I'm going to talk very briefly about the Schmidt law library space law collection.
[00:04:05.580]Matt Novak: In 20 or 2008 and University of Nebraska College of Law develop the space and cyber in telecommunications LLM program in response to that the Nebraska College of Law Law Library had to be very quick and generate a space law collection to support that that endeavor.
[00:04:26.490]Matt Novak: So we had to be very quickly go from not necessarily zero but Nessa pretty close to zero collection, all the way up to a program our collection that could support an LLM program. So to do that we, again, we need to very quickly curated
[00:04:43.650]Matt Novak: Collection that would serve the needs of that LLM program. And in doing that, we took. Of course the obvious step of consulting with the members of the new program, the faculty members to make sure we understood the needs of that program. So that was obviously. Step one.
[00:05:01.530]Matt Novak: One of the major decisions we made at that point in time is to recognize that we needed to be practicing library.
[00:05:08.430]Matt Novak: And we also had minimal fun so we couldn't spend the time to curate a bunch of primary law resources we recognize that as of 2008 and going forward. Many of the archival content was
[00:05:21.330]Matt Novak: Available online or in other collections. So our ability to run out and get a hold of that kind of content was minimal. So we decided in consultation with the
[00:05:32.130]Matt Novak: Faculty that our primary focus would be to develop a very extensive deep collection of secondary resources to support scholars and academics within this space.
[00:05:44.670]Matt Novak: To accomplish that we went out onto the market and we were able to acquire what I've I'm calling it the Mortimer shorts collection, but the collection consisted of approximately 700 hundred titles actually close to 750 titles.
[00:06:02.340]Matt Novak: Let me restate that 750 volumes approximately 450 different titles and the genesis of that collection was a gentleman named Mortimer Schwartz, any of you.
[00:06:12.900]Matt Novak: Space law historians might recognize his name. He was an early pioneer in the Ilsa program. He was early founder of that help found that program.
[00:06:23.820]Matt Novak: And so as a librarian at Oklahoma. He started collecting and creating a collection in the 1950s.
[00:06:30.090]Matt Novak: Very deep collection very wide collection. His goal was to collect a comprehensive collection of space law secondary resources. So that was the genesis of that program.
[00:06:41.400]Matt Novak: That collection. He subsequently retired and the collection was sold to Mercer School of Law sometime later.
[00:06:50.160]Matt Novak: Mercer had the collection for a number of years continued to curating collected
[00:06:54.420]Matt Novak: But then they also decided to get out of the space long game, which was very fortunate for us as they were getting out of that collection, we were looking for a collection collection that we could get up and running very quickly.
[00:07:05.400]Matt Novak: So we went out and acquired this collection, as I said that allowed us to acquire over 450 space law titles very quickly and
[00:07:15.540]Matt Novak: Unfortunately, that was not everything we needed it had a great deal of historical content and and some of the secondary resources that were very relevant, but in consultation with the law faculty. We knew we had to continue to make some very serious.
[00:07:31.380]Matt Novak: Purchases within that marketplace and we may allow a lot of additional purchases as well.
[00:07:39.480]Matt Novak: In addition, the space law collection within our library is very much a growing collection we devote a fair amount of our budget towards continuing to collect in this space. So our collection of secondary resources continues to
[00:07:57.360]Matt Novak: Expand. And just for this presentation. I went out and compared our collection just to some of the major law libraries out there in the world in our space law collection is probably, if not, if not as large larger than some of the major libraries in the country.
[00:08:13.980]Matt Novak: Beyond that those two areas we have some other very important resources that I'll very briefly touch talk on I think they might be picked up on by some of the other speakers on the panel as well. So I won't want to monopolize those content too much.
[00:08:30.180]Matt Novak: One very, very important resource that we rely on extensively for many resources is high in online database. And again, I think one of our other presenters might discuss about that.
[00:08:40.770]Matt Novak: As well. But that database is very important to our program with lots of content in there that we rely on Elsa contents, etc. One of the
[00:08:51.810]Matt Novak: Resources that I really like in the High Line database is the index to foreign legal periodicals, which really opens up the scholarship to us that. So we're no longer just having to focus on domestic US scholarship, we really get access to a much more global flavor of research out there.
[00:09:15.030]Matt Novak: In addition to the just the very specific space law content. We've also made an effort to collect
[00:09:21.570]Matt Novak: In the international law secondary resources area. And that's a very important to our collection, as well as you all should know space law is part of an international law field and, as such, our scholars need to have well grounded.
[00:09:38.700]Matt Novak: Understanding of that area. One of the very useful resources that we spent a lot of time with is the Max Planck encyclopedia public international law, highly useful resource.
[00:09:50.130]Matt Novak: All right, I'll take one more minute, and then move along. Let my other colleagues speak here.
[00:09:55.980]Matt Novak: So, real quickly. How do we leverage that collection. How can scholars leverage this collection. How can students leverage our collection well
[00:10:03.510]Matt Novak: As a part of the program as part of the LLM program are lll our LLM and JDS take a researching space last class that I teach, which
[00:10:12.600]Matt Novak: Is that's the goal of that. Can I classes to help them leverage our collections. So that's one way our local population leverage is the collection.
[00:10:21.840]Matt Novak: Beyond that, and again it will let possibly one of my other colleagues speak to this a little bit more but
[00:10:27.900]Matt Novak: Consulting great research guides librarians especially love to create research guides to help people leverage collections. That's what they are there for this. So there's tons of great research guides out there.
[00:10:41.850]Matt Novak: Here's an example of one on the screen that I created. Nothing special about it, lots of other research guides out there.
[00:10:48.210]Matt Novak: But this is just one one example of a research guide that has compiled lots of different secondary resources, just to try to get you
[00:10:56.670]Matt Novak: Like I said, as the program says to help you leverage a collection. So, and if you see that there's a URL there across the top of the screen. You can jump into this research guide and I think that
[00:11:09.360]Matt Novak: Again, help you leverage our collection. So pick Allah stop sharing my screen and pass it along here.
[00:11:17.820]Nathan Johnson - Exec. Dir. Space Court Foundation: Thank you very much. Matt and I also want to
[00:11:21.510]Nathan Johnson - Exec. Dir. Space Court Foundation: Put out there, full disclosure, Matt was
[00:11:24.000]Nathan Johnson - Exec. Dir. Space Court Foundation: My professor of international research during my year at the University of Nebraska. So thank you again, man.
[00:11:32.520]Nathan Johnson - Exec. Dir. Space Court Foundation: Now we'll move our way from the heartland down south to our next speaker. Chris Gilliland director of the University of Mississippi law library and professor of law.
[00:11:44.340]Kris Gilliland: Good afternoon, everyone. I'm so pleased to be with you to talk about the resources that we have to. And I want to say thank you to the University of Nebraska and space court foundation for inviting me.
[00:11:56.580]Kris Gilliland: I really enjoyed that Matt, thank you. Because we're kind of the opposite in some ways.
[00:12:02.040]Kris Gilliland: The University of Mississippi, you may be a little surprised. I was when I arrived has long been the major player in space for education and scholarships
[00:12:12.090]Kris Gilliland: And our collection is also very big we we collect everything we possibly can. Almost and but it's been organically grown
[00:12:21.690]Kris Gilliland: We've had a strong space law presence, since the early 1960s.
[00:12:27.090]Kris Gilliland: And that started with Dr. Stephen Grove, and I'll talk a little bit more about Professor Grove in just a minute. But I thought it might be helpful just to
[00:12:35.100]Kris Gilliland: Tell you a little bit about our institutional setup the University of Mississippi is in Oxford, Mississippi, which is in the northern part of the state.
[00:12:43.680]Kris Gilliland: We're about an hour, south, east of Memphis, Tennessee. So, way up at the top of the state and about three hours drive east of us is Huntsville, Alabama, I think, world renowned for Space Camp and also this Marshall Space Flight Center.
[00:13:01.950]Kris Gilliland: And at the Mississippi Gulf Coast about a half days drive south of us is the stillness Space Center.
[00:13:08.970]Kris Gilliland: And I just want to give them a little bit of a shout out right now because they have been NASA's rocket testing site for over 50 years they didn't Saturn. They did Apollo.
[00:13:19.950]Kris Gilliland: And right now, right now, this not next month. They're finishing up the tests for the new launch system that will power the Artemis mission to the moon.
[00:13:30.570]Kris Gilliland: So returning Americans to the moon. That's I think that someone, correct me. But the lunar south pole. I believe by 2024
[00:13:38.610]Kris Gilliland: And they're doing the last test of the rocket system. The first week in November hot fire test. So that gives you a little bit of an idea that you might not think the University of Mississippi
[00:13:49.080]Kris Gilliland: Would be such a leader in the world that we are, and we're in the midst of a sort of an infrastructure there.
[00:13:55.920]Kris Gilliland: Dr. Grove, a graduate of the University of Budapest in 1939 a lawyer, he came to the States in the 40s.
[00:14:05.340]Kris Gilliland: And was educated at your at Yale Law School. He got advanced degrees there he worked with a Mississippian long time Yale Law professor named Myers McDougal who was an early space law scholar.
[00:14:18.570]Kris Gilliland: And in 1965 Dr. Grove arrived at the University of Mississippi and began to build this program. He developed and taught the first spacewalk course that was regularly taught
[00:14:31.260]Kris Gilliland: And he founded the Journal of space law in 1973 which has really been the premier outlet for space law scholarship in this country. The Journal of space law.
[00:14:42.270]Kris Gilliland: When give them a shout out to they've just published a new issue. It's on the Center for Aaron space laws website, you can find more information about it. It's past issues are in the database that Professor Novak was talking about on online.
[00:14:58.980]Kris Gilliland: So the space law curriculum began the Journal of space. Well, began in 2000 the University of Mississippi landed a NASA funded research center called bear with me as a long title.
[00:15:13.530]Kris Gilliland: The National remote sensing aviation in space Law Center. It's now called the Center for Aaron spacewalk. And Dr. Grow was the first director
[00:15:39.270]Kris Gilliland: One of her top priorities building the archives. We always had this strong collection, but we did not have much in the way of the papers of the
[00:15:48.840]Kris Gilliland: Founding fathers and mothers, if you will, of space law. And so she set out to do. This is very important because we do have a masters of Law Program.
[00:15:59.340]Kris Gilliland: In space law and wanted to support that we also now, by the way, have a certificate in space law for non lawyers who are interested in advancing their knowledge in that program today, both the journalists baseball and the LLM program are
[00:16:16.110]Kris Gilliland: Able to be led by my colleagues, Charles Doppler and Michelle handling.
[00:16:22.110]Kris Gilliland: So Joanna Brenna with Professor Brennan with she set out to build the archives and in a very short time was very successful, we have a small collections of
[00:16:34.140]Kris Gilliland: Archived materials, but it's very, very rich and it centers on three individuals and those people are Professor Grove, not surprisingly, but also Andrew G Haley and Eileen Galloway
[00:16:46.800]Kris Gilliland: Haley and Galloway and I do not think I'm overstating when I say they are towering figures in the world of space ball. They really almost I guess you could say create space flow and in a certain way tireless dedicated very bright. It goes on and on. They were brilliant individuals.
[00:17:08.040]Kris Gilliland: Andrew Haley is widely considered to be the first person in the world who practice space law.
[00:17:15.480]Kris Gilliland: He started off, like Mrs Galloway did in DC in the federal government. He was one of the people who helped draft the Communications Act of 1934
[00:17:27.090]Kris Gilliland: And he maintained an interest in Astronautical communications. The rest of his life.
[00:17:32.160]Kris Gilliland: Turns out he was also brilliant at and an expert at jet propulsion rocket propulsion. So in 1942 He co founded arrow jet.
[00:17:43.860]Kris Gilliland: And some of you may have heard of their agenda, it is today. It's incarnation, a day is era jet rocket and dying and then just a very few short years
[00:17:53.970]Kris Gilliland: He took it to billions of dollars revenue 30,000 plus employees. He was a very important figure he's the founder of the Institute of International Institute of space law.
[00:18:07.020]Kris Gilliland: He worked in any any piece of space while you can touch. He did. He died in 1966 but we have his papers.
[00:18:16.320]Kris Gilliland: Professor Grove had worked for him, Mrs Galloway. On the other hand, sometimes called the grand DOM of space law spent her career her legal career in Washington.
[00:18:29.400]Kris Gilliland: In 1967 when Sputnik law Sputnik was launched by the Russians, she was working at the Congressional Research Service and had just published a paper on guided missile systems.
[00:18:41.430]Kris Gilliland: Then senator Lyndon Johnson had seen it, and he called around and said, Come help the committee. He was the chair of the Senate Armed Forces committee of the time.
[00:18:51.120]Kris Gilliland: We're going to be investigating American preparedness in space. And from that point on, she really was the congressional staff person who was the point person for all these things.
[00:19:02.550]Kris Gilliland: WITH SENATOR JOHNSON. AND JOHN McCormick, who was the majority leader in the House of Representatives, the time, the three of them wrote the National Aeronautics and Space Act.
[00:19:14.790]Kris Gilliland: Really her influences all over it emphasis on international cooperation on Peaceful Uses of Outer space and she writes the provision that establishes NASA and for lawyers. She does this
[00:19:29.640]Kris Gilliland: Very important but subtle thing NASA was originally going to be called the National Aeronautics and Space Agency. And she said, let's make an administration that enabled that organization to reach across all federal agencies to coordinate activities.
[00:19:46.380]Kris Gilliland: She also became very involved at the international level, she was one of the people who helped create the United United Nations Committee on peaceful uses an outer space, and was one of the drafters of the 1967 Outer Space Treaty so
[00:20:03.660]Kris Gilliland: Again, these people were tireless in their work to develop these basic frameworks for both domestic space law International Space blog that we still use today.
[00:20:15.870]Kris Gilliland: They were also incredibly prolific scholars, they wrote many, many books, many, many articles wrote many, many letters and these things are all in their archives that we have today.
[00:20:27.840]Kris Gilliland: The Haley and the Galloway collections are completely processed and available to scholars, we have really good finding aids for them as well.
[00:20:36.870]Kris Gilliland: All you really need to do to find them is go to the Center for Aaron spacebar, you'll see it's fine bios of all these people and also linked to these finding aids that tell you you know what's in the collection at a, at a pretty detailed level and we certainly can help you there.
[00:20:53.880]Kris Gilliland: You can also just Google their name. Andrew G Haley. Finding Aid or Eileen Galloway Ii Ii Ii Dalloway, finding it and it will link you right there.
[00:21:05.010]Kris Gilliland: Mrs Galloway died in 2009 at the age of 103 and I will just tell you she had published an article two months before and had one published posthumously.
[00:21:15.210]Kris Gilliland: So there's lots and lots of rich materials in the in the collection. I think I'm at about out of time here. So I'll just wrap it up and say that I'm glad to talk more about how you can leverage this commit collection for your own scholarship in the kind of support. We give
[00:21:33.330]Kris Gilliland: You can always email us at Laura at Ole miss.edu that's la W RF at Ole miss.edu. Thank you.
[00:21:42.480]Kris Gilliland: I'll turn it over you, Mr Headman
[00:21:46.140]Nathan Johnson - Exec. Dir. Space Court Foundation: Yes, thank you Chris Now we'll go across the Atlantic and head over to Vienna for our next speaker, Nicholas, headman chief of committee policy and legal affairs section of the United Nations Office for Outer Space affairs Nicholas
[00:22:00.840]Niklas Hedman: Thank you. Nathan. Thank you, indeed.
[00:22:02.730]Niklas Hedman: Yeah, it's a pleasure to be in in this group and address you
[00:22:07.080]Niklas Hedman: So I represent the office for Outer Space affairs of the United Nations system and this is the department of the UN system that has. So, the Committee on the peaceful users of our space since 1958
[00:22:22.140]Niklas Hedman: In the beginning, the first years you and also it was only a section within a much larger structure and recited in New York and the headquarters in New York and because the committee on the peaceful uses at that time met at the UN HQ.
[00:22:40.080]Niklas Hedman: Over the years the the office has grown and in the early 90s. It was relocated to Vienna, so we have not been in Vienna that long.
[00:22:52.380]Niklas Hedman: And the committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer space and it's two subcommittees the scientific and technical subcommittee and legal subcommittee they meet annually here at Vienna.
[00:23:04.140]Niklas Hedman: So when it comes to documentation archiving sources and all the collection of primary documents, it is course quite painful, if I may say so, to go over from
[00:23:20.130]Niklas Hedman: Written paper documentation to digital sources. It takes a lot of efforts. A lot of time to transform documentation into a digitized environment and to do it properly. That is really not easy.
[00:23:37.320]Niklas Hedman: So I would like to yes to share with you since you are students
[00:23:41.400]Niklas Hedman: pursuing our last June and carry here and and probably you you're a different levels. But regardless of the level you are in your studies.
[00:23:50.220]Niklas Hedman: You need really to go into the the sources of of space law, not only space law, but also on the political side of international cooperation in the peaceful uses some outdoor space.
[00:24:03.060]Niklas Hedman: As has really been the, the, the, the pillar of, of the, of the, of the Committee on the peaceful uses of our space for 60 years
[00:24:12.510]Niklas Hedman: And as you might already know. Now this is the committee vested where the treaty making power. So the five treatise
[00:24:21.570]Niklas Hedman: From the Outer Space Treaty to the moon agreement, the sets of principles resolutions guidelines, with the latest one, the long term sustainability guidelines adopted last year in 2019 by Cooper's
[00:24:36.480]Niklas Hedman: Have been created by this body, and obviously when it comes to treating making it is the legal subcommittee where the negotiations were held
[00:24:45.840]Niklas Hedman: But formulate is the committee, the main committed that then rubber stamp and adopt the instruments and eventually the General Assembly, which is the parent body of corpus is the ultimate decision making power.
[00:25:00.870]Niklas Hedman: This is interesting to know the relationship between corpus and the General Assembly because
[00:25:07.410]Niklas Hedman: It General Assembly created corpus in 1958 as an ad hoc committee and only one year later in 1959
[00:25:16.260]Niklas Hedman: It received its permanent status. So the General Assembly's the parent organization, the parent body decision making body for corpus, but every year since the beginning.
[00:25:27.780]Niklas Hedman: We passed a resolution on international cooperation in the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space through the, the committee systems under the general assembly and that is important to to to really note because
[00:25:40.830]Niklas Hedman: Then, it means that documentation archiving the whole collection of I would say institutional memory.
[00:25:49.980]Niklas Hedman: And history of this intergovernmental body is not only with you and also in Vienna in our role is servicing the body, but it's really a heritage of the United Nations system.
[00:26:03.420]Niklas Hedman: The prime source of documentation all documents from the beginning.
[00:26:10.170]Niklas Hedman: It's actually with the UN HQ in New York at the dog hammer. So library is the primary library where the collection of the paper documents and also digitized sources, but really there. You can find documents that you won't be able to find on the internet or through any search engines.
[00:26:30.870]Niklas Hedman: The ODS which stands for the official you will documentation system is the tool that delegations us we as the secretariat, but also delegates of Member States use in in in getting documentation.
[00:26:47.340]Niklas Hedman: All documents being generated throughout the entire you win system since 1995
[00:26:54.150]Niklas Hedman: Are in that system. It's a very difficult system. The, the search engine is is very complex.
[00:26:59.970]Niklas Hedman: And it's not on the whole system is not open to external stakeholders. So it's really for governments and for the US system. So it's really difficult to use the OBS but if you get to the ODS the official you when documentation system.
[00:27:17.070]Niklas Hedman: And you'll have the symbol number, you know, the symbol number of a particular document, you might be able to find it. If I put it that way, not encouraging, but I had to say now.
[00:27:27.600]Niklas Hedman: And other libraries. I mean you are here in this panel, it's it's mainly university libraries, but I would also say
[00:27:37.530]Niklas Hedman: Since I worked before I came to the when I work with the Swedish Government with the Ministry of Foreign Affairs.
[00:27:43.200]Niklas Hedman: And all official documents from corporates because I was I was handling corpus for 10 years as a delegate to Sweden, so I received all documents from Deanna
[00:27:53.190]Niklas Hedman: From the documentation management system and I had to archive that in the, the central archive of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, so
[00:28:01.140]Niklas Hedman: In the United States, I imagine it's the State Department that really has should have a wide collection of documents.
[00:28:08.400]Niklas Hedman: From from the formal negotiations of the Treaties and also from sessions of the Committee on the peaceful uses to outer space. So now over to add something really how you can you can get documents today.
[00:28:24.180]Niklas Hedman: I would say the website of the Office for Outer Space affairs W w.edu and also with Danilo org. So, w w w u n o s a.org that's our main website of the office space affairs.
[00:28:41.490]Niklas Hedman: And since 2010 we are uploading all session documents both pre pre session and in session documentation for the committee and is to sub community. So it's not that long ago. I mean, somebody 10 the last 10 years
[00:28:59.100]Niklas Hedman: By nevertheless the past 10 years if you go to those web pages there you will be able to
[00:29:05.940]Niklas Hedman: To download and access all documents, not only the formal documents in all official human language is the six languages of the UN.
[00:29:14.670]Niklas Hedman: But also conference room papers and non papers and presentations being delivered by delegates or Member States and also permanent observer organizations to the intergovernmental body, you will find them there. So it's actually
[00:29:28.980]Niklas Hedman: Something we're building up so that that is for 10 years we have been doing that and we will continue.
[00:29:35.010]Niklas Hedman: Now at the office for our space affairs, where we resigned, Indiana, we, we have an old archive in in our premises. It's not part of the
[00:29:45.990]Niklas Hedman: United Nations Vienna UN headquarters library. It's part of the Office for Outer Space affairs, where we have
[00:29:53.460]Niklas Hedman: Those old cabinets, where the thousands of documents because we we had to collect all the documents in all languages from the beginning 1958
[00:30:03.600]Niklas Hedman: So there we have all the documents and they are fragile. They are deteriorating. It's really a
[00:30:12.390]Niklas Hedman: Primary Source. I would say it's so precious but it's difficult to find the documentation that you really
[00:30:19.110]Niklas Hedman: Looking for. And it's not open for the public, but it exists there. And you can always ask the office for outer space or fast and we can see if you can help you to retrieve a document, you're looking for.
[00:30:31.890]Niklas Hedman: Years ago about 10 years ago we started an endeavor with the interns that came to the office space of fasting, particularly in my section and to
[00:30:43.350]Niklas Hedman: Create what we label the travel repertoire of the Treaties are prepared to the works of the five treaty, so we have on our website.
[00:30:53.190]Niklas Hedman: scanned documents from the history of the Treaty, making so you will find documents there in PDF form. Now obviously those poor interns. They had to scan with a manual desk scanner. So you can imagine.
[00:31:09.330]Niklas Hedman: The, the, the difficulty to read the documents, obviously. But, and also not all documents are identified.
[00:31:16.830]Niklas Hedman: That set aside the the preparatory works as we have we have put them on the website contains a list of documents. So at least you get
[00:31:27.210]Niklas Hedman: The symbol numbers and in each individual proposal by states individual states of group of states and you can see the flow of the negotiations leading to the Outer Space Treaty and the other four treaties.
[00:31:41.850]Niklas Hedman: So, that is also quite a valuable source that you can use. And then you can try to find the document if you don't find it on our website.
[00:31:50.790]Niklas Hedman: We have managed to upload all the General Assembly resolutions on international cooperation in the peaceful users to outer space on our website.
[00:32:01.110]Niklas Hedman: From the first resolution in 1958 up till now. So our resolutions are there in fairly good quality.
[00:32:08.310]Niklas Hedman: All the reports of cookbooks from the first report up till now are also available on the website of the Office for Outer Space affairs.
[00:32:18.420]Niklas Hedman: We are now in the next phase, we are looking together with their documentation services. The conference management services. So you know here in Vienna to professionally digitize
[00:32:31.830]Niklas Hedman: The reports of our subcommittee. So the scientific and technical subcommittee and legal subcommittee, but I can tell you again. It takes a lot of efforts is manpower.
[00:32:42.240]Niklas Hedman: We don't have a budget to do that CMS, they are trying to help us with it. And this is something that will take time, but we will not rest until we have, I would say the primary reports.
[00:32:54.960]Niklas Hedman: On our website. Hopefully in all languages and then just to continue, continue up till we have all documentation of Cooper's upload and digitized. I'm looking at the next 20 years obviously now. But if we are trying our best to to really provide a source so that students
[00:33:16.290]Niklas Hedman: As part of academia, but also our Member States and the organizations and the space community at large, at least can get what they need operationally from the website of the Office for outer space so fast. So thank you.
[00:33:32.910]Nathan Johnson - Exec. Dir. Space Court Foundation: Well, thank you very much. Nicholas in the space core foundation is very aware of the intern program you have their un who so we have a director and officer and advisor who have all gone through the internship program.
[00:33:50.250]Nathan Johnson - Exec. Dir. Space Court Foundation: Daniel porous Charles Statler into me and government
[00:33:54.150]Nathan Johnson - Exec. Dir. Space Court Foundation: Wow. So, so
[00:33:55.890]Niklas Hedman: I know them all. I know that, Amanda is is is in the air in. So
[00:34:03.600]Nathan Johnson - Exec. Dir. Space Court Foundation: And you also know our next speaker will introduce to sort of tie
[00:34:07.230]Nathan Johnson - Exec. Dir. Space Court Foundation: All these places together. He
[00:34:08.790]Nathan Johnson - Exec. Dir. Space Court Foundation: Is my colleague at the space court foundation and Chairman of the Board of Directors friskier
[00:34:14.970]Chris Hearsey: Thank you. Nathan, and it's it's wonderful to be here on this panel.
[00:34:20.100]Chris Hearsey: You know, I actually am an old Miss alum. I went through the GED program and the certificate in the air and space law. I was actually the president of the grove society.
[00:34:33.300]Chris Hearsey: I worked in the archive and as part of Manfred locks and you know these experiences really oddly enough came because
[00:34:44.280]Chris Hearsey: I decided, my senior year in college to try being a law library and I ended up working at
[00:34:53.640]Chris Hearsey: University of Pennsylvania law school, I was a night reference law library and I end up working at Temple University where I was going to school.
[00:35:02.520]Chris Hearsey: And what what was amazing to me is at the time I had transitioned from basically trying to be a scientist. I wanted to be an astrophysicist
[00:35:11.280]Chris Hearsey: And I'd have moving more into mathematical economics and policy. And at the time, the director of the law school at Greenlee
[00:35:19.830]Chris Hearsey: encouraged me to look at a career and doing policy or something in DC, and I was pretty much sold on that. And then I discovered that pen law had an entire archive of space on materials.
[00:35:34.710]Chris Hearsey: And in fact, one of the early books. I remember reading was heaven heavens in the earth by McDougal
[00:35:42.720]Chris Hearsey: And turned out. Turns out that Google did some research at Penn for the book. And for those who don't know, it is basically the seminal history of
[00:35:52.590]Chris Hearsey: The early spaceflight days how we got in the United States in the 1940s to a rocket program to Sputnik. And what that
[00:36:04.200]Chris Hearsey: Gave us in terms of space activities and what that enabled and, you know, while our name is the space core Foundation, as we all know, there is no court in space. There is no court that has the jurisdiction.
[00:36:17.250]Chris Hearsey: Only to cover disputes in space, but it's meant as sort of a metaphor on what we're, we're trying to project here and one of it.
[00:36:25.140]Chris Hearsey: Is we are set up to do space on policy research and education, but most importantly we're also
[00:36:34.140]Chris Hearsey: We also want to take the time to understand that the rule of law is also important and all of these things fit together in a way that tells a different story about space wall and having, you know, all the distinguished panelists here today. They're part of that story.
[00:36:51.480]Chris Hearsey: My next position out of undergrad I got into the program at American University master's program and legal theory and I worked with Howard McCurdy
[00:37:03.150]Chris Hearsey: Who has done a lot of policy and economics on the space side. And in fact, I'm sure all your archives probably have a lot of his stuff. I think one of his, his
[00:37:13.770]Chris Hearsey: Early Works was better, better, faster, cheaper and looking at the public administration of space technologies.
[00:37:20.220]Chris Hearsey: But oddly enough, I, I ended up getting an early opportunity working for David Dworkin at the Air and Space Museum in Washington, DC.
[00:37:28.260]Chris Hearsey: And in fact, my early exposure to space was space history and my research topic at the time. I wrote 100 page report basically about all the things that went on and around
[00:37:42.270]Chris Hearsey: The creation of NASA how it went from NASA to NASA all the folks that were involved, how it connected with
[00:37:51.090]Chris Hearsey: policymaking at the highest levels with President Eisenhower and the Kilian committee.
[00:37:57.270]Chris Hearsey: So, those who don't know space history either American Russian European Japanese whatever I highly encourage you to start there, because it's telling you a story about what's going on.
[00:38:08.490]Chris Hearsey: And these documents reflect those stories, whether it's about the type of space activities that might or might not be permissible. The folks involved in the policy in the legal and the law making.
[00:38:21.390]Chris Hearsey: You know all of this has happened continues to happen and will happen, and the spacecraft foundation is trying to focus that story through our initiatives and
[00:38:31.740]Chris Hearsey: One of the main goals is for us to engage institutions and civil society when it comes to space issues space law issues as policy issues. These activities.
[00:38:41.100]Chris Hearsey: And we sort of designed for three programs really for programs running. I don't want to cut this here, but I want to go through them briefly with you because I think it sort of informs
[00:38:52.110]Chris Hearsey: You know the utility of this panel, we couldn't do what we want to do without institutions like old mess like un copious like
[00:39:02.460]Chris Hearsey: Nebraska or McGill or any of the foundations or institutions that maintain these records they tell the story of space and
[00:39:11.970]Chris Hearsey: It's interesting, and I will say as a side note, you know, I had studied under trying to bring us in Old Miss and, you know, had
[00:39:19.590]Chris Hearsey: Gone through the Galloway stuff I had attended I think every Galloway between the third and the 15th are actually 1514 and
[00:39:30.450]Chris Hearsey: What's really funny is to compare that experience working on the archive and to look at. Actually, the space history Galloway tends to be a footnote, a if she's mentioned she sort of mentioned as
[00:39:43.830]Chris Hearsey: Is an advisor to Senator Johnson before he was president and that doesn't tell the right story. She's very, very instrumental
[00:39:51.450]Chris Hearsey: In everything that was going on. And they're actually other other folks as well. Fred Whipple and a few others but like I think Galloway really really did a tremendous amount of legwork and and and put in so many hours.
[00:40:07.860]Chris Hearsey: To grow and develop our newest US National Space law and influenced all the other ones have come before
[00:40:17.100]Chris Hearsey: And the archive is I just want to just plug. Again, the Old Miss archive. It's got a lot of great material in it. I can't even go mentions half of it, but
[00:40:27.870]Chris Hearsey: There's some, I think there's some very interesting stories there. So if you're looking to space law scholarship and history. I highly encourage you to go to all these archives
[00:40:36.960]Chris Hearsey: So let's let's briefly talk about you know what space court is is putting together in terms of programming.
[00:40:43.680]Chris Hearsey: The first and foremost is Nathan and I have spent about two years, putting together a show called stellar Decisis and part of the idea here is, it is.
[00:40:54.570]Chris Hearsey: Take moot court take animation and take problems. We know exists in space are likely to exist. Things that have been explored and all of these materials and we want to be able to communicate space law in a very unique way.
[00:41:10.230]Chris Hearsey: And so this is something that we're working on. And hopefully we'll have the pilot ready in a couple of months.
[00:41:15.840]Chris Hearsey: But we want to showcase not only the community, but how and what types of problems are going to occur in space where there's disputes. And so that's where the namespace quarter again comes back.
[00:41:26.610]Chris Hearsey: The idea being is at some point we're going to have people living and working in space on the moon. Maybe on Mars. Maybe on on other places. And again, space stations and every time we send people all of our laws, all of our history, our entire story is going into space now.
[00:41:46.140]Chris Hearsey: Inevitably humans will fail and things will fail and disputes will rise and we want to explore that through this series, and we really
[00:41:55.080]Chris Hearsey: Are looking forward to being able to finally get that out for you. Um. But along with that is our video series as well. We just finally started up. I think we've done three or four programs so far.
[00:42:09.480]Chris Hearsey: And the last two I think some of you may have watched it again and I highly encourage you, the, the first or the third one we did was on the Artemis accords.
[00:42:17.070]Chris Hearsey: And we had Mike gold is the acting as the administrator at NASA and Gabriel Swinney from your State Department to people instrumental on negotiating the Artemis accords along with
[00:42:28.920]Chris Hearsey: We along, who is a Chinese space law expert.
[00:42:35.670]Chris Hearsey: Una sands, who's an arbitration attorney.
[00:42:38.640]Chris Hearsey: And who am I forgetting anything I'm forgetting one other person.
[00:42:42.390]Chris Hearsey: I know I feel bad, but
[00:42:45.840]Chris Hearsey: That was an historic moment because both
[00:42:49.590]Chris Hearsey: Gabriel and Mike were talking in the capacity as as government officials and
[00:42:57.030]Chris Hearsey: We want to engage in this level of dialogue and bring together different points of view.
[00:43:03.420]Chris Hearsey: And the last video we did was for interns. It was an orientation or intern orientation, where we had several we had two panels one government panel one
[00:43:14.940]Chris Hearsey: Commercial panel and to keynote speakers who gave a broad array of perspectives on what students and young professionals should be thinking about in their careers. If they want to get into space law what
[00:43:28.080]Chris Hearsey: Where they might find jobs and in some of the common themes that that all of us.
[00:43:36.030]Chris Hearsey: Have discovered in our own careers and our own experiences in our own you know the positions that we have today in space law and space law community.
[00:43:44.520]Chris Hearsey: But really our, our research flagship is the space Court law library. And there's two projects that we have under that. The first one is our internship program.
[00:43:53.820]Chris Hearsey: And we are really excited to start this year we have students have tremendous diverse background right now, I believe, when we look at the numbers as of today.
[00:44:03.390]Chris Hearsey: I think we have over 10 interns who have been processed and are about to begin work and we have 10 in the pipeline. And we have lots more coming.
[00:44:13.410]Chris Hearsey: It's a rolling admission and you know just reach out, go to our website at Space court foundation.org and the application is there and it's run by our officer Julia mullet.
[00:44:25.890]Chris Hearsey: And we really look forward to speaking with you more. If you're interested in interning with us so
[00:44:31.410]Chris Hearsey: You're going to intern with us. What are you going to do oh actually should mention, you know, we do have several Nebraska law students and, you know, we're really grateful for that. And we want to provide all law students, no matter the institution.
[00:44:43.650]Chris Hearsey: Apply place to to do different types of research to do something innovative. So let's get into that real quick and kind of what we're doing with the space Court law library.
[00:44:53.250]Chris Hearsey: We have created what's called the International yearbook and space activities. And the idea is to follow in some way, the same format. If you're familiar with the British or the Polish international yearbooks
[00:45:04.800]Chris Hearsey: We want to be able to collect by year and work our way back. And so for every year we put together a compendium of laws that came into force, whether their national laws or international laws.
[00:45:15.480]Chris Hearsey: We also instituting committees that will develop methodologies and a space law dictionary that we will host online.
[00:45:24.150]Chris Hearsey: All of this is meant for us to review the three sources of law.
[00:45:29.250]Chris Hearsey: Custom international agreements and general principles of law and compare the different sources and find patterns in the law find clarity in the law where there is and tried to identify more clearly where there might be more gaps and along with that.
[00:45:46.380]Chris Hearsey: We, we want to create an audio visual series that also would include things like a 10 or 20 minute video on very similar cases and public international or national
[00:45:59.160]Chris Hearsey: ICJ cases PCI J cases like Lotus and Corfu dodgy Kobo things like that things are that are relevant to our understandings face law.
[00:46:11.310]Chris Hearsey: And the whole goal again at the end of the day is to map the primary sources of law because our main interest and our main research question or what are the rules that govern space activities.
[00:46:23.370]Chris Hearsey: How to states regulate the conduct of space activities, whether it's governmental or non governmental
[00:46:30.390]Chris Hearsey: So we have a lot of different
[00:46:32.520]Chris Hearsey: Opportunities for people to do research and the two outcomes that we have for every intern is to put together a publishable work. We want to be able to either
[00:46:43.470]Chris Hearsey: Give them a forum within the international space activities to write an in depth actually well research article that would be publishable at any leading journal, including the journalists baseline others.
[00:46:57.240]Chris Hearsey: Or we want to be able to have them contribute directly to the international space activities and work with the editorial board.
[00:47:04.410]Chris Hearsey: And the other is to assist us on doing the background research on these videos.
[00:47:09.390]Chris Hearsey: Uh, you know, there's a lot of the material about some of the these international legal cases, you know, between the PCI and the ICJ I think they're less than 250 and not all of them are terribly relevant to space activities. So we think this is a very doable.
[00:47:25.980]Chris Hearsey: Process, and I think the whole point is to provide additional content rather than just the resist recitation of the case.
[00:47:33.030]Chris Hearsey: You know what was going on, what's the context, we want to understand, you know, there are different ways of interpreting rules and that's part of our methodological approach. And there's different ways of
[00:47:43.530]Chris Hearsey: Interpreting legal sources and each way depending upon which one you choose can lead to different results. And it's so I think it's very important, just as a matter of just traditional Jewish
[00:47:54.360]Chris Hearsey: True Potential exercise.
[00:47:57.510]Chris Hearsey: That we understand as a community, you know where the law would be going given given our current Peppermint in the law.
[00:48:05.850]Chris Hearsey: So that's, that's sort of a brief rundown of what we're doing with the speech Court law library and. And again, I want to say thank you to Nebraska.
[00:48:13.200]Chris Hearsey: And the anniversary line for being partners and we look forward to having many other institutions and universities as partners and to find out more about space court.
[00:48:23.040]Chris Hearsey: Please subscribe and like to our YouTube channel that's where you'll find all our video series of videos and we'll have more coming in the next few weeks. So please look out for that. We're also on Twitter and Facebook and others. So really encourage you to to get involved.
[00:48:39.330]Chris Hearsey: And I should mention, sorry. One last thing about the law library is we're trying to aggregate this data. So one of the things that we want to do is work with all of the different law libraries so that you know what's out there and
[00:48:53.700]Chris Hearsey: There's lots of institutions, as Matt noted that may not know what they have. And there's lots of people that may not know where to look.
[00:49:01.320]Chris Hearsey: And so reference library librarians are essential to that and I highly, highly encourage you all to use yours if you have access to them because they're great resources great people and really looking forward to the rest of this panel. So thank you.
[00:49:15.810]Nathan Johnson - Exec. Dir. Space Court Foundation: Thank you very much, Chris.
[00:49:18.750]Nathan Johnson - Exec. Dir. Space Court Foundation: I want to briefly take a moment to remind our attendees, that there is a Q AMP a function that you can submit questions for our panelists. We already have a couple of questions there.
[00:49:30.840]Nathan Johnson - Exec. Dir. Space Court Foundation: And we will try to get to as many questions as we can. But first I want to circle back around to what both Chris's Christian and Chris, you're so you have
[00:49:41.880]Nathan Johnson - Exec. Dir. Space Court Foundation: Mentioned Eileen Galloway and, you know, University of Mississippi helped start the annual Eileen Galloway symposium and critical issues in space law that's held annually for the past 14 years in Washington, DC.
[00:49:56.070]Nathan Johnson - Exec. Dir. Space Court Foundation: The University of Nebraska has recently been supporting sponsor of the Galloway symposia. And so I think that is one of the efforts in which the spacewalk community has tried to
[00:50:08.610]Nathan Johnson - Exec. Dir. Space Court Foundation: Maintain and raise the profile of Eileen Galloway's influence on the development of space on in the United States.
[00:50:17.700]Nathan Johnson - Exec. Dir. Space Court Foundation: So I'd like to, I'd like to throw out a couple of questions to our panelists.
[00:50:24.240]Nathan Johnson - Exec. Dir. Space Court Foundation: And get us involved in a discussion. So my first question for all of you. What is the value of an archive and collection in the digital age.
[00:50:36.300]Nathan Johnson - Exec. Dir. Space Court Foundation: And you know, I think this issue is, maybe even more exacerbated by the pandemic and protocols to, you know, avoid
[00:50:46.230]Nathan Johnson - Exec. Dir. Space Court Foundation: Being in enclosed spaces and being touching the same things as everybody else. So I'll start. I'll start with Matt, what is the value right now in the digital age of these archives well
[00:50:57.690]Matt Novak: That's good. Thanks for starting with me, actually, because at like I said Schmidt RH middle a library. We don't really have an archive of these, you know, these historic documents I rely on these other folks to have their strong archives
[00:51:12.720]Matt Novak: And Frank, frankly, that's what most of the researchers out there doing space law research are going to have to do is they're going to have to rely on some of these
[00:51:20.520]Matt Novak: Other organizations you went, oh says archives. So that's, you know, critical in my class that I cover. I teach the UN also website extensively, we probably know every, every period on that page, I
[00:51:35.940]Matt Novak: So it's a from that perspective, it's very, very
[00:51:41.700]Matt Novak: Vital
[00:51:43.500]Matt Novak: And then I'll just kind of maybe lead into the other folks, you know, the expense. Some have already alluded to at the expense of turning. Some of these archives into digital content is astronomical. In some cases, and probably in the near future. Still not feasible. So I'll kind of
[00:52:03.090]Matt Novak: Let somebody else segue into it from there.
[00:52:06.030]Niklas Hedman: I could, yeah. So just to add what what Matt says here, and it depends on what documentation of what sources, you're looking for. I mean, if you take the, the primary sources of the United Nations on the in particular for the negotiations on on the the treatise, the Space. Space readers.
[00:52:29.730]Niklas Hedman: Those documents are not copyrighted. So in its public domain un un formal you when documents in all languages are open open source.
[00:52:38.700]Niklas Hedman: So we don't have to bother with all that now the digitalization is here to stay, as we know. So archiving archiving paper documents is for research purposes and along the lines when we managed to digitize documents straight into the the
[00:52:57.840]Niklas Hedman: The, the computer age, those paper documents will simply disappear. You know, I mean that is inevitable.
[00:53:05.400]Niklas Hedman: But I want to offer to you or something and experience I have had since I also worked in the government in the Swedish Government Minister of Foreign Affairs and I record when i when i started there.
[00:53:17.070]Niklas Hedman: We didn't have email. I mean, we had this was like in the dawn of the computer age and the in the early 90s and
[00:53:25.500]Niklas Hedman: So when he made came. I mean, we actually had to archive every document we were writing so so memos and everything had to be archived
[00:53:35.010]Niklas Hedman: And then when email came, it was so convenient, just to to send off an email and why responding to a question or making an analysis in an email.
[00:53:44.670]Niklas Hedman: It's actually a really a piece of research you're doing that, and then you don't archive it so it was really a concern that there is a lot of institutional memory and a lot of
[00:53:57.960]Niklas Hedman: Of value in operational work of the ministry that got lost because people were sending emails and they were not archiving.
[00:54:06.660]Niklas Hedman: And I see that also now in my work I'm doing a lot of research when I'm, I'm in particular when I'm
[00:54:14.910]Niklas Hedman: Dealing with the New York office or legal affairs, for instance, on quite complex legal matters. And that's all through email. So I try to archive. I mean to print out and then put in our archive, but you know it's it's it's also a matter of
[00:54:29.970]Niklas Hedman: Where if you do that in in all your email communication. No, you don't. So there's a lot of information that is getting lost a lot of information out there that is not any longer being
[00:54:43.110]Niklas Hedman: archived for the future. And that's the PT. And I think we should be mindful that
[00:54:49.470]Nathan Johnson - Exec. Dir. Space Court Foundation: Well, Nicholas based on on that question, let me go on and ask how can we be making better use of our archives and collections and let Chris he
[00:55:02.730]Nathan Johnson - Exec. Dir. Space Court Foundation: Have some input on this.
[00:55:09.360]Chris Hearsey: Well, so one of the things that we're certainly trying to do is make sure that all the best resources of public international law are paired with what we know out there for space law.
[00:55:20.220]Chris Hearsey: And there are a lot of great archives. You can go to the peace palace has a search engine. Certainly the ICJ does. You can look at every case every, every part of the case, I think going back to its founding
[00:55:36.450]Chris Hearsey: There are a lot of other universities who really focus on public international law, but, you know, a lot of the reasons resources are usually for very specific areas of public international on even private international so
[00:55:48.690]Chris Hearsey: You know what I think the best way again for for students is to start with all of the universities in in space law programs right and
[00:56:00.540]Chris Hearsey: Certainly our goal with both the research guide and doing a survey of archives and we can have a better sense of mapping what's what's out there.
[00:56:11.640]Chris Hearsey: And certainly, with the assistance of everyone on this panel and other reference librarians. You know, I don't think this isn't necessarily an insurmountable thing.
[00:56:22.170]Chris Hearsey: And
[00:56:24.060]Chris Hearsey: I think, you know, certainly there. There are a lot of things that we could do internally under an internship. I'm sure there's lots of things that one could do with Nicholas because others have done it and and the efforts of all of the other collections. You know, I think, really.
[00:56:41.970]Chris Hearsey: Give students a lot of powerful resources beyond just what they may be see like the colloquia. Right. That's a very narrow view of
[00:56:52.440]Chris Hearsey: You know what space was generating or, you know, look at all the, the, you have the journal space, all you have the animals at McGill.
[00:56:59.610]Chris Hearsey: If a clone commentaries. You know there's there's a lot of different resources, but in terms of like really like I'll space Law Dictionary. My, my.
[00:57:08.340]Chris Hearsey: Understanding is one of the only few attempts was security foundation and GW Space Policy Institute did dictionary about 10 years ago. And, you know, we want to pick up that mantle, because I think it's important
[00:57:23.940]Chris Hearsey: Especially when you're trying to understand what a space activity is and what's permissible space activity.
[00:57:29.700]Chris Hearsey: Or the extent that the Treaty might apply to certain types of space activities you know there's there's other trees out there as well.
[00:57:37.320]Chris Hearsey: That we have to look and borrow from from other areas of public international law, but I think the other important point about doing the research. And what we're trying to do is to look at it hierarchical and one of our intentions with our website is
[00:57:52.680]Chris Hearsey: You can go to a
[00:57:54.570]Chris Hearsey: Textual version of the Outer Space Treaty, go to a legal term like jurisdiction control or authorization and continuing supervision.
[00:58:02.010]Chris Hearsey: And that would link you to a list of all the National Space laws. Now I've actually. I know it's doable because I actually did this exercise for
[00:58:09.750]Chris Hearsey: My graduate thesis at the University of North Dakota Space Studies Program and had to rely almost 95% on the UN, who's a website.
[00:58:20.070]Chris Hearsey: And there's no way. So thank you, Nicholas for providing those resources. There's no way I would have done done that because the whole project was
[00:58:27.270]Chris Hearsey: Confirming every country who would ever sign any the Treaties, when they put their national laws together and look at how space law was created and evolved over time.
[00:58:39.870]Chris Hearsey: Just looking at how rules are used, but the the exercise for us at the end of the day is going to be
[00:58:47.310]Chris Hearsey: The comparative analysis which which I don't know that many people in different way different forms and some secondary sources. They've done bits and pieces of this but
[00:58:57.780]Chris Hearsey: As you know, all activities that occur in space, you know, could also occur here on Earth. And so there are some legal
[00:59:05.430]Chris Hearsey: Bridges that I think we need to investigate to make sure that they are on solid ground and certainly one of the ways. Look at this is through jurisdiction.
[00:59:14.340]Chris Hearsey: And understanding public international law and where jurisdiction comes from, because all these rules that we're creating our manifestation of our understanding
[00:59:23.760]Chris Hearsey: Of sovereignty, right, this is the expression of sovereignty. That's what's going on at cope us, they have the authority to do this and then they write these rules with particular jurisdictions in mind.
[00:59:32.820]Chris Hearsey: And so being cognizant of the International scope of space law research, but not taking it on so big. It's like it's unmanageable.
[00:59:43.680]Chris Hearsey: Is there's always going to be the trek but you know we feel that we can aggregate this data and get interns involved to be able to have a further
[00:59:52.560]Chris Hearsey: comprehensive understanding of sort of the map and the story of space law and it always starts with the primary roles and it starts with the people who put them together.
[01:00:06.420]Nathan Johnson - Exec. Dir. Space Court Foundation: Thank you very much, Chris.
[01:00:08.460]Nathan Johnson - Exec. Dir. Space Court Foundation: Chris G or Matt.
[01:00:11.340]Nathan Johnson - Exec. Dir. Space Court Foundation: Any suggestions for how to make better use of these archives and collections.
[01:00:17.700]Matt Novak: Got anything, Chris.
[01:00:20.280]Kris Gilliland: Feel free. I'll follow up.
[01:00:21.930]Matt Novak: Okay. Well, again, I'm going to defer to the experts on archives, since that's not my are our strong suit.
[01:00:30.660]Matt Novak: Again, as I mentioned, my presentation earlier on librarians love to create Research Guides and there's just a gob of research guides. That's an official term gob lots of research guides out there.
[01:00:43.740]Matt Novak: That you know librarians from all kinds of institutions have put together, you know,
[01:00:49.170]Matt Novak: If you go to the NASA website library. I found you know this summer I was trying to hunt down some documents from them and they had some lovely
[01:00:56.880]Matt Novak: Research Guides I I've created Research Guides and pretty much any of the libraries that have major collections in these areas are going to have guides and finding aids like Chris mentioned earlier for some of their archives finding aids to put these resources to use
[01:01:14.970]Kris Gilliland: Yeah, I think that's right. And we do love a research guide. Don't wait. And they're out there and don't get used as much as they should, I think, and they're easy to find, you know what you do.
[01:01:23.880]Kris Gilliland: You Google space law live guide Li be DUI D, you're going to find a bunch. Um, I wanted to quickly echo what you said and Mr husband said about
[01:01:36.570]Kris Gilliland: Sort of the digitization situation, I think. The nice thing about Archives is
[01:01:42.690]Kris Gilliland: That we really don't have many copyright problems. Usually, so we can freely digitize and that's what really does hold us back. I think on more widely digitizing
[01:01:53.880]Kris Gilliland: You know, sort of the earlier scholarship. But I think it's really important for the reason that you're here, she was saying, for example.
[01:02:01.740]Kris Gilliland: The Haley collection has a huge folder on it. Doesn't that Galloway as well on their conversation with all kinds of people about the issues that they were most concerned with. So, for example,
[01:02:15.900]Kris Gilliland: You know, D limitation of space outer space versus airspace and only in these archives, which we can digitize at request if people want to
[01:02:26.520]Kris Gilliland: sort of dig in and find more about this, we can do that freely and share that. So we do do a lot of digitizing when a scholar says I'm interested in this or that the other
[01:02:37.350]Kris Gilliland: Sometimes you have to be on site because we
[01:02:40.410]Kris Gilliland: Can't do the research for you, but I really do think it's one of those things where if you ask us and talk to us. We're glad to explore. We have and give you some sort of description.
[01:02:49.710]Kris Gilliland: And when I think the real value of archives, like the collection we have now is now that I was digging into it more for this presentation, I'm all more excited. I want to go right to stuff.
[01:03:00.270]Kris Gilliland: Because it's really an opportunity to get a foothold in something that nobody else has written about because nobody's ever had access to these materials, which seemed nice
[01:03:10.110]Kris Gilliland: So I think there are a lot of really, really like island Galloway there needs to be much more written about island Galloway
[01:03:18.180]Kris Gilliland: By the way she split her papers and the other half, or at the Smithsonian Museum there in space law and they have a very nice website too.
[01:03:27.060]Kris Gilliland: So I'm grateful to the spaceport foundation. I'm looking forward to the work they're going to do because I do think it's going to be wonderful.
[01:03:34.530]Kris Gilliland: On to coordinate and I would just also say that everybody needs to be thinking about preservation, like Mr hedman says we may not have these
[01:03:42.090]Kris Gilliland: Great folders of correspondence that we have access to from the earliest generation. This will be a period of time where we might not have anything if we don't start working harder to save those materials that were born digital
[01:03:55.980]Nathan Johnson - Exec. Dir. Space Court Foundation: Yeah. Well, thank you very much, Chris and Matt we're going a little bit over time. But we did have a couple of questions from our attendees as I saw you indicated, you'd like to answer this question about
[01:04:11.370]Niklas Hedman: The bottom that I don't know what what happened. But anyway, yes. I was going to to respond to those two questions on
[01:04:18.600]Niklas Hedman: Internship and
[01:04:21.630]Niklas Hedman: Visiting scholars before doing that, just to offer one detail for you.
[01:04:27.450]Niklas Hedman: So the office for our space affairs. Every year we update the status. The ratification stages of the treatise, so this is just task mandated by the legal subcommittee.
[01:04:38.820]Niklas Hedman: And it's, it's actually quite a difficult task because we have to go to each of the Depository powers.
[01:04:46.050]Niklas Hedman: Yummy. You can't only go to one and and and try to find information there because you have to go to the UK, the US and the Russian government
[01:04:54.600]Niklas Hedman: To check because States when they ratify the creators or exceed to the creators.
[01:04:59.670]Niklas Hedman: They, they, they can choose which country they wish to deposit and also the secretary enter for the registration convention.
[01:05:07.080]Niklas Hedman: And the moon agreement. So we do that and we updated for the leader subcommittee. So we issue on our website.
[01:05:14.220]Niklas Hedman: And updated status award. The, the space treaties and and it's a lot of efforts going down to there. And I think this is the only source where you can find
[01:05:23.820]Niklas Hedman: A consolidated as updated status of the treatise on an annual basis. I just wanted to, to tell you that now I see her Amanda and Jacob are asking two questions. So very shortly.
[01:05:36.360]Niklas Hedman: To Amanda and well I have to discourage you the internship or in you and also we really depend on interns, but it's not paid so
[01:05:47.280]Niklas Hedman: It's unpaid. Unfortunately, we have no right to to pay students to come and do internship, but so there are scholarships and other sources that have to be
[01:05:59.490]Niklas Hedman: Be be sought but internship is an opportunity for young scholars and PhD students to to stay with the Office for outer space or fast for a maximum of six months, you know,
[01:06:11.790]Niklas Hedman: And the best period to do internship is actually in the spring, where we have the sessions of our governmental body.
[01:06:19.560]Niklas Hedman: So, ranging from February to do that is the prime of the year when you have access to delegations when you really can can can get the grasp of of
[01:06:29.910]Niklas Hedman: The space community. So I encourage students to really apply for internship with the office during the the spring period basically now to Jacob.
[01:06:42.810]Niklas Hedman: Yes, we have had in the past, a few instances absolutely with scholars that have asked to come to the office to do research to to go through the cabinets to do some, you know, to look into the the archives, we have
[01:06:59.220]Niklas Hedman: Sorry, it is not easy.
[01:07:02.250]Niklas Hedman: It's really not easy, because there is a lot of rules in in the in the in the in the euro and as you can imagine, sorry, I don't
[01:07:12.180]Niklas Hedman: Okay, excuse me, anyway. It's not easy at all it says is a huge bureaucracy and there are several constraints liabilities.
[01:07:22.200]Niklas Hedman: All of those issues that have to be sorted out. So it is not easy at all to to get access to our archives. If I put it that way. One way is, of course, as a student, we we allow students to attend the sessions so
[01:07:40.530]Niklas Hedman: When we are in session STC LSTM Cooper's. We also open up for students. Not too many. But students coming if they can afford to come from the US is more difficult than from European university.
[01:07:53.160]Niklas Hedman: Obviously, but if they can come to to Vienna during the sessions that will be given a badge and they can actually come to the office and they can do some some at least limited research in our archives during those periods.
[01:08:11.430]Nathan Johnson - Exec. Dir. Space Court Foundation: Well, thank you.
[01:08:12.060]Niklas Hedman: Very much saying something in the background.
[01:08:15.000]Nathan Johnson - Exec. Dir. Space Court Foundation: That would be my young ones asking if I
[01:08:17.970]Nathan Johnson - Exec. Dir. Space Court Foundation: Was done with my work call yet.
[01:08:21.270]Nathan Johnson - Exec. Dir. Space Court Foundation: Um, which is a great time to try to wrap this up. I want to thank all of our panelists for joining us today.
[01:08:29.250]Nathan Johnson - Exec. Dir. Space Court Foundation: But before we go we've had multiple questions about either being able to reach out to do research through your libraries are to reach out directly to you as well. So, um, I just wanted to go around, Matt, how can people contact the Nebraska law library.
[01:08:56.850]Matt Novak: So if you're going to start doing some space law research contacting me directly is probably the best bet. So m Novak firstname.lastname@example.org so
[01:09:08.760]Matt Novak: That would be your best shot there, but we do it I guess all libraries love to use law ref as their email. So we also have law email@example.com as well. So that would contact, all of us. Excellent.
[01:09:25.560]Nathan Johnson - Exec. Dir. Space Court Foundation: Chris, I see that you have responded in the chat to people who have asked, but if you could just briefly repeat your suggestion.
[01:09:34.260]Kris Gilliland: Yes please, please, we'd love to help you with it. I'd really like to see, as Mr Harrison was saying there's so much great stuff we'd love to help people use that we'd love to see
[01:09:44.760]Kris Gilliland: People really digging in and you can email me directly at G i double l i la in without the day my last name has a D on the end but gee, I double l i LA and at Ole Miss Ellie in my double S one word.edu I'd love to hear from you.
[01:10:02.220]Nathan Johnson - Exec. Dir. Space Court Foundation: Thank you. Nicholas. How can people contact your office.
[01:10:06.300]Niklas Hedman: Yeah, I mean to send an email to me, you will not get a response. What do you do you go to the website and we have a central email address them where where you can put your question and it will be distributed within the office. That's the best
[01:10:26.460]Nathan Johnson - Exec. Dir. Space Court Foundation: Finally, Chris. Ah, how can people contact the space court Foundation, whether they're interested in an internship program or partnering with us in some other way.
[01:10:35.370]Chris Hearsey: Now they can go to our website at Space court foundation.org
[01:10:39.450]Chris Hearsey: And also on the email. There is the application for the internship and I believe we use info at Space court foundation.org if you want to send an email and acquire more
[01:10:49.800]Chris Hearsey: We also accept messages on Twitter and Facebook. So feel free to send some messages there. We do have a social media manager Sean case.
[01:10:59.130]Chris Hearsey: And a lot of other officers and folks that are part of the institution. And so I want to give a shout out to all them. And thank you for helping us get this
[01:11:08.220]Chris Hearsey: This foundation off the ground. So, and with that, thank you. Nathan, thank you everybody was really great panel and glad that we did this is this one.
[01:11:16.830]Nathan Johnson - Exec. Dir. Space Court Foundation: Yes, I have to do it again sometime, not the pandemic part but everything else.
[01:11:22.290]Nathan Johnson - Exec. Dir. Space Court Foundation: Thank you all for joining us.
[01:11:23.940]Nathan Johnson - Exec. Dir. Space Court Foundation: Here today to our panelists to our attendees into the University of Nebraska College of Law for this Nebraska space all week. Thank you.
[01:11:32.550]Niklas Hedman: Thank you. Bye.
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