Communication: A Vital Tool to Student Success Part 1
This webinar will describe why manding is a vital skill. It will help participants understand how to utilize student motivation and determine individualized goals for manding. It will also provide information on errorless teaching and error correction with mands.
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[00:00:01.600]Welcome to the Tri-State Webinar Series,
[00:00:04.160]Communication: A Vital Tool to Build Student Success!
[00:00:07.510]Part 1, Teaching How to Mand.
[00:00:10.050]My name is Meggin Funk.
[00:00:11.650]I'm a regional coordinator for the Nebraska ASD Network,
[00:00:14.910]a speech language pathologist,
[00:00:16.550]and board-certified behavior analyst.
[00:00:19.020]And I'm Ashley Meyer, a Behavior Specialist
[00:00:21.360]for the Nebraska ASD Network,
[00:00:23.110]and a board-certified behavior analyst.
[00:00:26.460]Learner objectives for this webinar
[00:00:28.700]include describing why manding is a vital skill;
[00:00:32.640]utilizing student motivation;
[00:00:34.840]determining individualized, functional manding goals;
[00:00:38.400]and using errorless teaching
[00:00:40.160]and error correction with mand training.
[00:00:43.840]What is a mand?
[00:00:45.270]The basic principle of manding is want it, say it , get it.
[00:00:49.130]If you want something, you're motivated for it.
[00:00:51.970]You are hungry and you want an apple,
[00:00:54.230]so you say "apple" and someone gives you an apple.
[00:00:57.030]You need to open a door but it's locked,
[00:00:58.980]so you ask for a key and someone gives you a key.
[00:01:02.260]If you get lost and need to figure out
[00:01:04.270]how to find a specific place, you ask for directions
[00:01:08.110]and hopefully you've asked the right person, right?
[00:01:10.350]And they'll give you the directions.
[00:01:12.630]Again, want it, say it, get it.
[00:01:14.530]We use what works for us.
[00:01:16.260]If we teach our students that manding appropriately
[00:01:20.170]gets their needs and wants met more efficiently
[00:01:23.020]and effectively than problem behavior,
[00:01:25.300]then they will use appropriate manding rather
[00:01:28.310]than problem behavior more often.
[00:01:30.850]So, there is a direct correlation
[00:01:32.910]with increased communication skills
[00:01:35.450]and decreasing those problem behaviors.
[00:01:39.010]When B.F. Skinner began to study
[00:01:41.590]the behavior of communication,
[00:01:43.490]he realized that it could be difficult
[00:01:45.370]to use just a common term,
[00:01:47.420]so he chose to create a new word called mand,
[00:01:51.290]but mand, in common terms, simply means request.
[00:01:55.640]So, we can request an item, we can ask for something,
[00:01:58.800]we can ask a question, demand, inquire, or command.
[00:02:03.180]These are all the common terms
[00:02:05.010]that fall under the umbrella of manding.
[00:02:07.740]We mand hundreds of times a day.
[00:02:09.960]A baby begins to mand by crying,
[00:02:12.610]which means that they want food,
[00:02:14.340]a diaper change, or attention.
[00:02:16.400]While we are at a conference, we may ask,
[00:02:18.717]"What session are you going to?",
[00:02:20.607]"Where's the session being held?", "Where's the restroom?",
[00:02:24.067]"Save me a seat!", or maybe one of my favorites,
[00:02:27.047]"Would you bring me a cup of coffee?"
[00:02:30.000]Important facts about mands.
[00:02:31.990]A mand is controlled by motivation.
[00:02:34.540]That just means that the speaker
[00:02:36.520]or person making the request or mand
[00:02:39.047]has to be motivated to ask for that item
[00:02:41.700]or activity or piece of information.
[00:02:44.210]They have to want something in order to ask for it.
[00:02:47.620]Mands are the only verbal operant
[00:02:49.820]that directly benefit the speaker
[00:02:52.060]and that means that whatever it is
[00:02:54.260]that the person is manding for or requesting
[00:02:57.000]is what they get in return, so it directly benefits them.
[00:03:00.870]Because the mand is controlled by motivation
[00:03:03.110]and directly benefits the speaker, it trains our students
[00:03:06.920]to understand the value of communicating with a partner.
[00:03:10.040]You need to start teaching two or more mands
[00:03:12.390]right from the beginning when you're doing mand training
[00:03:14.880]and that's just so that the learner
[00:03:16.710]does not accidentally overgeneralize one mand.
[00:03:19.970]If you're teaching, for example,
[00:03:21.780]how to request a ball and how to request car,
[00:03:25.760]if those are two of your favorite things for your learner,
[00:03:29.110]then you're going to want to teach
[00:03:30.520]those two things right from the beginning
[00:03:32.370]and not just ball or just car,
[00:03:35.280]because if you just teach them one or the other,
[00:03:37.990]they might think everything is called that,
[00:03:40.360]so they might start calling everything ball
[00:03:43.020]or everything car rather than learning
[00:03:45.720]the individual labels of each of those items
[00:03:48.940]or activities that they want to request.
[00:03:51.900]Why is manding an important skill?
[00:03:54.140]How does it benefit students?
[00:03:56.010]It's the first type of verbal behavior
[00:03:57.870]that's acquired, according to B.F. Skinner.
[00:04:00.180]Mands help the student control their environment,
[00:04:03.130]so students or individuals learn how
[00:04:05.740]to mand or make requests and that helps gain
[00:04:08.610]that control of their environment
[00:04:10.190]because they now can say what they want and need
[00:04:13.450]and get those wants and needs met
[00:04:15.310]in a more socially appropriate way.
[00:04:17.670]When we teach them how to mand,
[00:04:19.600]it makes social interactions more valuable
[00:04:22.140]because they see that they can get those wants and needs,
[00:04:24.910]they can get their favorite things,
[00:04:26.420]they can make their world a better place
[00:04:28.580]for them through communicating with other people.
[00:04:32.210]Mand training is relatively easy to do
[00:04:34.860]because you're using the child
[00:04:36.730]or learner's own motivation as the tool.
[00:04:39.600]You're using their favorite things
[00:04:41.430]and then using that motivation for those favorite things
[00:04:44.050]to get them to use communication to request.
[00:04:46.830]The focus on motivation in manding,
[00:04:49.030]using their favorite things, could help serve
[00:04:51.810]to reduce the value of repetitive or stereotyped actions.
[00:04:55.490]In other words, they might communicate more
[00:04:58.610]because they see that it has value
[00:05:00.820]rather than being more closed off using
[00:05:04.330]those stereotyped or repetitive behaviors.
[00:05:08.250]So, let's think for just a moment
[00:05:09.910]about what motivates you.
[00:05:11.510]Please list something that motivates you socially,
[00:05:13.790]for example, giving someone a high five or a thumbs up.
[00:05:17.320]How about something tangible?
[00:05:19.440]For me personally, it would be my phone.
[00:05:21.860]What about a sensory input or an edible?
[00:05:24.600]Chocolate, candy, or a drink, maybe coffee or a tea.
[00:05:30.240]Completing a task
[00:05:31.960]What other things might motivate you?
[00:05:38.010]As you can see, we are all motivated by a variety of items.
[00:05:41.580]Some of us prefer social over tangible.
[00:05:44.190]Some of prefer sensory over food and drink.
[00:05:47.030]And that's the same with our students.
[00:05:48.950]Some of our students are motivated by things
[00:05:51.740]that are easy for us to pinpoint
[00:05:53.570]but some of our students, it's just harder
[00:05:55.940]to figure out what they are motivated for.
[00:05:58.320]We can use preference checklists,
[00:06:00.570]which help us to look at numerous categories of items.
[00:06:03.900]We can also do observations and watch our students
[00:06:07.540]as they wander and explore the environment that they are in.
[00:06:10.850]What items are they approaching?
[00:06:12.570]What items might they quickly glance at or reach towards?
[00:06:17.080]We can also do a Quick Forced Choice Assessment,
[00:06:20.250]where the student is given
[00:06:21.330]the option of two different items.
[00:06:23.350]They're offered M&M versus a toy truck,
[00:06:27.130]or for an older student,
[00:06:28.580]maybe leaving class five minutes early
[00:06:31.130]versus one on one time with the teacher.
[00:06:33.980]Which one do they choose?
[00:06:35.690]And then finally, we can also do interviews.
[00:06:38.260]We can interview the student or parents or teachers.
[00:06:41.550]It's important to know that we can use a combination
[00:06:44.790]of any of these preference assessments
[00:06:47.160]to try to figure out what our students are motivated by.
[00:06:51.890]Mands can be in many response forms.
[00:06:54.160]We can speak and use vocal output.
[00:06:56.580]We could us gestures or sign language.
[00:06:59.370]We might have a student using a picture exchange system
[00:07:02.460]or an AAC device.
[00:07:04.250]But our students could also be using defective mands,
[00:07:07.030]such as grabbing, screaming and crying,
[00:07:09.380]hitting, or a self-injurious behavior.
[00:07:11.870]Remember that at one time, crying was an acceptable mand
[00:07:15.510]for all of our students but they eventually learn
[00:07:19.510]that other types of mands are more appropriate.
[00:07:22.670]But for our students, if they haven't learned
[00:07:25.100]that there are more socially appropriate forms of manding,
[00:07:28.510]such as using our words,
[00:07:30.410]whether it be spoken or sign or through an AAC device,
[00:07:34.730]we're going to teach our students
[00:07:36.420]the replacement behavior of using one
[00:07:38.990]of these socially appropriate mand forms
[00:07:41.580]to mand for the items they want
[00:07:43.710]and we are no longer going to reinforce
[00:07:46.290]the defective mand of crying to get what they want.
[00:07:51.480]There are many different types of mands.
[00:07:53.230]We can mand for items that are present
[00:07:55.210]and in our immediate environment that we can see.
[00:07:57.800]Those are going to be the easiest type
[00:07:59.650]to start with for mand training.
[00:08:01.450]We can also mand for activities or actions,
[00:08:04.330]we can mand for people to do things for us,
[00:08:06.710]we can mand for others' attention.
[00:08:08.770]We can mand for missing items.
[00:08:10.390]If we need to find something,
[00:08:11.770]we can ask for that information.
[00:08:13.710]We can mand for items that aren't present,
[00:08:16.110]that we don't see right in our immediate environment.
[00:08:18.780]We can mand for continued conversation.
[00:08:21.370]There are so many different ways
[00:08:22.950]that we can make requests or demands of people.
[00:08:27.130]The skill of manding has a few requirements.
[00:08:29.850]You have to be able to socially approach somebody
[00:08:32.550]in order to make a request from them.
[00:08:34.470]You also need initiate that request.
[00:08:37.230]Interactions with other people need to have value
[00:08:40.070]and that happens through this pattern of learning
[00:08:43.390]that you can get your needs and wants met
[00:08:45.410]through another person, so then you're going
[00:08:47.380]to do that more often in the future.
[00:08:49.270]You also have to be able to use flexible
[00:08:51.650]and specific verbal responses in your communication.
[00:08:54.840]Because we do call things by different names,
[00:08:57.900]we have to be able to know the different ways
[00:09:00.380]that we can request one item or the same way
[00:09:03.640]that we can request multiple items.
[00:09:05.910]These skills that are required for manding directly compete
[00:09:10.530]with the core deficits that we see
[00:09:12.560]with autism spectrum disorder.
[00:09:14.460]Social interaction, communication,
[00:09:16.790]those skills that are more difficult
[00:09:18.560]for our students on the spectrum,
[00:09:20.090]are things that are needed for manding.
[00:09:22.340]So, that's why we need to have lots and lots
[00:09:24.250]of opportunities for them to practice this skill correctly.
[00:09:28.580]When you're beginning mand training
[00:09:30.680]or you're starting to teach a learner
[00:09:32.870]how to make those requests, we want to caution you
[00:09:35.840]to teach specific mands before generalized mands.
[00:09:39.700]So, specific mands are the specific noun or verb label
[00:09:43.870]of what they would be requesting.
[00:09:45.740]So, specifically asking for the blue marker
[00:09:49.100]or for a push on the swing, but not a generalized mand
[00:09:53.860]that has multiple meanings such "Help", "More", or "Please".
[00:09:57.890]Those can actually cause problem behaviors
[00:10:00.520]because if the listener, if you don't know
[00:10:03.250]what your student wants help with or more of,
[00:10:06.120]then it can cause frustration and confusion
[00:10:08.600]and then you're gonna see those problem behaviors go up.
[00:10:11.220]So, those generalized mands can be taught later on
[00:10:14.260]but when we're first starting mand training,
[00:10:16.020]we really want to caution you
[00:10:17.460]to teach specific noun and verb labels.
[00:10:21.860]We also wanna caution you that manding is fun.
[00:10:24.530]Remember, we are using the items
[00:10:26.810]that the student loves to work for and they want.
[00:10:29.990]We aren't going to use items that benefit us,
[00:10:34.490]such as training in toileting skills.
[00:10:37.390]If your student absolutely loves the toilet or water,
[00:10:41.420]using the sink in the bathroom,
[00:10:43.510]then we might train them to mand for bathroom
[00:10:46.400]but if they don't absolutely love it,
[00:10:48.800]then we are not going to try
[00:10:50.870]to get them to mand for bathroom or toilet.
[00:10:53.710]And we're going to begin manding for academic things.
[00:10:57.480]We focus simply on things that motivate our students.
[00:11:02.330]Because we're using those motivating items,
[00:11:04.510]they are willing to work with us
[00:11:06.270]to gain access to those items,
[00:11:08.230]so this begins to really pair you
[00:11:10.410]with good things happening in their world.
[00:11:12.760]You allow them access to their favorite things
[00:11:15.590]when they are willing to communicate with you.
[00:11:19.060]Why do we need to teach mands?
[00:11:21.300]Skinner identified that manding
[00:11:23.470]is the first verbal operant learned and Shafer tells us
[00:11:27.660]that children with autism frequently present
[00:11:30.200]with limited interests and often do not readily learn
[00:11:33.870]to emit mands without specific teaching.
[00:11:36.670]But research demonstrates that we can use
[00:11:39.320]the learner's motivation to mand for their preferred items.
[00:11:43.400]So, in the couple of slides, we will show some research
[00:11:47.000]that demonstrates why teaching specific mands,
[00:11:50.540]like "ball", "juice", or "jump", may be preferable
[00:11:54.450]over teaching generalized mands
[00:11:56.530]like "help", "more", or "please".
[00:12:00.210]As you can see, there is a lot of research
[00:12:02.770]to support mand training and the importance
[00:12:05.820]of building up this skill.
[00:12:07.480]Sundberg's research, at the top of this slide,
[00:12:10.350]just reiterates the importance
[00:12:12.220]of us starting with those specific mands.
[00:12:14.950]When anybody learns to communicate,
[00:12:17.400]if they learn how to ask for the specific item
[00:12:20.080]or activity or piece of information that they are wanting,
[00:12:23.410]then they're going to use that
[00:12:24.930]if it works for them more effectively than problem behavior.
[00:12:27.960]They're gonna use that communication more
[00:12:29.810]and that's exactly what we want to see with our students.
[00:12:32.200]We wanna see them using this functional communication,
[00:12:35.300]using their manding skills,
[00:12:36.990]and not needing to use problem behavior.
[00:12:39.830]Training specific mands can support
[00:12:41.970]the development of other verbal operants.
[00:12:44.410]Research has shown that training specific mands
[00:12:46.840]can increase the acquisition rate
[00:12:48.720]of other types of communication skills,
[00:12:50.930]such as tacts or being able to label things
[00:12:53.870]or doing echoics, which is simply repeating something
[00:12:56.770]that someone has heard.
[00:12:58.190]If you're working with a learner who does not
[00:13:00.560]use appropriate functional communication very often,
[00:13:03.990]then manding is a great place to start.
[00:13:06.350]It shows the learner that communicating
[00:13:08.680]with somebody else is actually valuable and benefits them.
[00:13:12.090]Once that value and communication has been built up,
[00:13:15.160]then you can start to work on more complex skills
[00:13:17.877]and a wider variety of communication skills
[00:13:20.620]in those other verbal operant areas.
[00:13:23.760]In this graph by Mike Miklos, we're going to look at
[00:13:27.370]the impact that mand training
[00:13:29.250]can have on a student's problem behaviors.
[00:13:32.090]In baseline, you can see that problem behaviors range
[00:13:35.150]in between 25 to 35 times per session.
[00:13:38.610]Once there is that phase change line
[00:13:41.150]and mand training is introduced on session seven,
[00:13:44.680]you see that there is an extinction burst.
[00:13:47.440]They try that problem behavior more
[00:13:49.680]before they realize that it doesn't get them
[00:13:51.750]what they want anymore.
[00:13:53.000]Right after mand training is introduced,
[00:13:55.320]problem behaviors do go up though,
[00:13:57.420]be cautious because it often does get worse
[00:14:00.600]before it gets better.
[00:14:01.640]So, they're gonna try harder with that problem behavior.
[00:14:04.310]It went up to past 50 times per session
[00:14:07.020]but that didn't last that long, it lasted a few sessions.
[00:14:09.970]If you stick with it, if you stay consistent
[00:14:12.200]with your mand training, you make sure
[00:14:14.140]that they only get the item or activity
[00:14:17.060]or thing that they're manding for
[00:14:19.060]if they are using that communication,
[00:14:21.070]they're manding appropriately,
[00:14:22.660]and they do not get that item or thing
[00:14:24.670]that they're manding for with problem behaviors,
[00:14:27.330]and then that behavior will decrease.
[00:14:29.780]You can see, by the third session
[00:14:32.150]after introducing mand training, it's already gone back
[00:14:35.230]to baseline or just a little bit below baseline.
[00:14:38.110]And then by the fourth session,
[00:14:39.560]they had no problem behaviors because they realized
[00:14:43.560]that using communication effectively,
[00:14:45.850]using that mand to ask for what they want
[00:14:48.850]or ask for what they need, gets it faster.
[00:14:51.940]It's more efficient, it's better for them,
[00:14:53.950]so they no longer need to use that problem behavior
[00:14:56.640]to get that want or need met.
[00:14:59.710]So, we've touched on the requirements of manding.
[00:15:02.530]We need approach, initiation, interactions,
[00:15:06.020]flexibility, and communication.
[00:15:09.100]We can use this information
[00:15:10.570]to determine when to begin formal mand training.
[00:15:14.170]We can begin formal mand training when the learner
[00:15:17.140]is willing to approach others
[00:15:18.640]and stay within a close proximity with consistency.
[00:15:22.400]They need to be motivated by a minimum
[00:15:25.130]of two different items or activities
[00:15:27.800]but more is always better.
[00:15:30.020]And finally, we want to consider
[00:15:31.920]the strength and consistency of the student's attempts
[00:15:34.970]to show motivation or interest in the items or activities
[00:15:39.400]that will then serve as the mand training targets.
[00:15:44.230]You might be wondering, what are the best items
[00:15:46.520]to use for teaching mands?
[00:15:48.570]Well, the best items would be ones
[00:15:51.090]that can be delivered very quickly.
[00:15:53.200]We want to be able to immediately reinforce
[00:15:56.090]our learners for manding appropriately.
[00:15:58.400]So, we want items that we can give
[00:16:00.470]to them within one to two seconds of their appropriate mand.
[00:16:03.960]Also, items that are consumable
[00:16:05.990]or only allow for a brief period of contact,
[00:16:08.480]such as edibles or bubbles, they naturally go away,
[00:16:12.020]so then we don't have to regain that control,
[00:16:14.350]those are great ones to start with.
[00:16:16.170]We can also use items that are easy
[00:16:18.890]for the teacher to control, so items that we could put
[00:16:22.270]in a tub or put up high, and only we can get to them
[00:16:26.190]and give them to the learner
[00:16:27.540]when they mand for them correctly.
[00:16:29.320]This is so that the learner does not get free access
[00:16:32.100]and then they learn they have to use
[00:16:34.470]that appropriate form of communication,
[00:16:36.550]that appropriate mand, to get what they want or need.
[00:16:39.990]We also want to use things
[00:16:41.720]that are very motivating to that individual student.
[00:16:44.750]We're going to use those preference checklists,
[00:16:47.400]our information that we've gathered
[00:16:49.200]from interviews or observations,
[00:16:51.720]and we're going to use only those things
[00:16:54.010]that the learner really loves,
[00:16:55.710]that they're highly motivated for.
[00:16:57.490]We also want to make sure that the words or signs
[00:17:01.050]or however they'll be communicating
[00:17:02.960]won't be too difficult for them.
[00:17:04.810]We want to set them up for success.
[00:17:06.610]So, pick mands for items that aren't too difficult
[00:17:10.290]to say or sign.
[00:17:11.800]Also, make sure you choose two
[00:17:13.980]that are very different from one another.
[00:17:15.910]If they're too similar,
[00:17:17.230]that can get confusing for the learner.
[00:17:19.160]So, if you're going to teach a learner who loves
[00:17:21.840]to play with a ball and loves a book,
[00:17:24.820]you might want to choose one of those
[00:17:27.220]and say they also love a car,
[00:17:29.510]you're going to use maybe ball and car
[00:17:32.370]because those sound very different.
[00:17:34.950]You don't want to use items that sound too similar.
[00:17:38.150]Establish as broad of a list as possible
[00:17:40.930]before you begin mand training.
[00:17:43.820]What do you think?
[00:17:45.310]What items or activities would be easiest
[00:17:47.510]to start teaching first, remembering that we
[00:17:50.140]have to deliver the reinforcing item
[00:17:52.500]within one to two seconds after the student mands for it?
[00:18:01.720]We can capture motivation
[00:18:03.300]through meeting our student's most basic needs,
[00:18:05.860]such as hunger, thirst, et cetera.
[00:18:08.260]We can also meet those contextual needs
[00:18:10.460]within the student's natural environment.
[00:18:12.510]So, when a student is hungry, say at snack time,
[00:18:16.370]we can use the motivation for food to have them mand for it.
[00:18:20.580]We can also have them ask for items that they need
[00:18:23.550]in order to complete an activity that they're motivated for,
[00:18:27.010]such as asking for a coat before they go outside to play
[00:18:30.410]or asking for a marker or scissors during art time,
[00:18:34.510]if they're motivated to do that activity.
[00:18:36.650]So, just look for those ways throughout their day,
[00:18:39.360]in the natural environment, that you can use
[00:18:42.120]those opportunities where they are motivated for something,
[00:18:44.950]to get them to mand for it
[00:18:46.910]and practice that functional communication.
[00:18:50.760]In contriving motivation, we still use
[00:18:53.420]the child's favorite items but we structure the situation
[00:18:56.780]to make interacting with us more valuable to the student.
[00:18:59.650]We can put a favorite toy in a container
[00:19:01.870]with a lid on it that's just a little too tight.
[00:19:04.530]We can hand the child a bowl of cereal but forget the spoon.
[00:19:07.450]Many times, we have students who are highly motivated
[00:19:10.330]to watch a favorite video, so we can turn the video on
[00:19:13.360]and then stop or pause it.
[00:19:14.930]We might have their favorite snack
[00:19:16.760]but we offer it to their peer beside them first,
[00:19:19.550]encouraging them to mand for some of the same snack.
[00:19:23.260]We can also interrupt a chain procedure
[00:19:25.770]before it becomes complete.
[00:19:27.280]For instance, a child loves to complete a puzzle
[00:19:30.110]but we remain in control of the final piece
[00:19:32.800]so that they have to mand for the piece
[00:19:34.810]to complete the puzzle.
[00:19:35.970]What are some of the ways that you have captured
[00:19:38.260]or contrived motivation with your students?
[00:19:45.530]How do we determine our manding goals?
[00:19:47.840]We want to use a variety of ways to gather this information.
[00:19:51.600]In fact, we do not want to rely on any single item,
[00:19:54.530]we want to develop a well-rounded set of goals
[00:19:57.300]that are individualized to that student.
[00:19:59.960]So, we can look at different assessments.
[00:20:02.030]There are a lot of different language assessments,
[00:20:04.090]such as the VB-MAPP
[00:20:05.420]or Verbal Behavior-Milestones Assessment
[00:20:07.680]and Placement Program,
[00:20:08.870]the ABLLS-R or Assessment of Basic Language
[00:20:11.640]and Learning Skills-Revised,
[00:20:13.210]the AFLS or Assessment of Functional Living Skills.
[00:20:16.140]There's also specialist assessments
[00:20:18.330]from the speech language pathologist,
[00:20:20.800]the occupational therapist,
[00:20:22.390]the physical therapist, and others.
[00:20:24.370]We can also just do observations.
[00:20:26.190]We can look at our students
[00:20:27.610]and see what kind of things they like
[00:20:30.210]that they can't already ask for.
[00:20:32.570]So, look for that motivation, look for what is it
[00:20:35.450]that they are going to want to ask for,
[00:20:38.150]and then we can use those as our target items
[00:20:40.590]to teach them how to ask for them.
[00:20:42.530]We also want to make sure to get family input.
[00:20:45.130]We want to work as a team and see what needs
[00:20:47.590]and concerns everybody has for that student.
[00:20:50.550]What is it that they need to know
[00:20:52.380]how to ask for in their natural environment?
[00:20:56.560]So, we just discussed VB-MAPP, ABLLS-R, AFLS,
[00:21:00.320]Essential for Living, and this is not an exhaustive list.
[00:21:03.460]We just want you to know the importance of assessment.
[00:21:06.710]According to Mark Sundberg, "the failure to conduct
[00:21:09.717]"an appropriate assessment results
[00:21:11.607]"in one of the biggest problems
[00:21:13.577]"that serve students with ASD...
[00:21:15.687]"an inappropriate curriculum!"
[00:21:18.200]We don't want this for our students.
[00:21:20.270]Remember, we are creating an individualized plan,
[00:21:23.930]so we use assessments specific to students with autism,
[00:21:27.320]we use observations, a specialist's assessment,
[00:21:30.570]family input, teacher input.
[00:21:33.160]We want what's best for our students.
[00:21:35.640]We don't want to guess for our students,
[00:21:37.610]we want to use a structured, systematic way
[00:21:40.500]of creating great goals.
[00:21:43.760]What makes a great manding goal?
[00:21:45.860]We want to write our goals so that they are smart,
[00:21:48.170]so make sure that they're specific, that your goal
[00:21:50.390]is direct, detailed, and meaningful for that student.
[00:21:53.620]We also want them to be measurable,
[00:21:55.500]so make sure it's quantifiable,
[00:21:57.120]that you can observe and take data on it.
[00:21:59.990]We want to write goals that are attainable
[00:22:02.160]so make sure it's realistic for that student.
[00:22:05.330]We would rather you set goals that are smaller
[00:22:08.660]and more attainable so that the student stays successful,
[00:22:11.850]rather than aiming too high or having unrealistic goals.
[00:22:15.450]Make sure that the goal is relevant,
[00:22:17.670]so that it aligns with that student's needs,
[00:22:21.010]their individual functional needs.
[00:22:24.140]And then it needs to have some kind of time criteria,
[00:22:27.470]so set a deadline, set a limit
[00:22:29.560]on what is considered mastered for that goal.
[00:22:33.670]Once you've collected all of your data, you've looked at
[00:22:37.230]what is motivating to this student,
[00:22:39.380]what types of manding goals do we want
[00:22:42.040]to prioritize and start with,
[00:22:44.350]and how are we gonna write those
[00:22:46.030]so that they are specific, measurable, attainable,
[00:22:49.250]relevant, and time bound,
[00:22:50.890]then you're ready to begin mand training.
[00:22:53.090]There are three basic steps to the mand training process.
[00:22:56.940]First, you're going to verify that motivation is in place.
[00:23:00.150]We have to have motivation in order to have a mand.
[00:23:03.640]The student has to be motivated
[00:23:05.870]in order to make that request, so they have to want it
[00:23:09.070]and then you're going to prompt them.
[00:23:11.660]So, after you've seen that they're motivated
[00:23:13.820]for the item or activity, then you're gonna
[00:23:15.580]just give them the answer,
[00:23:16.860]let them know how they request for it.
[00:23:19.230]So, prompt them to say what they want
[00:23:22.100]and saying it could be through vocal output,
[00:23:25.340]through sign language, through AAC devices, through PECS,
[00:23:29.410]so just however your student communicates,
[00:23:32.550]that is how you would prompt them to communicate.
[00:23:35.140]And then, as soon as they say that they want the item,
[00:23:38.830]they make the mand, then you're going
[00:23:40.750]to pair the response form.
[00:23:42.160]So, you're basically going to repeat what
[00:23:44.500]the item or activity is called as you deliver it to them,
[00:23:48.310]and that just helps pair that language with that item.
[00:23:51.530]So, as soon as they get it, you're also saying
[00:23:54.660]the name of the item or activity that they're getting.
[00:23:57.210]So want it, say it, get it.
[00:23:59.990]There are two types of mand training.
[00:24:02.410]The first we'll discuss is the Second Trial Transfer
[00:24:05.820]and the second that we'll discuss
[00:24:08.060]is the With-in Trial Transfer.
[00:24:11.050]The Second Trial Transfer has six basic steps.
[00:24:14.560]This is the type of transfer trial
[00:24:16.670]that you would use for early learners,
[00:24:18.480]which does not mean young learners
[00:24:20.380]but it simply means learners
[00:24:21.760]who are new to functional communication,
[00:24:24.200]so they are beginning this skill.
[00:24:26.630]First, you're going to check for motivation,
[00:24:28.790]so see if the student is looking at the item or activity,
[00:24:32.110]if they are reaching towards it, smiling at it,
[00:24:34.740]that shows that they're motivated for it.
[00:24:36.900]Once you see that they are motivated,
[00:24:38.690]then you're going to prompt them,
[00:24:40.480]so you're going to give them
[00:24:41.510]that correct way of manding for it, and then the third step
[00:24:44.840]is to deliver a little bit of the item
[00:24:47.090]and pair the response form,
[00:24:48.520]so basically repeat the name of it.
[00:24:50.570]So, you're gonna give them that little bit of it
[00:24:52.650]and say what it's called again as you give it to them.
[00:24:55.830]On step four, you just let them know
[00:24:57.990]that more of the item or activity is available,
[00:25:00.670]so you might hold it out
[00:25:02.080]and let them say that there's more that you have.
[00:25:04.850]And once they make that mand by themselves independently,
[00:25:09.030]this time without a prompt, on step five,
[00:25:11.990]then on step six, you give them more of the item.
[00:25:14.810]This helps differentiate the prompted response
[00:25:18.740]to the unprompted response.
[00:25:20.590]So, when it's unprompted or independent,
[00:25:22.700]they get more of the item or activity
[00:25:25.020]because that's a better response,
[00:25:26.780]we want them to be independent.
[00:25:28.580]So, for example, if you have a student who loves LEGOs,
[00:25:31.800]those can be broken down into smaller parts.
[00:25:34.420]So, you would check for motivation.
[00:25:36.510]See if they're reaching towards the LEGOs,
[00:25:38.710]smiling at the LEGOs, that shows that they're motivated.
[00:25:41.610]So, you would prompt them and say, "LEGOs!",
[00:25:44.100]and they would say, "LEGOs."
[00:25:45.810]On step three, you're going to give them one LEGO.
[00:25:49.490]On step four, and then you're gonna just show them
[00:25:52.420]that more of the LEGOs are available,
[00:25:54.390]so you might hold out handful of LEGOs kind of close to them
[00:25:58.050]but they can't get it, and then as soon as they say,
[00:26:01.417]"LEGOs", all on their own, you're going
[00:26:03.870]to give them more LEGOs, say maybe 10 pieces of LEGOs,
[00:26:07.750]and then also make sure to pair that response form,
[00:26:11.310]so you're going to say, "LEGOs!",
[00:26:13.230]while you're handing them 10 LEGOs.
[00:26:16.630]For the With-in Trial Transfer,
[00:26:19.000]this simply means that we are going
[00:26:20.860]to fade the prompt out within the trial.
[00:26:24.220]So, we are going to first check for motivation,
[00:26:26.970]providing our student with two separate options
[00:26:30.150]of their preferred items.
[00:26:31.600]They'll demonstrate motivation towards one of the items.
[00:26:35.020]We then prompt by labeling the item
[00:26:38.210]and pause, waiting for the student to echo the prompt.
[00:26:42.380]The student does not gain access to the item quite yet.
[00:26:46.540]This is where With-in Trial Transfer differs
[00:26:49.920]from the Second Trial Transfer.
[00:26:51.830]So, the student doesn't gain access, we keep a hold of it,
[00:26:55.380]we simply move the item a little bit closer to them
[00:26:59.560]for step four to begin to transfer out the prompt.
[00:27:03.040]We hold the item a little bit closer to the student
[00:27:06.460]but this time, we do not prompt them.
[00:27:09.080]We pause for a brief moment, just a couple of seconds,
[00:27:12.890]and wait for the student to mand independently.
[00:27:16.200]Once they mand independently,
[00:27:18.470]we immediately deliver the item,
[00:27:21.010]pairing it with the response form.
[00:27:23.110]So, we simply hand them the item
[00:27:25.500]while labeling the item one last time.
[00:27:29.540]We have been using errorless teaching to teach mands.
[00:27:33.480]Because we're giving them that prompt right away,
[00:27:36.130]hopefully they won't have errors,
[00:27:37.970]hopefully they won't make any mistakes,
[00:27:40.130]but just in case they do, we have what's called
[00:27:42.360]a Mand Error Correction Procedure.
[00:27:45.030]The basic steps in this procedure
[00:27:46.920]are just to remove the reinforcer
[00:27:49.390]because errors should never contact reinforcement.
[00:27:52.640]So, we're simply going to take the item or activity away
[00:27:55.800]from the student and then prompt their hands
[00:27:58.950]to a neutral position if necessary,
[00:28:01.280]pause for just a couple of seconds,
[00:28:03.920]and that's so that they don't accidentally connect
[00:28:06.780]the error with the correct response.
[00:28:09.090]So, you're pausing just to end
[00:28:11.290]and re-present with a new trial.
[00:28:13.590]On step four, you re-present and you immediately prompt.
[00:28:17.260]So, you're immediately giving them that correct answer
[00:28:20.370]or correct way of manding.
[00:28:22.210]And then step five, you're going to do the transfer trial,
[00:28:25.400]so either the Second Trial Transfer
[00:28:27.620]or the With-in Trial Transfer, depending on your student
[00:28:31.220]and the item that you're using to mand with.
[00:28:34.530]Let's recap what we've learned through this presentation.
[00:28:37.790]In Part One, we've covered how
[00:28:40.050]to utilize your student's motivation
[00:28:42.360]to increase learning opportunities
[00:28:44.500]by using communication through manding
[00:28:47.300]to decrease problem behavior.
[00:28:49.030]We've also covered the types of mands
[00:28:51.280]and varieties of response forms,
[00:28:53.370]so you know that students can mand for items
[00:28:55.770]that are right there in front of them,
[00:28:57.270]they can mand for missing items,
[00:28:59.400]they can mand for attention, they can mand for information.
[00:29:02.960]So, there's lots of different types of mands.
[00:29:04.700]There's also a variety of response forms.
[00:29:06.850]So, they can mand through vocal speech,
[00:29:08.870]they can mand through sign language,
[00:29:10.680]through PECS, through AAC devices.
[00:29:13.030]There are lots of different ways
[00:29:14.250]to do this form of communication.
[00:29:16.330]We talked about errorless teaching
[00:29:18.380]and error correction procedures for teaching manding.
[00:29:21.240]So, we talked about looking for motivation, prompting them,
[00:29:24.520]doing the transfer trial, and then making sure
[00:29:27.150]to pair that response form as we deliver the item.
[00:29:30.770]And with an error correction,
[00:29:32.070]we simply remove the reinforcement,
[00:29:34.190]pause for a couple seconds, and then re-present the trial.
[00:29:37.670]So, prompt and do the transfer trial
[00:29:40.430]and again pair that response form when we deliver the item.
[00:29:43.740]We also discussed how to create obtainable, functional,
[00:29:47.560]individualized manding goals for your learners.
[00:29:50.130]So, make sure that it's meaningful to them,
[00:29:52.900]that it's something that they are really motivated by,
[00:29:55.690]and then that's going to be
[00:29:57.100]your priority target goals for manding.
[00:30:00.850]What do you think?
[00:30:01.810]What is one big takeaway that could help your student?
[00:30:11.020]Thank you for viewing this presentation.
[00:30:13.370]Please join us for part two of this webinar
[00:30:15.980]where we'll focus on student goals
[00:30:18.160]and how to track mand data.
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