Why is Escape or Avoidance Behavior Happening? How Do Motivating Operations Affect Behavior in the Classroom?
This webinar will cover the following:
What is a Motivating Operation?
How does the Conditioned Motivating Operation- Reflexive effect the behavior of our students with autism?
How can we effectively abolish the CMO-R and improve behavior?
What role does the CMO-R play in your Behavior Intervention Plan?
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[00:00:04.848]There will be three presenters for today's webinar.
[00:00:07.830]My name is Teri McGill and I'm a metro region
[00:00:10.450]ASD Coordinator for the Nebraska ASD Network
[00:00:13.550]and a board certified Behavior Analyst.
[00:00:16.060]Beth Klootwyk is a school psychologist
[00:00:18.544]for Elkhom Public Schools in Nebraska
[00:00:21.440]and also a board certified Behavior Analyst.
[00:00:24.020]Amber Wicherski is a Special Educator Coordinator
[00:00:26.780]for Omaha Public Schools in Nebraska
[00:00:29.140]and will be sitting for her BCBA exam in February.
[00:00:33.280]Today, our learner objectives are
[00:00:35.000]what is a motivating operation,
[00:00:37.517]how does conditioned motivating operation-reflexive
[00:00:41.250]affect the behavior of our students with autism,
[00:00:44.070]how can we effectively abolish the CMO-R
[00:00:46.930]and improve behavior,
[00:00:48.500]and what role does the CMO-R play
[00:00:52.150]in your behavior intervention plan?
[00:00:54.350]We're gonna start today by talking about
[00:00:56.060]what is a motivating operation.
[00:00:58.877]In understanding motivating operations,
[00:01:01.970]we're gonna talk quickly just about two.
[00:01:04.640]We're gonna talk about the transitive, or the CMO-T,
[00:01:08.290]and the reflexive, CMO-R.
[00:01:10.530]With the transitive,
[00:01:12.400]when we talk about motivating operations-transitive,
[00:01:15.120]we're looking at due to a history of reinforcement,
[00:01:18.240]the presentation or occurrence of one stimulus
[00:01:20.840]alters the value of another stimulus.
[00:01:23.960]When you kind of hear me say that,
[00:01:26.720]it may not make a lot of sense to a lot of people out there,
[00:01:30.010]but we have a couple examples that might help with that.
[00:01:33.230]The work table becomes valuable to our students
[00:01:36.210]because when they go to the work table, they get good stuff.
[00:01:39.310]Those really reinforcing items are there at the work table.
[00:01:43.968]Another example that many of us out there
[00:01:46.840]might really, really get into a little bit more,
[00:01:51.360]the corkscrew really isn't valuable initially
[00:01:55.100]when it's sitting in the drawer,
[00:01:56.950]but if you have a bottle of wine,
[00:01:59.060]the corkscrew is now more valuable
[00:02:01.500]because you have that bottle of wine
[00:02:03.120]and it now can be something you can use to access that wine.
[00:02:07.550]When we talk about conditioned motivating
[00:02:11.500]we're talking about due to a history
[00:02:14.120]of being associated with an antecedent
[00:02:16.264]to some worsening conditions,
[00:02:19.596]the removal of that warning signal becomes valuable
[00:02:23.460]and often times evokes behavior
[00:02:25.240]that serves to stop the warning signal.
[00:02:28.490]Again, that's a pretty technical definition,
[00:02:31.600]but what we really want you to understand is that
[00:02:33.680]something is signaling to our students
[00:02:36.560]that worsening conditions are ahead and
[00:02:39.110]they're gonna work really, really hard
[00:02:40.870]in order to stop that from happening.
[00:02:44.480]It's valuable and it's gonna evoke behavior
[00:02:47.250]because there's a lot of value
[00:02:48.300]in stopping that warning signal.
[00:02:50.080]An example is a transition cue card
[00:02:53.310]or a verbal cue time to work.
[00:02:55.936]Lots of our kids would hear that cue
[00:02:58.510]and that would signal worsening conditions
[00:03:00.280]'cause time to work means we're gonna
[00:03:01.640]present a task immediately.
[00:03:03.800]I'm just gonna kind of summarize here that the CMO-R,
[00:03:07.050]or conditioned motivating operation-reflexive,
[00:03:09.620]really is a warning signal,
[00:03:12.290]a motivating operation that serves as a warning signal
[00:03:15.816]and establishes the value of terminating the warning signal.
[00:03:20.980]If we wanna think about that in real simple terminology,
[00:03:23.820]it's one of our kids saying I'm really
[00:03:26.208]going to work hard to keep this from happening.
[00:03:29.300]Generally, the way they're going to do that
[00:03:31.050]is through behavior.
[00:03:32.477]Now we're gonna go through some examples
[00:03:35.208]of conditioned motivating operations.
[00:03:38.058]If you see your student running away from you
[00:03:42.500]when you approach them,
[00:03:44.320]it could be signaling worsening conditions,
[00:03:48.120]or if you see a student get upset
[00:03:51.680]and maybe they are breaking a pencil
[00:03:55.750]after you have said time for writing,
[00:03:58.668]that could be signaling worsening conditions.
[00:04:03.810]If you say it's my turn, it's time to work,
[00:04:07.210]and now you're taking away that preferred item,
[00:04:10.200]that could also be worsening conditions.
[00:04:13.184]We say recess is done, come here Paige,
[00:04:17.590]that could signal worsening conditions because now,
[00:04:20.530]I don't get to be at recess anymore.
[00:04:23.600]What this looks like in the classroom
[00:04:24.860]or how this happens in the classroom
[00:04:26.844]can look like many different ways.
[00:04:28.910]One example is that when work begins
[00:04:31.500]by taking away preferred items,
[00:04:33.400]often times a student has a preferred item
[00:04:35.930]and so that they'll work,
[00:04:37.060]we take the item away and that ends up signaling
[00:04:39.504]that work is going to happen next.
[00:04:42.340]Another example is sometimes issues with
[00:04:46.220]frequency, magnitude, or value of the reinforcer,
[00:04:49.812]is it worth it?
[00:04:51.680]We think about the behavioral economics
[00:04:53.980]and is the work that you're asking me to do
[00:04:55.860]worth the reinforcer I'm getting.
[00:04:58.230]Another example would be issues with
[00:05:00.830]difficulty of expected responses.
[00:05:02.660]Is the work that we're giving them too hard
[00:05:05.304]or is it work that they're able to complete?
[00:05:08.200]Then also, issues with frequent learner errors.
[00:05:10.613]Are we using errorless teaching
[00:05:12.750]or are we setting students up for failure
[00:05:14.770]and are making many mistakes?
[00:05:17.484]Some examples of stimuli that become a CMO-R,
[00:05:21.264]when tasks are too difficult,
[00:05:24.000]it might be a specific work table
[00:05:25.692]because they only have to work at that table
[00:05:27.700]and good things aren't happening,
[00:05:29.604]cool down spots or chill spots,
[00:05:32.470]an SLP's office or any location within the school
[00:05:35.379]or the building that signals that they have to work,
[00:05:39.150]maybe different fine motor tasks,
[00:05:41.310]using the student's or the child's name
[00:05:43.201]every time that you're asking them
[00:05:44.850]to do something they don't wanna do,
[00:05:46.790]multiple step directions that are too difficult,
[00:05:49.620]when you're using phrases like ready hands,
[00:05:51.940]look at me, or my turn or give cues
[00:05:54.800]can also be examples because often times,
[00:05:57.830]those proceed having to work.
[00:06:00.241]Let's talk a little bit about
[00:06:01.930]how a conditioned motivating operation-transitive
[00:06:04.460]fits into this picture.
[00:06:07.352]What we really wanna do with our students
[00:06:10.430]is create motivation.
[00:06:12.010]We wanna capture the child's motivation
[00:06:14.470]and then we need the task we are presenting
[00:06:17.010]to becomes more valuable because
[00:06:20.070]it gets the child what they want, which is that reinforcer.
[00:06:23.420]We're actually hoping that we can make
[00:06:25.600]that task more valuable to them
[00:06:27.920]because they learn that if they do that task,
[00:06:29.840]then they quickly get that highly preferred item.
[00:06:33.760]Now let's do polling question number one.
[00:06:36.530]CMO-R is an A, conditioned motivating operation-transitive,
[00:06:42.200]B, warning signal for worsening conditions,
[00:06:45.330]C, collaborative motivating opportunity-responsive,
[00:06:50.680]or D, I don't know.
[00:06:52.820]The answer is B, CMO-R is a warning signal
[00:06:57.300]for worsening condition.
[00:06:59.100]Why is abolishing the CMO-R important?
[00:07:02.230]Instructional control is a key variable
[00:07:04.310]in successfully working with students with ASD,
[00:07:07.220]but in order to gain instructional control,
[00:07:09.330]we must first abolish the CMO-R.
[00:07:12.320]Teams must consider why the activity,
[00:07:14.670]the person leading that activity,
[00:07:16.580]the area in the classroom or outside of the classroom,
[00:07:19.300]that task or that expectation is aversive to the child.
[00:07:23.350]We really must become a detective
[00:07:25.550]in figuring out what is happening in that situation
[00:07:29.680]that is giving that child a warning signal
[00:07:32.720]for worsening conditions.
[00:07:35.457]How are we gonna abolish that CMO-R?
[00:07:37.570]The warning signal must first be stopped,
[00:07:40.580]we have to stop that warning signal,
[00:07:42.610]we have to stop it from being paired
[00:07:44.130]with the worsening conditions for the learner.
[00:07:46.630]For example, we might start with a reinforcing activity
[00:07:50.700]when a child comes over to a work area.
[00:07:53.190]Don't present the hard task immediately
[00:07:55.540]when you get them to that work table, but instead,
[00:07:57.961]do something reinforcing,
[00:08:00.650]or we might change what has served as a warning signal
[00:08:05.200]to be conditioned as a signal for improving conditions
[00:08:08.270]or that CMO-T.
[00:08:10.580]One example of that is possibly that
[00:08:13.770]transition cue card now could signal reinforcement.
[00:08:18.790]When you show that card,
[00:08:19.990]the student knows that if I transition,
[00:08:22.757]a preferred activity or reinforcer
[00:08:26.450]is going to happen at that work table.
[00:08:29.410]Another example is using a promise reinforcer
[00:08:32.000]with a transition cue card so that
[00:08:34.630]they can see right away that as they transition,
[00:08:37.320]there will be something good that happens
[00:08:39.573]while they move to the next area.
[00:08:42.630]Things to consider in abolishing the CMO-R.
[00:08:46.681]We'll wanna do some pairing.
[00:08:49.650]Are your students coming to you and not running away?
[00:08:53.730]If they are running away, you are the CMO-R.
[00:08:58.190]We'll wanna consider instructional level.
[00:09:00.830]Does the student understand the task demands?
[00:09:04.570]We're gonna wanna start with easy tasks
[00:09:07.770]and then mix those easy skills with harder skills.
[00:09:11.830]Remember that 80/20 ratio and we wanna
[00:09:15.620]make sure we're understanding the child's skillset.
[00:09:19.645]We'll also wanna reduce task demands.
[00:09:23.081]We're gonna do this through intentional use of shaping
[00:09:27.450]and we're gonna accept approximations
[00:09:29.560]so the child does not get frustrated
[00:09:32.090]and then we'll shape the response.
[00:09:35.229]We'll also want to include reinforcement.
[00:09:39.020]We want to make it worth the child working that hard.
[00:09:44.870]Our reinforcement needs to be motivating enough
[00:09:50.320]for them to work hard.
[00:09:53.020]We also wanna be aware of prompting levels.
[00:09:56.380]What prompts are needed for those tasks?
[00:10:01.494]We want to vary our tasks,
[00:10:04.340]vary those trials and vary the materials
[00:10:09.440]in order to reduce too much repetition and boredom.
[00:10:13.500]Pairing is a strongly recommended
[00:10:15.090]strategy for abolishing the CMO-R.
[00:10:17.905]When we talk about pairing,
[00:10:19.790]it's about making yourself a reinforcer to that student.
[00:10:23.470]There are a few tips to remember.
[00:10:25.860]Remember that reinforcement is free when you are pairing.
[00:10:28.800]The student should not have to work
[00:10:30.510]to get that reinforcement.
[00:10:32.500]Reinforce all interactions and engagement,
[00:10:35.240]narrate the activities rather than instruct,
[00:10:38.409]so discuss what you're doing, use vocabulary,
[00:10:41.520]and have fun with the student during that time
[00:10:43.450]rather than placing demands on them.
[00:10:45.820]Do not turn reinforcing activities into tasks or work,
[00:10:50.450]avoid statements such as stop, no, and don't,
[00:10:53.890]avoid asking questions.
[00:10:56.080]Remember that asking questions can be a demand.
[00:10:59.450]Pair your voice and the child's name with reinforcement
[00:11:02.330]so the child is used to you using their name
[00:11:04.580]with good things rather than just to redirect them,
[00:11:07.680]and evaluate yourself often.
[00:11:09.400]Does the child run to you or run away from you?
[00:11:12.030]You will also have access to a handout called
[00:11:14.240]How to Establish Yourself as a Reinforcer
[00:11:16.480]with additional tips on how to use this intervention.
[00:11:19.410]Now it's time for polling question number two.
[00:11:22.350]You're gonna watch the following video
[00:11:24.490]and then answer the question.
[00:11:26.280]Which of the following best describes
[00:11:28.280]what is happening in this video,
[00:11:30.130]A, one-on-one instruction, B, nothing,
[00:11:34.930]C, pairing, or D, verbal behavior?
[00:11:39.470]Mommy, look it.
[00:11:40.854]Pony, pony, pony.
[00:11:41.687]Look at the sand!
[00:11:43.183]And the pony is jumping in the sand.
[00:11:45.980]Look it, this is the river.
[00:11:47.870]And the river.
[00:11:49.240]Let's see, should more ponies come?
[00:11:51.893]More ponies are coming to the river!
[00:11:55.923]They're jumping in the water!
This pony's taking a drink.
[00:11:59.450]This pony's drinking.
[00:12:01.600]I'm gonna go get Twilight.
[00:12:06.998]Twilight is joining us in the pink sand.
[00:12:11.870]Twilight is flying.
[00:12:14.780]Here's a castle.
[00:12:16.725]This castle's the pony's castle.
[00:12:18.400]Get the sand in there.
[00:12:20.000]You're putting the sand in.
[00:12:22.340]Paige, good work.
[00:12:24.430]It's a lot of sand.
[00:12:26.417]There you go.
[00:12:32.117]And you put more in.
[00:12:33.950]You're doing it!
[00:12:35.020]You're putting sand in the castle.
[00:12:39.000]I wrecked that.
[00:12:44.780]Twilight's getting buried.
[00:12:47.200]That's her normal self, but this is her real self.
[00:12:50.790]Here, she has wings and this is her without wings.
[00:12:54.510]She looks like a princess here with the crown.
[00:12:56.941]But then she's just a normal pony right here.
[00:12:59.610]Right there she's a normal pony.
[00:13:02.170]The answer to the polling question is C, pairing.
[00:13:05.090]When you watch this video,
[00:13:06.480]it's demonstrating how to pair yourself with reinforcement
[00:13:09.300]when working with a child.
[00:13:10.965]When you watch the adult in the video,
[00:13:13.680]they are not giving any demands,
[00:13:15.920]but she is narrating the activities that she's doing
[00:13:18.620]and the activities that the child's doing.
[00:13:21.090]She's pairing her voice with the child's name
[00:13:23.560]in a really positive, positive way
[00:13:26.030]and they're basically having fun
[00:13:27.690]with the items that are reinforcing to that child.
[00:13:30.601]There are lots of important skills
[00:13:32.330]you can teach to avoid the dreaded CMO-R,
[00:13:34.965]teaching things like how to sit,
[00:13:37.109]teaching the cue ready hands,
[00:13:40.120]teaching students to wait or give up a reinforcer,
[00:13:44.480]also teaching them how to transition
[00:13:46.230]with using a promise reinforcer,
[00:13:48.150]skills like come here and walk with me.
[00:13:51.240]When you're using a promise reinforcer,
[00:13:52.960]you're gonna have the promise reinforcer visible
[00:13:55.360]so the student can see it.
[00:13:56.730]You're either holding it in your hand
[00:13:58.690]or you're holding it out so they can see it.
[00:14:01.070]We don't wanna be waving it around.
[00:14:02.620]We simply just wanna be holding it with us.
[00:14:05.170]You're going to give the direction.
[00:14:06.610]If the child follows the direction,
[00:14:08.240]they get the promise reinforcer.
[00:14:10.770]If you have the promise reinforcer
[00:14:13.200]and you give the direction and instead,
[00:14:15.297]you have problem behavior,
[00:14:17.470]you're gonna redirect or prompt that child
[00:14:19.750]so that they do the instruction and then
[00:14:22.220]they will get a less preferred reinforcement,
[00:14:25.781]something like a B reinforcer.
[00:14:28.670]Over time, you will need to fade the promise reinforcer.
[00:14:31.710]I'm going to give you an example
[00:14:32.960]how to use the reinforcer when teaching a skill.
[00:14:37.437]When teaching a learner to give up a reinforcer,
[00:14:40.110]a promise reinforcer can be really, really helpful.
[00:14:43.200]Use a promise reinforcer and teach the child to trade.
[00:14:47.240]Start really early teaching this skill.
[00:14:49.450]It's important to practice this skill often,
[00:14:51.590]but be cautious.
[00:14:53.150]Don't do it too much or every time you approach the child,
[00:14:56.233]you could become that CMO-R and it's
[00:14:59.580]really important to practice it in the natural environment.
[00:15:02.540]If you want to trade the iPad because
[00:15:05.450]the child is watching a video,
[00:15:07.920]you might hold an edible out in your hand and say
[00:15:11.390]give and as you get the iPad,
[00:15:15.250]you would be handing them the edible reinforcer.
[00:15:19.402]When teaching your learner to follow
[00:15:21.550]the cue come here and then transition,
[00:15:24.370]we're again gonna use that promise reinforcer.
[00:15:26.717]You're gonna have that promise reinforcer
[00:15:29.360]again in your hand, it's visible for the student,
[00:15:33.720]and you're always gonna make it playful.
[00:15:35.860]We really when we wanna teach a child to come here
[00:15:38.660]or teach them to transition to different
[00:15:40.520]areas in the classroom and eventually outside the classroom,
[00:15:43.570]we wanna be sure that it's a fun activity.
[00:15:46.100]Frequent reinforcement is given
[00:15:47.840]when that child is staying near the adult
[00:15:49.840]and not engaging in that problem behavior,
[00:15:52.272]so when they're coming to you or transitioning to you
[00:15:54.900]and using those appropriate behaviors.
[00:15:57.510]Once the student begins to transition in one location,
[00:16:00.170]you can offer a lot of opportunities
[00:16:01.900]to access reinforcement in other locations.
[00:16:04.783]The SD, or the verbal cue come here,
[00:16:09.343]or the adult could choose some other verbal cue,
[00:16:12.403]that will eventually signal reinforcement is available
[00:16:15.583]when the child does come to you in that alternate location.
[00:16:21.100]We're gonna show you an example of this
[00:16:23.360]in the video to follow,
[00:16:24.899]but I do want to remind you that
[00:16:27.570]when you're using that promise reinforcer
[00:16:29.930]in order to teach come here or teach
[00:16:32.550]a child to transition using that come here verbal cue,
[00:16:36.990]we are gonna want to fade out the
[00:16:38.610]promise reinforcer eventually.
[00:16:40.800]The other thing to keep in mind is that
[00:16:42.420]you can use a prompter,
[00:16:44.100]especially when you start teaching kids
[00:16:45.600]to transition further away.
[00:16:48.550]You can use an additional person
[00:16:51.090]to kind of stand behind the individual,
[00:16:53.620]or help guide that individual from behind,
[00:16:56.140]but then remember, you also have to fade that prompter out
[00:17:00.420]so the child can independently transition.
[00:17:07.603]You came here and sat down.
[00:17:10.886]Working at a table can sometimes be difficult.
[00:17:13.300]We must first start by establishing the table
[00:17:16.170]as a place of reinforcement.
[00:17:18.130]We need to pair the table with reinforcing items
[00:17:21.000]and that also includes the teacher
[00:17:23.610]or the adult who's at the table.
[00:17:25.910]You have to shape this over time,
[00:17:27.800]but don't make work a priority too early.
[00:17:30.810]Spend time initially pairing the table and yourself
[00:17:35.330]with those fun reinforcers.
[00:17:37.190]Remember the tips that we talked about
[00:17:38.930]earlier for pairing.
[00:17:40.610]Make the time at the table short to begin with
[00:17:44.320]and then you can start to increase it
[00:17:46.530]as the child does better with the adult
[00:17:49.000]and at the work table.
[00:17:51.060]Types of tasks presented, at first,
[00:17:54.450]we're gonna do pairing so we're gonna
[00:17:56.090]only start with those reinforcing items.
[00:17:58.920]Then eventually, we can move into some easy skills
[00:18:02.690]that the child's good at and then
[00:18:04.750]we can start fading in some demands
[00:18:06.700]that are a little bit more difficult.
[00:18:08.550]You're always going to mix those
[00:18:10.440]harder skills with those known skills.
[00:18:15.220]The last example of a skill to teach
[00:18:17.050]that we're gonna talk about is ready hands.
[00:18:19.190]You must first have established approach behavior,
[00:18:23.120]making sure your students are coming towards you.
[00:18:25.950]You need to do that using pairing.
[00:18:28.290]Remember those really highly preferred reinforcers
[00:18:31.210]and look at some of those tips for pairing.
[00:18:33.340]It's really going to help you with that approach behavior.
[00:18:36.260]You could start by describing or modeling
[00:18:40.130]what ready hands looks like.
[00:18:41.510]Sometimes it's clasped hands together, but other times,
[00:18:46.190]it's just lying their hands on top of the table
[00:18:48.550]nicely on top of each other.
[00:18:50.450]You as the adult can define what ready hands looks like.
[00:18:54.270]Initially, we'd start that as an imitation skill,
[00:18:56.740]so we simply say do this and we would model ready hands.
[00:19:00.770]Then you can move it to a listener response,
[00:19:03.210]show me ready hands.
[00:19:05.240]Use ready hands, that verbal prompter,
[00:19:09.220]that verbal cue with caution.
[00:19:10.810]Don't use it too often.
[00:19:13.100]You may need to reinforce.
[00:19:14.940]A really good trick for that is once
[00:19:16.590]they show you ready hands,
[00:19:18.040]you don't really wanna give them a reinforcer
[00:19:20.490]because you're getting ready to start working,
[00:19:23.010]but you can turn on a light up toy
[00:19:25.310]or a music toy really fast,
[00:19:27.190]you can drive the car on their leg or up their arm,
[00:19:30.787]there's a variety of things that you can do
[00:19:33.230]for just a few quick seconds to reinforce
[00:19:35.650]that they showed you ready hands.
[00:19:38.150]Now it's time for poll question number three.
[00:19:40.690]You're gonna watch the following video
[00:19:42.320]and then answer this question.
[00:19:44.490]Which of the following best describes
[00:19:46.130]what strategy the adult is using to teach come here,
[00:19:50.410]A, I don't think she is teaching,
[00:19:52.620]B, promise reinforcer, or C, only verbal?
[00:20:00.271]Nice job coming here.
[00:20:01.730]The answer is B.
[00:20:03.310]She's using a promise reinforcer.
[00:20:06.590]The adult has determined through a reinforcer assessment
[00:20:10.660]that the stuffed animal is highly preferred.
[00:20:13.070]The adult will slowly increase the distance
[00:20:15.247]between her and the child so the child
[00:20:18.220]will have to come to her from varying distances
[00:20:21.480]that are increasing.
[00:20:23.980]Then they will also begin to fade that promise reinforcer.
[00:20:27.400]Like I mentioned on a slide earlier,
[00:20:29.000]a shadow prompter can be used if needed
[00:20:31.131]to help teach come here.
[00:20:33.995]In the next section,
[00:20:35.010]we're gonna talk about how to incorporate
[00:20:37.020]this new information into your behavior plan.
[00:20:41.603]First, we have to find out what the function is.
[00:20:47.050]What is reinforcing and maintaining that problem behavior,
[00:20:50.580]that is what the function is.
[00:20:52.650]You need to work with your school team
[00:20:54.648]on a function behavior assessment
[00:20:58.400]to determine a possible hypothesis
[00:21:00.762]for the function of behavior.
[00:21:03.433]We will talk about a few things for your team to consider
[00:21:07.220]after you have determined that function.
[00:21:10.710]Then you can move into your behavior intervention plan.
[00:21:15.559]This is a nice little graphic that
[00:21:18.806]shows the functions of behavior.
[00:21:22.220]For today's sake, we are only going to focus
[00:21:25.380]on that escape behavior, that escape function.
[00:21:32.060]While we're developing a plan
[00:21:33.782]and we have determined that the function is escape,
[00:21:37.630]remember that that could mean avoid something,
[00:21:41.210]delay a task, or altogether escape that task,
[00:21:44.427]but also could mean to avoid a person
[00:21:46.460]or a specific social interaction.
[00:21:50.070]We really need to understand the possible
[00:21:51.750]strategies we can use for escape behavior.
[00:21:54.820]Just a reminder that that CMO-R remember
[00:21:57.540]is signaling worsening conditions
[00:21:59.040]and that might look a variety of different ways.
[00:22:02.330]That could be happening because there's a difficult task,
[00:22:04.960]or that child has academic deficits,
[00:22:07.230]so they're going to try to escape any of that academic work.
[00:22:11.310]It could be that they have non-preferred tasks
[00:22:13.350]so they're trying to escape those tasks
[00:22:15.040]that they don't like to do.
[00:22:15.920]For a lot of our kids, those could be writing tasks,
[00:22:18.740]those could be fine motor tasks,
[00:22:20.450]all of those kinds of things.
[00:22:22.180]It could be anything new or unfamiliar.
[00:22:23.920]We have some kids on the spectrum
[00:22:25.410]who don't like to have new things put in front of them,
[00:22:27.830]makes them uncomfortable,
[00:22:28.900]they're not sure how to proceed with that new task.
[00:22:32.020]It could be the rate of presentation.
[00:22:34.220]It could be that we're presenting things too quickly,
[00:22:36.920]but often times what I notice is that
[00:22:38.650]we're presenting things too slowly
[00:22:40.500]and so we're actually losing our kids.
[00:22:42.960]We are not prepared and we don't have our materials ready
[00:22:46.490]so often times when we stop, our kids are having to wait,
[00:22:51.900]which many of our kids on the spectrum
[00:22:53.660]aren't really, really good at.
[00:22:56.410]The rate of presentation can also definitely become a CMO-R.
[00:23:01.790]Then the number of tasks we're doing,
[00:23:03.550]we might be doing too many tasks.
[00:23:05.940]That could be a day-to-day decision
[00:23:08.084]based on how that student is doing during that day.
[00:23:11.280]Then also, social deficits.
[00:23:12.950]When we talk about them trying to avoid
[00:23:14.630]a person or an interaction,
[00:23:16.280]it could be that those social deficits
[00:23:18.410]are getting in the way so they don't know how
[00:23:20.370]to interact with peers, so instead,
[00:23:21.960]they just avoid that or try to escape that.
[00:23:24.930]Now we're gonna talk through some specific strategies
[00:23:27.240]that you might have in a behavior plan
[00:23:29.540]if your child is demonstrating escape behavior.
[00:23:33.380]Pairing of course is something we've already talked about
[00:23:35.760]and is really, really important.
[00:23:37.730]Just a reminder, you don't just pair adults,
[00:23:40.190]but you also have to pair your environment,
[00:23:42.290]your work table and other areas of the room
[00:23:45.370]where they might work with that reinforcement.
[00:23:48.240]Premack Principle is simply a first-then or when-then
[00:23:51.551]and this can be a really great way
[00:23:53.350]to show kids visually when you finish this,
[00:23:56.240]then you can access reinforcement.
[00:23:59.540]High probability sequence based on behavioral momentum.
[00:24:03.180]We're gonna start with three to four easy skills
[00:24:05.843]and then we're gonna slide into
[00:24:08.110]a skill that is more difficult.
[00:24:10.120]Errorless teaching is when we provide a prompt immediately.
[00:24:14.350]By doing this, we reduce frustration because
[00:24:16.727]the student doesn't get the answer incorrect.
[00:24:20.540]Remember when you do use a prompt,
[00:24:22.970]you have to fade the prompt out.
[00:24:25.200]Another strategy is fading in demands.
[00:24:27.459]For fading in demands,
[00:24:28.960]often times we will reduce or take away the demands
[00:24:32.250]and then start slowly fading them back in
[00:24:35.220]so the student can have some success.
[00:24:37.770]Alternating demands is something that we might do again,
[00:24:42.390]kind of based on the child's day,
[00:24:45.191]or based on how their morning was.
[00:24:48.340]We might decide that we're going to
[00:24:51.863]provide the child a task to complete,
[00:24:55.380]but when we give the child the task,
[00:24:57.200]we're going to tell them that we are going to help them.
[00:24:59.670]Really important that you offer that help
[00:25:03.090]when you present that task and not
[00:25:05.020]after inappropriate behavior.
[00:25:07.550]Another way to alter a demand
[00:25:09.460]is decide in your schedule that
[00:25:11.750]maybe we're not going to have a work session
[00:25:14.038]that is following the most highly
[00:25:18.820]preferred activity of the day.
[00:25:20.300]If their favorite activity is recess,
[00:25:23.320]you might not schedule that work session
[00:25:26.080]to happen right after recess.
[00:25:30.060]You might kind of take a look at how
[00:25:31.590]you're placing those demands in the child's day.
[00:25:34.370]Another thing is you could alter demands
[00:25:36.330]by reducing the difficulty of that demand.
[00:25:39.470]Again, you're gonna do this before you present
[00:25:42.100]the task to the child,
[00:25:43.450]but you may decide that they only
[00:25:46.680]have to do part of the task, or fewer pieces of the task,
[00:25:51.686]or fewer problems on the paper,
[00:25:53.880]but you're gonna have that altered
[00:25:55.120]before you give it to the student.
[00:25:57.060]Session duration, one of the most important things
[00:25:59.400]is to remember that we want to end on a positive.
[00:26:02.960]We want to end our work sessions
[00:26:04.830]when the child is demonstrating appropriate behavior.
[00:26:07.760]Don't try to push them too long during that session
[00:26:11.620]because you could then elicit negative behavior
[00:26:15.000]and then you might end up having to stop the session
[00:26:17.380]based on negative behavior.
[00:26:19.790]Structure work into small sections and build in breaks.
[00:26:22.250]For many of our kids, breaks are reinforcing.
[00:26:25.330]You can structure the work ahead of time
[00:26:27.030]so that they can see that if they do this much work,
[00:26:29.240]then they get a break, then they have another section to do,
[00:26:32.050]and then they get a break.
[00:26:33.700]You can also visually show a child
[00:26:35.370]how much work needs to be done in order
[00:26:37.130]to access that reinforcer.
[00:26:38.540]A lot of our structured work systems
[00:26:40.930]are set up to show kids how much work they have to do,
[00:26:43.930]when they're done, and then what will happen,
[00:26:45.710]or what reinforcer they get when they're done.
[00:26:48.130]Task variation or use novel materials
[00:26:50.881]in order to keep our kids from being bored
[00:26:53.810]or asking them to do the same thing over and over again.
[00:26:56.640]Providing choices is always a great way
[00:26:58.720]to avoid kids trying to escape.
[00:27:01.930]Show them the task that they're going to be doing
[00:27:04.350]and allow them to help make choices
[00:27:06.180]on which task they'll do first,
[00:27:07.760]which task they'll do second, which task they'll do third.
[00:27:11.110]Functional communication is always, always a priority.
[00:27:14.521]There's a lot of different ways you can
[00:27:16.250]teach functional communication.
[00:27:17.770]You can use the count and mand procedure,
[00:27:20.210]or you can teach kids to mand for a break, or mand for help,
[00:27:23.700]or mand for other areas in their communication.
[00:27:28.845]At the end here, we just have a little note.
[00:27:32.010]When we are teaching kids to mand for break,
[00:27:35.950]we are actually permitting escape for a specific time.
[00:27:40.120]We want you to know that you should use that cautiously.
[00:27:43.151]When we are actually permitting a child
[00:27:46.580]to leave the table for a specific amount of time,
[00:27:51.870]we could be actually intensifying that CMO-R.
[00:27:55.520]Use that cautiously and we should consider
[00:27:58.730]only using that for aggressive behaviors
[00:28:01.451]and we should also look at building in structure
[00:28:04.633]for that permitted escape.
[00:28:07.720]Just a little more about what we were talking about.
[00:28:11.353]For problem behavior for socially
[00:28:14.830]mediated negative reinforcement, that escape behavior,
[00:28:17.740]our goal should always be to first abolish the CMO-R.
[00:28:21.870]When we're teaching first work then break too early,
[00:28:24.600]it actually fails to address the CMO-R.
[00:28:28.260]It fails to address that warning signal.
[00:28:33.060]Because we didn't address it,
[00:28:34.660]it actually can intensify that CMO-R.
[00:28:37.677]It intensifies their need to escape working at that table
[00:28:41.390]or working with the adult at that table.
[00:28:44.830]Remember, we have to determine why the activity,
[00:28:47.640]the staff member, the area in the classroom,
[00:28:50.120]why is that a CMO-R.
[00:28:52.710]Then we need to work really hard to abolish that.
[00:28:56.140]There is one exception to that rule
[00:28:58.770]and that's if problem behavior is significantly dangerous.
[00:29:02.070]If that is the case,
[00:29:03.440]then we probably do wanna teach that child
[00:29:06.360]to mand for a break.
[00:29:09.590]We're gonna do that right away so we can maintain safety.
[00:29:12.820]That child might do a little bit of work,
[00:29:14.550]then we have them mand for a break,
[00:29:16.160]and then they get a break, but I just wanna caution you.
[00:29:19.400]You still have to become that CMO-R detective.
[00:29:22.850]You still have to figure out with your team
[00:29:25.477]what is going on that is signaling
[00:29:29.100]to that child worsening conditions.
[00:29:31.600]Although you're teaching that initially
[00:29:33.660]in order to keep the child and everyone else safe,
[00:29:36.049]you need to continue to try and figure out
[00:29:38.730]what that CMO-R is and how you can abolish it.
[00:29:41.880]What does a CMO-R have to do with a behavior plan?
[00:29:46.890]It's an important piece of every BIP.
[00:29:49.980]After determining the function,
[00:29:51.770]you must consider how do we abolish the CMO-R.
[00:29:55.945]We need to reduce that student's motivation
[00:29:59.040]to engage in problem behavior.
[00:30:02.900]There are three easy steps to get started with your BIP.
[00:30:06.390]First, you need to reduce that CMO-R.
[00:30:08.970]You need to reduce the student's motivation
[00:30:11.660]to engage in that problem behavior.
[00:30:14.330]Then, you're going to teach a competing
[00:30:16.970]or a replacement skill.
[00:30:19.180]Typically, this is going to be in the same
[00:30:21.280]functional response class as that problem behavior.
[00:30:25.565]Then you're going to look at consequence.
[00:30:28.680]You're gonna try to use extinction if possible
[00:30:31.550]to make that problem behavior ineffective.
[00:30:34.500]Socially mediated negative reinforcement,
[00:30:37.579]escape, avoid, or delay a task.
[00:30:41.599]We're going to reduce that MO,
[00:30:44.509]get rid of that CMO-R and you're gonna
[00:30:47.420]consider strategies based on that
[00:30:49.720]specific behavior that they're doing.
[00:30:52.280]You're going to teach that competing skill,
[00:30:54.493]maybe it's teaching compliance to instruction
[00:30:58.780]within two to four seconds,
[00:31:00.720]and then look at those consequences,
[00:31:03.470]put that behavior on extinction if possible.
[00:31:06.870]Some things you might look at is that
[00:31:10.220]demand within the student's repertoire.
[00:31:12.920]Are they able to do it?
[00:31:14.370]If they are, then we're gonna hold to the demand,
[00:31:18.990]we're gonna provide prompting or reduce that task demand
[00:31:22.668]and then provide a level B reinforcer.
[00:31:26.180]Remember, we use the best reinforcer for the best behavior.
[00:31:31.840]You only use that level A reinforcer
[00:31:34.240]if you did not need to do that prompting
[00:31:37.390]or redirect that student.
[00:31:40.200]If you need to, you might also need to include
[00:31:42.930]some other specific things like we're not gonna do that now,
[00:31:47.101]so it's the not now with a plan,
[00:31:50.020]but this is when you can do that activity.
[00:31:53.355]If the student does not have that skill in their repertoire,
[00:31:57.323]we need to alter that demand and then provide prompting
[00:32:00.543]or change the task completely.
[00:32:04.263]Let's practice a scenario.
[00:32:06.790]After John finishes a new math task,
[00:32:09.020]another new task is placed in front of him
[00:32:11.140]and the direction is given time to start working.
[00:32:14.430]John grabs the adult and throws the task on the floor.
[00:32:17.560]With access to data and the FBA,
[00:32:19.710]the team makes the hypothesis that the
[00:32:21.560]function of the behavior is escape.
[00:32:24.600]As a team, you need to determine possible interventions.
[00:32:28.270]Ideas for the first step in the process
[00:32:30.460]of reducing the CMO-R might be mixing easy and hard tasks,
[00:32:35.050]visually showing John how many tasks
[00:32:37.040]he'll do before he can access the reinforcement,
[00:32:39.750]determine if John's reinforcement schedule is in place
[00:32:42.523]and/or visually showing him his reinforcer.
[00:32:46.060]In the second step, the team might consider teaching
[00:32:49.100]a new replacement skill such as teaching manding for help,
[00:32:53.370]teaching the student or teaching John
[00:32:55.400]to ask for one more minute,
[00:32:57.450]asking if he can do another task first
[00:33:00.550]or asking to take a break or get a drink.
[00:33:03.850]In the third step, the team may consider
[00:33:06.040]consequence intervention such as putting
[00:33:08.580]behavior on extinction such as ignoring the behavior,
[00:33:12.774]holding to that demand,
[00:33:14.400]and providing prompts or helping by reducing
[00:33:16.920]those task demands and then providing
[00:33:19.190]that level B reinforcer when they're a success.
[00:33:21.938]Now we're gonna do a scenario together.
[00:33:25.120]The teacher enters the room and
[00:33:26.590]walks over to Susie and gives her the
[00:33:28.660]work table picture and says, come with me, time to work.
[00:33:32.740]Susie screams and runs away from the teacher
[00:33:34.900]to the other side of the room.
[00:33:36.720]With access to data and the FBA,
[00:33:39.230]the team makes the hypothesis that the
[00:33:41.470]function of the behavior is escape.
[00:33:43.760]We're gonna practice our three step method.
[00:33:46.150]Remember, step one is reduce the CMO-R,
[00:33:49.550]step two is teach a competing skill, a replacement skill,
[00:33:53.460]and step three is consequence if possible,
[00:33:56.230]putting the behavior on extinction.
[00:33:59.040]Based on the scenario that I just read,
[00:34:01.600]choose one area and briefly respond in the chat box.
[00:34:05.750]You can put a number one if you're
[00:34:07.480]giving ideas on how to reduce the CMO-R,
[00:34:10.490]a number two with your answer if you have
[00:34:13.286]an idea for a competing skill or a replacement skill,
[00:34:17.454]or you can put a number three if you
[00:34:20.010]have an idea for a consequence,
[00:34:23.066]or if you would like to let us know
[00:34:25.680]if you would use extinction.
[00:34:27.810]We're gonna go over some of the possible answers
[00:34:31.090]to our polling question number four
[00:34:33.050]and then we'll look at some of the things
[00:34:34.640]that you guys also wrote in the chat box.
[00:34:38.894]For reducing the CMO-R,
[00:34:41.190]you could use a promise reinforcer
[00:34:43.250]when transitioning Susie to the work table,
[00:34:46.180]show a preferred activity picture
[00:34:48.130]with the table transition card or that transition cue,
[00:34:51.930]the teacher could spend time pairing with Susie
[00:34:54.810]with preferred activities or reinforcers
[00:34:57.280]in a variety of areas in the classroom
[00:34:59.240]including the work table, we'd be pairing that adult.
[00:35:03.060]We could also maybe consider shortening table session time
[00:35:06.380]as maybe that's part of the issue.
[00:35:09.680]For teaching a competing skill,
[00:35:11.510]we could teach Susie to mand for one more minute
[00:35:15.286]or use a one more minute card.
[00:35:17.758]This is a really great strategy.
[00:35:19.846]It gives our kids time to prepare themselves
[00:35:22.650]for that change.
[00:35:24.300]If you are coming in the classroom
[00:35:26.030]and you are going to be presenting that transition cue card,
[00:35:29.770]you might go over to Susie and say
[00:35:32.040]it's time for us to transition and then
[00:35:34.720]Susie has an opportunity to ask for one more minute.
[00:35:38.440]She only gets to ask for one more minute one time
[00:35:41.020]because she only has one, one more minute card.
[00:35:44.360]Teach transition and/or come here with a promise reinforcer.
[00:35:48.360]Maybe we forgot to teach that skill to come here,
[00:35:52.090]or to give up a reinforcer, or whatever it happens to be.
[00:35:56.654]Then for consequence or putting that behavior on extinction,
[00:36:00.390]we could ignore her behavior,
[00:36:02.860]but if she's trying to escape the work
[00:36:05.520]and she's on the other side of the room,
[00:36:07.500]maybe ignoring the behavior isn't the best solution,
[00:36:10.766]or maybe you're gonna ignore that behavior,
[00:36:13.000]but you are gonna go over and take Susie's hand
[00:36:15.506]and just walk her to the table.
[00:36:17.820]That could be an idea.
[00:36:19.230]You could hold to the demand and bring the work to Susie.
[00:36:22.362]Susie won't come to the work area
[00:36:24.510]where you're trying to transition her to,
[00:36:26.100]but you could bring the work to her
[00:36:28.130]in whatever area she's in and do the work with her there
[00:36:31.230]and then she could receive that level B reinforcer.
[00:36:34.070]Remember, the best reinforcer for the best behavior.
[00:36:37.250]She didn't transition with us,
[00:36:39.400]but she did do the work so we would do a level B reinforcer.
[00:36:43.890]In conclusion, some important things to always consider.
[00:36:47.000]Don't ignore the CMO-R, work to reduce it.
[00:36:49.790]Remember to be that CMO-R detective.
[00:36:52.590]Always ask for help.
[00:36:53.800]Teaming is essential when working on behavior strategies.
[00:36:57.280]Always, always teach the missing skills.
[00:36:59.530]We need to understand if there's a skill
[00:37:01.740]acquisition problem going on here and if so,
[00:37:04.550]what skills can we teach.
[00:37:06.420]Make sure all team members know the plan
[00:37:08.520]and implement that plan with a high degree of fidelity.
[00:37:11.340]Then take data to help guide instructional decisions.
[00:37:15.488]Now we'll open it up to see if anyone has questions.
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