Why is Escape or Avoidance Behavior Happening? How Do Motivating Operations Affect Behavior in the Classroom?
• What is a Motivating Operation?
• How does the Conditioned Motivating Operation- Reflexive effect
the behavior of our students with autism?
• How can we effectively abolish the CMO-R and improve behavior?
• What role does the CMO-R play in your Behavior Intervention
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[00:00:01.180]There will be three presenters
[00:00:02.580]for today's webinar.
[00:00:04.010]My name is Teri McGill
[00:00:05.470]and I'm a metro region ASD coordinator
[00:00:07.990]for the Nebraska ASD Network
[00:00:09.900]and a board-certified behavioral analyst.
[00:00:12.440]Beth Klootwyk is a school psychologist
[00:00:15.590]for Elkhorn Public Schools in Nebraska
[00:00:17.760]and also a board-certified behavioral analyst.
[00:00:20.360]Amber Wicherski is a special education coordinator
[00:00:23.100]for Omaha Public Schools in Nebraska
[00:00:25.500]and will be sitting for her BCBA exam in February.
[00:00:34.220]Today our learner objectives are
[00:00:36.600]what is a motivating operation,
[00:00:38.950]how does condition motivating operation-reflexive effect
[00:01:05.502]the behavior of our students with autism,
[00:01:07.910]how can we effectively abolish the CMO-R
[00:01:11.020]and improve behavior, and what role does the CMO-R play
[00:01:16.700]in your behavior intervention plan?
[00:01:22.750]We're gonna start today by talking about
[00:01:24.470]what is a motivating operation.
[00:01:28.990]So we talk about motivating operations,
[00:01:31.030]we're gonna talk.
[00:01:34.160]So in understanding motivating operations,
[00:01:37.010]we're gonna talk quickly just about two.
[00:01:39.520]So we gonna talk about the transitive,
[00:01:41.230]or the CMO-T, and the reflexive, CMO-R.
[00:01:45.890]So, with the transitive, when we talk
[00:01:47.860]about motivating operations-transitive,
[00:01:50.140]we're looking at, due to a history of reinforcement,
[00:01:53.260]the presentation or occurrence of one stimulus
[00:01:55.870]alters the value of another stimulus.
[00:01:59.120]So, when you hear me say that,
[00:02:01.740]it may not make a lot of sense to a lot of people out there,
[00:02:05.010]but we have a couple examples that might help with that.
[00:02:07.940]So, the work table becomes valuable to our students
[00:02:11.210]because when they go to the work table they get good stuff.
[00:02:14.130]So those really reinforcing items
[00:02:17.060]are there at the work table.
[00:02:19.160]And another example that many of us
[00:02:21.450]out there might really, really
[00:02:24.830]get into a little bit more, the cork screw
[00:02:27.990]really isn't valuable initially when it's sitting
[00:02:30.670]in the drawer, but if you have a bottle of wine,
[00:02:34.030]the cork screw is now more valuable because you have
[00:02:37.070]that bottle of wine and it now can be something
[00:02:39.960]you can use to access that wine.
[00:02:42.500]When we talk about
[00:02:43.390]conditioned motivating operations-reflexive,
[00:02:46.170]again, we're talking about, due to a history
[00:02:49.070]of being associated with an antecedent,
[00:02:52.170]to some worsening conditions,
[00:02:54.870]the removal of that warning signal becomes valuable
[00:02:58.410]and oftentimes evokes behavior that serves
[00:03:00.720]to stop the warning signal.
[00:03:03.200]So again, that's a pretty technical definition,
[00:03:06.550]but what we really want you to understand
[00:03:08.210]is that something is signaling to our students
[00:03:11.510]that worsening conditions are ahead
[00:03:13.560]and they're gonna work really, really hard
[00:03:15.810]in order to stop that from happening, 'kay?
[00:03:19.200]So it's valuable and it's gonna evoke behavior
[00:03:22.190]because there's a lot of value
[00:03:23.220]in stopping that warning signal.
[00:03:24.840]So an example is a transition cue card
[00:03:28.230]or a verbal cue time to work,
[00:03:30.530]so lots of our kids would hear that cue
[00:03:33.410]and that would signal worsening conditions 'cause
[00:03:35.350]time to work means we're gonna present a task immediately.
[00:03:44.210]So I'm just gonna kind of summarize, here, that the CMO-R,
[00:03:47.640]or conditioned motivating operation-reflexive,
[00:03:50.500]really is a warning signal,
[00:03:52.530]so a motivating operation that serves as a warning signal
[00:03:56.240]and establishes the value of terminating the warning signal.
[00:04:01.360]So if we wanna think about that in real simple terminology,
[00:04:04.390]it's one of our kids saying, "I'm really going to work hard
[00:04:08.040]to keep this from happening," and generally
[00:04:10.280]the way they're gonna do that is through behavior.
[00:04:16.320]Okay, now we're gonna go through some examples
[00:04:18.700]of conditioned motivating operations-reflexive.
[00:04:23.310]All right, so if you see your student
[00:04:26.380]running away from you when you approach them,
[00:04:29.390]it could be signaling worsening conditions.
[00:04:35.240]Or if you see a student get upset
[00:04:38.800]and maybe they are breaking a pencil
[00:04:42.880]after you have said, "Time for writing,"
[00:04:46.130]that could be signaling worsening conditions.
[00:04:50.960]If you say, "It's my turn! it's time to work!"
[00:04:54.370]And now you're taking away that preferred item,
[00:04:57.360]that could also be worsening conditions.
[00:05:03.170]And we say, "Recess is done, come here, Paige!"
[00:05:07.770]That could signal worsening conditions
[00:05:09.800]because now I don't get to be at recess anymore.
[00:05:19.910]So what this looks like in the classroom
[00:05:21.410]or how this happens in the classroom
[00:05:23.427]can look in many different ways.
[00:05:25.563]One example is that when work begins
[00:05:28.040]by taking away preferred items,
[00:05:29.930]oftentimes a student has a preferred item
[00:05:32.450]and so that for work we take that item away,
[00:05:35.010]and that ends up signaling
[00:05:36.800]that work is going to happen next.
[00:05:38.850]Another example is sometimes issues with frequency,
[00:05:43.210]magnitude, or value of the reinforcer.
[00:05:46.720]So, is it worth it?
[00:05:48.040]So we think about the behavioral economics,
[00:05:50.480]and is the work that you're asking me to do
[00:05:52.350]worth the reinforcer I'm getting?
[00:05:54.710]Another example would be issues
[00:05:57.250]with difficulty of expected responses.
[00:05:59.400]So is the work that we're giving them too hard,
[00:06:02.160]or is it work that they're able to complete?
[00:06:04.630]And then also issues with frequent learner errors,
[00:06:07.230]so are we using errorless teaching
[00:06:09.230]or are we setting the students up for failure
[00:06:11.260]and they're making many mistakes?
[00:06:15.010]So some examples of stimuli that become a CMO-R
[00:06:18.500]when tasks are too difficult,
[00:06:20.610]it might be a specific work table
[00:06:22.630]because they only have to work at that table
[00:06:24.380]when good things aren't happening,
[00:06:26.720]cool down spots or chill spots, an SLP's office,
[00:06:30.750]or any location within the school or the building
[00:06:33.540]that signals that they have to work,
[00:06:35.760]maybe different fine motor tasks,
[00:06:37.920]using the student's or the child's name
[00:06:40.330]every time that you're asking them
[00:06:41.420]to do something they don't want to do,
[00:06:43.380]multiple step directions that are too difficult,
[00:06:46.220]when you're using phrases like ready hands,
[00:06:48.530]look at me, or, my turn, or, give, cues
[00:06:50.571]can also be examples because oftentimes
[00:06:54.450]those precede having to work.
[00:07:00.840]So let's talk a little bit
[00:07:01.970]about how a conditioned motivating operation-transitive
[00:07:04.820]fits into this picture.
[00:07:08.290]What we really wanna do
[00:07:09.820]with our students is create motivation.
[00:07:12.120]So we wanna capture the child's motivation
[00:07:14.810]and then we need the task we are presenting
[00:07:17.360]to become more valuable because it gets the child
[00:07:21.320]what they want, which is that reinforcer.
[00:07:23.490]So we're actually hoping that we can make that task
[00:07:26.637]more valuable to them because they learn
[00:07:28.970]that if they do that task then they quickly get
[00:07:31.850]that highly preferred item.
[00:07:36.900]Now let's do Polling Question Number One.
[00:07:39.650]CMO-R is an,
[00:07:41.950]A, conditioned motivating operation-transitive,
[00:07:45.290]B, warning signal for worsening conditions,
[00:07:48.460]C, collaborative motivating opportunity-responsive, or
[00:07:54.050]D, I don't know.
[00:08:01.300]The answer is B, CMO-R is a warning signal
[00:08:05.460]for worsening conditions.
[00:08:11.690]Looking at reinforcement, reinforcement occurs
[00:08:14.320]after behavior and increases its.
[00:08:17.630]Why is abolishing the CMO-R important?
[00:08:20.253]Well, instructional control is a key variable
[00:08:22.850]in successfully working with students with ASD.
[00:08:25.760]But in order to gain instructional control,
[00:08:27.870]we must first abolish the CMO-R.
[00:08:30.820]Teams must consider why the activity,
[00:08:33.220]the person leading that activity,
[00:08:35.100]the area in the classroom or outside of the classroom,
[00:08:37.830]that task, or that expectation is adversive to the child.
[00:08:41.660]So we really must become a detective
[00:08:44.050]in figuring out what is happening
[00:08:47.040]in that situation that is giving that child
[00:08:50.350]a warning signal for worsening conditions.
[00:08:57.050]So how are we gonna abolish that CMO-R?
[00:08:59.250]So the warning signal must first be stopped, 'kay?
[00:09:02.280]So we have to stop that warning signal.
[00:09:04.460]We have to stop it from being paired
[00:09:05.980]with the worsening conditions for the learner.
[00:09:08.290]So for example, we might start with a reinforcing activity
[00:09:12.540]when a child comes over to a work area.
[00:09:14.740]So don't present the hard task immediately
[00:09:17.380]when you get them to that work table,
[00:09:19.010]but instead do something reinforcing.
[00:09:22.490]Or we might change what has served as a warning signal
[00:09:27.020]to be conditioned as a signal
[00:09:28.490]for improving conditions, or that CMO-T.
[00:09:32.500]So one example of that is,
[00:09:34.590]is possibly that transition cue card
[00:09:37.410]now could signal reinforcement.
[00:09:40.460]So when you show that card the student knows
[00:09:43.060]that if I transition a preferred activity
[00:09:46.730]or reinforcer is going to happen at that work table.
[00:09:51.220]Another example is using a promise reinforcer
[00:09:53.790]with a transition cue card so that they can see
[00:09:57.180]right away that as they transition
[00:09:59.110]there will be something good that happens
[00:10:01.890]while they move to the next area.
[00:10:08.820]All right, so things to consider
[00:10:10.400]in abolishing the CMO-R.
[00:10:13.770]We'll wanna do some pairing.
[00:10:15.570]So are your students coming to you and not running away?
[00:10:20.050]If they are running away, you are the CMO-R.
[00:10:24.510]We'll wanna consider instructional level.
[00:10:27.130]Does the student understand the task demands?
[00:10:30.870]We're gonna wanna start with easy tasks
[00:10:34.070]and then mix those easy skills with harder skills.
[00:10:38.140]Remember that 80/20 ratio, and we wanna make sure
[00:10:42.380]we're understanding the child's skill set.
[00:10:46.640]We'll also wanna reduce task demands.
[00:10:50.308]We're gonna do this through intentional use of shaping
[00:10:53.720]and we're gonna accept approximations
[00:10:55.840]so that the child does not get frustrated.
[00:10:58.380]And then we'll shape the response.
[00:11:02.200]We'll also wanna include reinforcement.
[00:11:05.290]We want to make it worth the child working that hard.
[00:11:10.820]So our reinforcement needs to be motivating enough
[00:11:17.640]for them to work hard.
[00:11:19.290]We also wanna be aware of prompting levels.
[00:11:22.290]So what prompts are needed for those tasks?
[00:11:27.540]And we wanna vary our tasks.
[00:11:30.840]So vary those trials and vary the materials
[00:11:35.700]in order to reduce too much repetition and boredom.
[00:11:45.570]Pairing is a strongly recommended strategy
[00:11:47.770]for abolishing the CMO-R.
[00:11:50.300]When we talk about pairing,
[00:11:51.840]it's about making yourself a reinforcer to that student.
[00:11:55.920]So there are a few tips to remember.
[00:11:57.930]Remember that reinforcement is free when you are pairing.
[00:12:00.860]The student should not have to work
[00:12:02.560]to get that reinforcement.
[00:12:04.560]Reinforce all interactions and engagement.
[00:12:07.290]Narrate the activities, rather than instruct.
[00:12:11.180]So discuss what you are doing, use vocabulary,
[00:12:13.540]and have fun with the student during that time
[00:12:15.500]rather than placing demands on them.
[00:12:17.840]Do not turn reinforcing activities into tasks or work.
[00:12:22.470]Avoid statements such as, stop, no, and don't.
[00:12:25.900]Avoid asking questions.
[00:12:27.980]And remember that asking questions can be a demand.
[00:12:31.460]Pair your voice and the child's name with reinforcement
[00:12:34.340]so the child is used to you using their name
[00:12:36.610]with good things rather than just to redirect them.
[00:12:39.690]And evaluate yourself often.
[00:12:41.380]Does the child run to you or run away from you?
[00:12:48.430]You will also have access to a handout called
[00:12:50.537]"How to Establish Yourself As a Reinforcer"
[00:12:52.860]with additional tips on how to use this intervention.
[00:12:58.990]Now it's time for Polling Question Number Two.
[00:13:01.940]You're gonna watch the following video
[00:13:04.140]and then answer the question
[00:13:05.870]which of the following best describes
[00:13:07.870]what is happening in this video?
[00:13:09.710]A, one on one instruction,
[00:13:16.300]or D, verbal behavior?
[00:13:20.485]Mommy look it, funny, funny, funny!
[00:13:22.958]Look at the sand!
[00:13:24.734]That pony is jumping in the sand!
[00:13:27.230]Look it, this is the river.
[00:13:29.270]Ooh, in the river, let's see,
[00:13:30.960]should more ponies come?
[00:13:33.183]More ponies are coming to the river!
[00:13:34.016]Yay, let's jump, wow, ponies!
[00:13:35.557]They're jumping in the water!
[00:13:39.253]This pony's taking a drink. (slurping)
[00:13:40.951]This pony is drinking.
[00:13:42.844]I'm gonna go get Twilight.
[00:13:48.108]Twilight is joining us in the pink sand.
[00:13:52.940]Ooh, Twilight is flying!
[00:13:56.050]Here's a castle, this castle's the ponies' castle.
[00:13:59.680]Get the sand in.
[00:14:00.877]Oh, you're putting the sand in.
[00:14:03.610]Paige, good work!
[00:14:05.700]It's a lot of sand to make.
[00:14:06.797]I'm gonna help, here you go.
[00:14:12.758]Can you put more in?
[00:14:15.200]You're doing it!
[00:14:16.260]You're putting sand in the castle!
[00:14:20.240]I ripped that.
[00:14:25.730]Oh, Twilight's getting buried.
[00:14:28.450]That's their's normal self,
[00:14:29.925]but this is her real self.
[00:14:31.771]Oh, so here she has wings,
[00:14:34.581]and this is her without wings,
[00:14:35.788]she looks like a princess here with the crown.
[00:14:37.850]But then she's just a normal pony.
[00:14:41.070]Right, there she's a normal pony.
[00:14:45.540]The answer to the polling question is C, pairing.
[00:14:48.440]When you watch this video it's demonstrating
[00:14:50.650]how to pair yourself with reinforcement
[00:14:52.660]when working with a child.
[00:14:54.360]So when you watch the adult in the video
[00:14:57.040]they are not giving any demands
[00:14:59.270]but she is narrating the activities that she's doing
[00:15:01.970]and the activities that the child's doing.
[00:15:04.440]She's pairing her voice with the child's name
[00:15:06.900]in a really positive, positive way,
[00:15:09.210]and they're basically having fun
[00:15:11.020]with the items that are reinforcing to that child.
[00:15:17.700]There are lots of important skills you can teach
[00:15:19.770]to avoid the dreaded CMO-R.
[00:15:22.200]Teaching things like how to sit,
[00:15:24.490]teaching the cue ready hands,
[00:15:26.800]teaching students to wait or give up a reinforcer,
[00:15:31.150]also teaching them how to transition
[00:15:32.900]with using a promise reinforcer,
[00:15:34.800]skills like come here and walk with me.
[00:15:40.730]So when you're using a promise reinforcer,
[00:15:42.630]you're gonna have the promise reinforcer visible
[00:15:44.698]so the student can see it.
[00:15:46.330]So you're either holding it in your hand
[00:15:48.740]or you're holding it out so they can see it.
[00:15:50.730]We don't wanna be waving it around,
[00:15:52.300]we simply just wanna be holding it with us.
[00:15:54.830]You're gonna give the direction.
[00:15:56.250]If the child follows the direction
[00:15:57.900]they get the promise reinforcer.
[00:16:00.420]If you have the promise reinforcer
[00:16:02.850]and you give the direction
[00:16:04.060]and instead you have problem behavior,
[00:16:07.120]you're gonna redirect or prompt that child
[00:16:09.400]so that they do the instruction
[00:16:11.340]and then they will get a less preferred reinforcement.
[00:16:15.472]So something like a B-reinforcer.
[00:16:18.310]Overtime you will need to fade the promise reinforcer.
[00:16:21.340]I'm going to give you an example
[00:16:22.590]how to use the reinforcer when teaching a skill.
[00:16:29.520]When teaching a learner to give up a reinforcer
[00:16:31.890]a promise reinforcer can be really, really helpful.
[00:16:34.820]So use a promise reinforcer
[00:16:36.580]and teach the child to trade.
[00:16:39.010]Start really early teaching this skill.
[00:16:41.230]It's important to practice this skill often
[00:16:43.360]but be cautious, don't do it too much or every time
[00:16:46.800]you approach the child you could become that CMO-R.
[00:16:50.850]And it's really important to practice it
[00:16:52.530]in the natural environment.
[00:16:54.040]So if you want to trade the iPad
[00:16:56.960]because the child is watching a video,
[00:16:59.680]you might hold an edible out in your hand
[00:17:02.400]and say, "Give," and as you get the iPad
[00:17:07.010]you would be handing them the edible reinforcer.
[00:17:13.840]So when teaching your learner
[00:17:15.120]to follow the cue come here, and then transition,
[00:17:18.330]we're again gonna use that promise reinforcer.
[00:17:20.930]So you're gonna have that promise reinforcer,
[00:17:23.330]again, in your hand, it's visible for the student,
[00:17:27.690]and you're always gonna make it playful.
[00:17:29.850]We really wanna teach a child to come here
[00:17:32.610]or teach them to transition to different areas
[00:17:34.910]in the classroom and eventually outside the classroom,
[00:17:37.530]we wanna be sure that it's a fun activity.
[00:17:40.050]Frequent reinforcement is given
[00:17:41.780]when that child is staying near the adult
[00:17:43.800]and not engaging in that problem behavior,
[00:17:46.550]so when they're coming to you or transitioning
[00:17:48.460]to you and using those appropriate behaviors.
[00:17:51.460]Once a student begins to transition in one location
[00:17:54.120]you can offer a lot of opportunities
[00:17:55.850]to access reinforcement in other locations.
[00:17:59.700]The SD, or the verbal cue, come here,
[00:18:03.704]or the adult could choose some other verbal cue
[00:18:06.650]that will eventually signal reinforcement is available
[00:18:09.985]when the child does come to you in that alternate location.
[00:18:15.030]We're gonna show you an example of this
[00:18:17.280]in the video to follow, but I do want to remind you
[00:18:21.330]that when you're using that promise reinforcer
[00:18:23.850]in order to teach come here or teach a child to transition
[00:18:27.730]using that come here verbal cue,
[00:18:30.890]we are gonna want to fade out
[00:18:32.410]the promise reinforcer eventually.
[00:18:34.700]The other thing to keep in mind
[00:18:36.050]is that you can use a prompter,
[00:18:38.010]especially when you start teaching kids to transition
[00:18:40.720]further away so you can use an additional person
[00:18:44.886]to stand behind the individual
[00:18:47.510]or help guide that individual from behind.
[00:18:50.040]But then remember, you also have to fade that prompter out
[00:18:54.300]so the child can independently transition in the future.
[00:18:59.920]When we talk about motivating.
[00:19:05.360]Teaching students to work
[00:19:06.610]at a table can sometimes be difficult.
[00:19:08.930]So we must first start by establishing the table
[00:19:12.020]as a place of reinforcement.
[00:19:13.750]So we need to pair the table with reinforcing items
[00:19:16.840]and that also includes the teacher
[00:19:19.460]or the adult who's at the table.
[00:19:21.570]So you have to shape this over time.
[00:19:23.640]But don't make work a priority too early.
[00:19:26.650]So spend time initially pairing the table and yourself
[00:19:31.170]with those fun reinforcers.
[00:19:33.020]Remember the tips that we talked about earlier for pairing.
[00:19:36.430]Make the time at the table short to begin with
[00:19:40.160]and then you can start to increase it as the child
[00:19:43.430]does better with the adult and at the work table.
[00:19:46.870]Types of tasks presented, at first we're gonna do pairing.
[00:19:51.370]So we gonna only start with those reinforcing items.
[00:19:54.960]And eventually we can move into some easy skills
[00:19:58.480]that the child's good at.
[00:19:59.940]And then we can start feeding in some demands
[00:20:02.500]that are a little bit more difficult.
[00:20:04.350]You're always going to mix those harder skills
[00:20:07.130]with those known skills.
[00:20:11.180]The last example of a skill to teach
[00:20:13.000]that we're gonna talk about is ready hands.
[00:20:15.340]So you must first have established approach behavior.
[00:20:18.890]So making sure your students are coming towards you.
[00:20:21.870]You need to do that using pairing.
[00:20:24.040]So remember those really highly preferred reinforcers
[00:20:27.360]and look at some of those tips for pairing.
[00:20:29.270]It's really going to help you with that approach behavior.
[00:20:32.200]You can start by describing or modeling
[00:20:36.050]what ready hands looks like.
[00:20:37.420]Sometimes it's clasped hands together.
[00:20:41.410]But other times it's just lying their hands
[00:20:43.020]on top of the table, nicely on top of each other.
[00:20:46.390]You, as the adult, can define what ready hands looks like.
[00:20:50.140]Initially we'd start that as an imitation skill.
[00:20:52.650]So we'd simply say, "Do this,"
[00:20:54.280]and we would model ready hands.
[00:20:56.650]Then you can move it to a listener response.
[00:20:58.690]So, "Show me ready hands."
[00:21:01.464]Use ready hands, that verbal prompt
[00:21:05.060]or that verbal cue with caution.
[00:21:06.700]Don't use it too often, 'kay?
[00:21:09.150]You may need to reinforce.
[00:21:10.580]So a really good trick for that
[00:21:12.070]is once they show you ready hands,
[00:21:13.930]you don't really wanna give them a reinforcer
[00:21:16.370]because you're getting ready to start working,
[00:21:18.900]but you can turn on a light-up toy,
[00:21:21.200]or music toy really fast.
[00:21:23.070]You could drive the car on their leg or up their arm.
[00:21:27.170]There's a variety of things that you can do
[00:21:29.090]for just a few quick seconds
[00:21:30.710]to reinforce that they showed you ready hands.
[00:21:37.700]Now it's time for Poll Question Number Three.
[00:21:40.210]You're gonna watch the following video
[00:21:41.850]and then answer this question.
[00:21:44.020]Which of the following best describes
[00:21:45.660]what strategy the adult is using
[00:21:47.770]to teach come here.
[00:21:49.900]A, I don't think she is teaching,
[00:21:52.150]B, promise reinforcer,
[00:21:54.340]or C, only verbal.
[00:22:01.340]Nice job coming here!
[00:22:04.910]The answer is B, she's using a promise reinforcer.
[00:22:09.860]The adult has determined through reinforcer assessment
[00:22:13.900]that the stuffed animal is highly preferred.
[00:22:16.300]The adult will slowly increase the distance
[00:22:18.980]between her and the child so the child will have to come
[00:22:22.210]to her from varying distances that are increasing
[00:22:26.910]and then they will also begin
[00:22:28.370]to fade that promise reinforcer.
[00:22:30.310]And like I mentioned on a slide earlier a shadow prompter
[00:22:33.040]can be used if needed to help teach come here.
[00:22:40.500]So in the next section we're gonna talk about
[00:22:42.570]how to incorporate this new information
[00:22:45.200]into your behavior plan.
[00:22:49.350]Well, first, we have
[00:22:51.010]to find out what the function is?
[00:22:53.770]What is reinforcing and maintaining that problem behavior,
[00:22:57.290]that is what the function is.
[00:22:59.360]You need to work with your school team
[00:23:02.670]on a function behavior assessment to determine
[00:23:06.080]a possible hypothesis for the function of behavior.
[00:23:10.760]We will talk about a few things for your team
[00:23:12.840]to consider after you have determined that function.
[00:23:17.120]And then you can move into your behavior intervention plan.
[00:23:22.720]So this is a nice little graphic
[00:23:25.410]that shows the functions of behavior
[00:23:28.470]and for today's sake we are only going to focus
[00:23:32.210]on that escape behavior, that escape function.
[00:23:40.280]So when we're developing a plan
[00:23:42.379]and we have determined that the function is escape,
[00:23:46.210]remember that that could mean avoid something,
[00:23:49.780]delay a task, or altogether escape that task.
[00:23:52.747]But it also could mean to avoid a person
[00:23:55.040]or a specific social interaction.
[00:23:58.640]We really need to understand the possible strategies
[00:24:00.930]we can use for escape behavior.
[00:24:03.180]And just a reminder that that CMO-R, remember,
[00:24:06.110]is signaling worsening conditions
[00:24:07.490]and that might look a variety of different ways.
[00:24:10.900]That could be happening because there's a difficult task
[00:24:13.500]or that child has academic deficits
[00:24:15.770]so they're going to try to escape any of that academic work.
[00:24:19.860]It could be that they have non-preferred tasks
[00:24:21.900]so they're trying to escape those tasks
[00:24:23.580]that they don't like to do.
[00:24:24.460]For a lot of our kids those could be writing tasks,
[00:24:27.280]those could be fine motor tasks,
[00:24:28.980]all of those kinds of things.
[00:24:30.710]It could be anything new or unfamiliar.
[00:24:32.460]We have some kids on the spectrum
[00:24:33.940]who don't like to have new things put in front of them,
[00:24:36.370]makes them uncomfortable.
[00:24:37.440]They're not sure how to proceed with that new task.
[00:24:40.105]It could be the rate of presentation.
[00:24:42.750]It could be that we're presenting things too quickly,
[00:24:45.460]but often times what I notice is that
[00:24:47.180]we're presenting things too slowly.
[00:24:49.000]And so we're actually losing our kids.
[00:24:51.210]So we are not prepared and we don't have our materials ready
[00:24:55.010]so often times when we stop our kids are having to wait
[00:25:00.410]which many of our kids on the spectrum
[00:25:01.830]aren't really, really good at.
[00:25:04.410]So the rate of presentation can also
[00:25:07.000]definitely become a CMO-R.
[00:25:10.040]And then the number of tasks we're doing,
[00:25:12.040]we might be doing too many tasks.
[00:25:14.440]That could be a day-to-day decision
[00:25:16.910]based on how that student is doing during that day.
[00:25:19.570]And then also social deficits,
[00:25:21.240]so when we talk about them trying to avoid
[00:25:23.120]a person or an interaction, it could be
[00:25:25.300]that those social deficits are getting in the way.
[00:25:27.970]So they don't know how to interact with peers,
[00:25:29.960]so instead they just avoid that or try to escape that.
[00:25:35.760]Now we're gonna talk through some specific strategies
[00:25:38.080]that you might have in a behavior plan
[00:25:40.390]if your child is demonstrating escape behavior.
[00:25:44.210]Pairing, of course, is something we've already talked about
[00:25:46.600]and is really, really important.
[00:25:48.290]And just a reminder, you don't just pair adults,
[00:25:51.020]but you also have to pair your environment,
[00:25:52.960]so your work table and other areas of the room
[00:25:56.210]where they might work with that reinforcement.
[00:25:59.060]Premack principle is simply a first, then, or when, then.
[00:26:02.770]And this can be a really great way to show kids visually
[00:26:05.620]when you finish this, then you can access reinforcement.
[00:26:10.360]High probability sequence based on behavioral momentum,
[00:26:13.810]so we're gonna start with three to four easy skills
[00:26:17.060]and then we're gonna slide
[00:26:18.410]into a skill that is more difficult.
[00:26:20.910]Errorless teaching is when we provide a prompt immediately
[00:26:24.950]and by doing this we reduce frustration
[00:26:27.500]because a student doesn't get the answer incorrect.
[00:26:31.350]Remember when you do use a prompt
[00:26:33.760]you have to fade the prompt out.
[00:26:35.970]Another strategy is fading in demands.
[00:26:38.270]So for fading in demands oftentimes we will reduce
[00:26:41.190]or take away the demands and then start slowly fading them
[00:26:45.120]back in so the student can have some success.
[00:26:48.550]Alternating demands is something that we might do,
[00:26:52.730]again, based on the child's day
[00:26:55.920]or based on how their morning was.
[00:26:58.940]So we might decide that we're going to provide
[00:27:04.090]the child a task to complete,
[00:27:06.120]but when we give the child the task
[00:27:07.950]we're going to tell them that we are going to help them.
[00:27:10.430]Really important that you offer that help
[00:27:13.830]when you present that task,
[00:27:15.400]and not after inappropriate behavior.
[00:27:18.290]Another way to alter a demand is decide in your schedule
[00:27:22.300]that maybe we're not going to have a work session
[00:27:26.100]that is following the most highly preferred
[00:27:30.010]activity of the day.
[00:27:31.010]So if a child is, if their favorite activity is recess
[00:27:34.040]you might not schedule that work session
[00:27:37.875]to happen right after recess.
[00:27:41.770]So you might take a look at how you're placing
[00:27:44.040]those demands in the child's day.
[00:27:46.220]Another thing is you could alter demands
[00:27:49.180]by reducing the difficulty of that demand.
[00:27:51.320]Again, you're gonna do this
[00:27:52.330]before you present the task to the child.
[00:27:55.590]But you may decide that they only have to do
[00:27:59.709]part of the task or fewer pieces of the task
[00:28:03.850]or fewer problems on the paper.
[00:28:05.700]But you're gonna have that altered
[00:28:06.940]before you give it to the student.
[00:28:08.880]Session duration, one of the most important things
[00:28:11.220]is to remember that we want to end on a positive.
[00:28:14.580]So we want to end our work sessions
[00:28:16.670]when the child is demonstrating appropriate behavior.
[00:28:19.310]So don't try to push them too long
[00:28:22.340]during that session because you could then illicit
[00:28:25.630]negative behavior and then you might end up
[00:28:27.920]having to stop the session based on negative behavior.
[00:28:31.610]Structure work into small sections and build in breaks.
[00:28:34.040]For many of our kids breaks are reinforcing.
[00:28:36.960]So you can structure the work ahead of time
[00:28:38.810]so that they can see that if they do this much work
[00:28:41.040]then they get a break.
[00:28:42.100]Then they have another section to do
[00:28:43.840]and then they get a break.
[00:28:45.510]You can also visually show a child how much work needs
[00:28:47.950]to be done in order to access that reinforcer.
[00:28:50.330]A lot of our structured work systems
[00:28:52.720]are set up to show kids how much work they have to do
[00:28:55.720]when they're done and then what will happen
[00:28:57.500]or what reinforcer they get when they're done.
[00:28:59.920]Task variation, or use novel materials,
[00:29:03.400]in order to keep our kids from being bored
[00:29:05.560]or asking them to do the same thing over and over again.
[00:29:08.400]Providing choices is always a great way
[00:29:10.510]to avoid kids trying to escape.
[00:29:13.690]Show them the task that they're going to be doing
[00:29:16.100]and allow them to help make choices
[00:29:17.940]on which task they'll do first,
[00:29:19.530]which task they'll do second, which task they'll do third.
[00:29:22.850]Functional communication is always, always a priority.
[00:29:26.335]There's a lot of different ways
[00:29:27.590]you can teach functional communication.
[00:29:29.530]You can use the count and mand procedure,
[00:29:31.970]or you can teach kids to mand for a break or mand for help,
[00:29:35.430]or mand for other areas in their communication.
[00:29:41.400]At the end here we just have a little note.
[00:29:43.440]So when we are teaching kids to mand for break
[00:29:47.670]we are actually permitting escape for a specific time.
[00:29:51.650]So we want you to know that you should use that cautiously.
[00:29:54.900]So when we are actually permitting a child
[00:29:58.300]to leave the table for a specific amount of time
[00:30:03.580]we could be actually intensifying that CMO-R.
[00:30:06.850]So use that cautiously.
[00:30:09.410]And we should consider only using that
[00:30:11.170]for aggressive behavior.
[00:30:13.840]And we should also look at building
[00:30:15.620]in structure for that permitted escape.
[00:30:21.240]Just a little more about what we were talking about.
[00:30:25.210]For problem behavior for socially mediated
[00:30:28.930]negative reinforcement, so that escape behavior,
[00:30:31.240]our goals should always be to first abolish the CMO-R.
[00:30:35.160]So when we're teaching first work then break too early,
[00:30:38.070]it actually fails to address the CMO-R.
[00:30:41.760]It fails to address that warning signal.
[00:30:45.170]So because we didn't address it,
[00:30:48.140]it actually can intensify that CMO-R.
[00:30:51.070]So it intensifies their need to escape working at that table
[00:30:54.870]or working with the adults at that table.
[00:30:58.060]So, remember, we have to determine why the activity,
[00:31:01.120]the staff member, the area in the classroom,
[00:31:03.580]why is that a CMO-R?
[00:31:05.740]And then we need to work really hard to abolish that.
[00:31:09.180]Now, there is one exception to that rule,
[00:31:12.260]and that's if problem behavior is significantly dangerous.
[00:31:15.091]If that is the case, then we probably do wanna teach
[00:31:19.190]that child to mand for a break.
[00:31:22.700]And we're gonna do that right away
[00:31:24.570]so we can maintain safety.
[00:31:26.120]So that child might do a little bit of work
[00:31:27.990]then we have them mand for a break,
[00:31:29.610]and then they get a break.
[00:31:31.140]But I just wanna caution you,
[00:31:32.840]you still have to become that CMO-R detective.
[00:31:36.280]You still have to figure out with your team
[00:31:39.350]what is going on that is signaling
[00:31:42.530]to that child worsening conditions?
[00:31:44.730]So although you're teaching that initially
[00:31:47.080]in order to keep the child and everyone else safe,
[00:31:49.800]you need to continue to try and figure out
[00:31:52.150]what that CMO-R is and how you can abolish it.
[00:31:57.930]So what does a CMO-R
[00:31:59.930]have to do with a behavior plan?
[00:32:06.920]Well, it's an important piece of every BIP.
[00:32:10.300]After determining the function
[00:32:12.110]you must consider how do we abolish this CMO-R?
[00:32:16.840]We need to reduce that student's motivation
[00:32:19.360]to engage in problem behavior.
[00:32:23.370]There are three easy steps to get started with your BIP.
[00:32:26.860]First, you need to reduce that CMO-R.
[00:32:29.420]You need to reduce the student's motivation
[00:32:32.120]to engage in that problem behavior.
[00:32:34.790]Then you're going to teach a completing
[00:32:37.540]or a replacement skill and typically this is gonna be
[00:32:41.120]in the same functional response class
[00:32:43.175]as that problem behavior.
[00:32:46.260]And then you're going to look at consequence.
[00:32:49.120]You're gonna try to use extinction,
[00:32:51.100]if possible, to make that problem behavior ineffective.
[00:32:58.440]So socially mediated negative reinforcement,
[00:33:01.370]so escape, avoid, or delay a task,
[00:33:06.041]we're gonna reduce that MO, so get rid of that CMO-R
[00:33:10.697]and you're gonna consider strategies
[00:33:12.930]based on that specific behavior that they're doing.
[00:33:16.200]You're gonna teach that competing skill,
[00:33:18.470]so maybe it's teaching compliance
[00:33:21.500]to instruction within two to four seconds.
[00:33:24.620]And then look at those consequences
[00:33:27.190]so put that behavior on extinction if possible.
[00:33:30.580]So somethings you might look at,
[00:33:33.560]is that demand within the student's repertoire?
[00:33:36.810]Are they able to do it?
[00:33:38.290]If they are, then we're gonna hold to the demand,
[00:33:42.910]we're gonna provide prompting or reduce that task demand
[00:33:46.950]and then provide a level B reinforcer.
[00:33:50.070]Remember, we use the best reinforcer for the best behavior.
[00:33:55.520]So you only use that level A reinforcer
[00:33:58.130]if you did not need to do that prompting
[00:34:01.290]or redirect that student.
[00:34:08.230]If you need to you might also need to include
[00:34:11.133]some other specific things like we're not gonna do that now,
[00:34:16.120]so it's the not now with a plan.
[00:34:18.070]But this is when you can do that activity.
[00:34:21.220]And then if the student does not have
[00:34:23.730]that skill in their repertoire, we need to alter that demand
[00:34:27.620]and then provide prompting or change the task completely.
[00:34:35.240]Let's practice a scenario.
[00:34:37.320]After John finishes a new math task
[00:34:39.540]another new task is placed in front of him
[00:34:41.660]and the direction is given time to start working.
[00:34:44.960]John grabs the adult and throws the task on the floor.
[00:34:48.070]With access to data and the FBA
[00:34:50.230]the team makes the hypothesis
[00:34:51.820]that the function of the behavior is escape.
[00:34:54.840]So as a team you need to determine possible interventions.
[00:35:00.300]Ideas for the first step in the process
[00:35:02.510]of reducing the CMO-R might be mixing easy and hard tasks,
[00:35:07.100]visually showing John how many tasks he'll do
[00:35:09.510]before he can access the reinforcement,
[00:35:11.800]determine if John's reinforcement schedule is in place
[00:35:14.970]and/or visually showing him his reinforcer.
[00:35:19.460]In the second step the team might consider
[00:35:21.980]teaching a new replacement skill
[00:35:23.960]such as teaching manding for help,
[00:35:28.120]teaching John to ask for one more minute,
[00:35:30.850]asking if he can do another task first,
[00:35:33.960]or asking to take a break or get a drink.
[00:35:38.400]In the third step the team may consider
[00:35:40.610]consequence interventions such as
[00:35:42.850]putting behavior on extinction,
[00:35:45.900]such as ignoring the behavior,
[00:35:47.670]holding to that demand and providing prompts,
[00:35:50.370]or helping by reducing those task demands,
[00:35:52.930]and then providing that level B reinforcer
[00:35:55.130]when there is success.
[00:35:58.670]So now we're gonna do a scenario together.
[00:36:01.290]The teacher enters the room and walks over to Suzie
[00:36:03.950]and gives her the work table picture
[00:36:06.060]and says, "Come with me, time to work."
[00:36:09.120]Suzie screams and runs away from the teacher
[00:36:11.060]to the other side of the room.
[00:36:12.890]With access to data and the FBA,
[00:36:15.380]the team makes the hypothesis that the function
[00:36:17.990]of the behavior is escape.
[00:36:19.900]We're gonna practice our three step method.
[00:36:22.450]So remember, step one is reduce the CMO-R.
[00:36:25.690]Step two is teach a competing skill, a replacement skill.
[00:36:29.390]And step three is consequence, if possible,
[00:36:32.350]putting the behavior on extinction.
[00:36:38.030]Based on the scenario that I just read,
[00:36:40.600]choose one area and briefly respond in the chat box.
[00:36:44.750]You can put in number one if you're giving ideas
[00:36:47.360]on how to reduce the CMO-R,
[00:36:49.470]a number two with your answer if you have an idea
[00:36:53.240]for a competing skill or a replacement skill,
[00:36:56.760]or you can put a number three
[00:36:58.540]if you have an idea for a consequence,
[00:37:02.560]or if you would like to let us know
[00:37:04.640]if you would use extinction.
[00:37:12.040]We're gonna go over some of the possible answers
[00:37:15.280]to our Polling Question Number Four
[00:37:17.250]and then we'll look at some of the things
[00:37:18.830]that you guys also wrote in the chat box.
[00:37:22.900]So, for reducing the CMO-R, you could use
[00:37:26.290]a promise reinforcer when transitioning Suzie
[00:37:28.960]to the work table, show a preferred activity picture
[00:37:32.300]with the table transition card, or that transition cue.
[00:37:36.940]The teacher could spend time pairing with Suzie
[00:37:38.990]with preferred activities or reinforcers
[00:37:41.460]in a variety of areas in the classroom,
[00:37:43.420]including the work table, so we'd be pairing that adult.
[00:37:47.220]We could also maybe consider shortening table session time
[00:37:50.530]as maybe that's part of the issue.
[00:37:53.840]For teaching a competing skill,
[00:37:56.200]we could teach Suzie to mand for one more minute
[00:37:59.830]or use a one more minute card.
[00:38:01.880]So this is a really great strategy.
[00:38:03.840]So it gives our kids time
[00:38:05.840]to prepare themselves for that change.
[00:38:07.990]So if you are coming in the classroom
[00:38:10.170]and you are going to be presenting that transition cue card
[00:38:13.910]you might go over to Suzie and say,
[00:38:16.097]"It's time for us to transition."
[00:38:18.420]And then Suzie has an opportunity
[00:38:20.460]to ask for one more minute.
[00:38:22.560]She only gets to ask for one more minute one time
[00:38:25.160]because she only has one one more minute card.
[00:38:30.820]Teach transition and/or come here
[00:38:34.070]with the promise reinforcer.
[00:38:35.240]So maybe we forgot to teach that skill to come here
[00:38:39.580]or to give up a reinforcer or whatever it happens to be.
[00:38:43.840]And then for consequence or putting that behavior
[00:38:46.110]on extinction we could ignore her behavior.
[00:38:49.910]But if she's trying to escape the work
[00:38:52.560]and she's on the other side of the room,
[00:38:54.530]maybe ignoring the behavior isn't the best solution.
[00:38:57.790]Or maybe you're gonna ignore that behavior
[00:39:00.030]but you are gonna go over and take Suzie's hand
[00:39:02.940]and just walk her to the table, that could be an idea.
[00:39:06.250]You could hold to the demand and bring the work to Suzie.
[00:39:09.240]So Suzie won't come to the work area
[00:39:11.530]where you're trying to transition her to,
[00:39:13.140]but you could bring the work to her
[00:39:15.160]in whatever area she's in and do the work with her there.
[00:39:18.250]And then she could receive that level B reinforcer.
[00:39:21.080]Remember, the best reinforcer for the best behavior.
[00:39:23.890]So she didn't transition with us but she did do the work.
[00:39:27.560]So we would do a level B reinforcer.
[00:39:33.150]So in conclusion, some important things to always consider.
[00:39:36.600]Don't ignore the CMO-R, work to reduce it.
[00:39:39.350]Remember to be that CMO-R detective.
[00:39:42.130]Always ask for help, teaming is essential
[00:39:44.410]when working on behavior strategies.
[00:39:46.840]Always, always teach the missing skills.
[00:39:49.090]We need to understand if there's a skill acquisition problem
[00:39:52.510]going on here, and if so, what skills can we teach?
[00:39:55.980]Make sure all team members know the plan
[00:39:58.050]and implement that plan with a high degree of fidelity.
[00:40:01.070]And then take data to help guide instructional decision.
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