This lecture describes the importance of sanitation in food retail environments and restaurants and provides some basic knowledge in this area. Some of the topics discussed include proper cleaning prior to sanitation, chlorination basics and factors affecting the efficacy of chlorination, other sanitizers than chlorine, and some practices to prevent contamination and cross-contamination in the food preparation environment.
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[00:00:05.680]So continuing our discussion on reduced oxygen packaging ,
[00:00:09.170]we're gonna touch a little bit on sanitation.
[00:00:12.660]You have all these slides with you.
[00:00:15.140]We're gonna cover them and discuss
[00:00:18.510]and focus on a few parts that are more important
[00:00:22.130]that I wanna take the message home with you,
[00:00:26.550]mostly because as we discussed the previous lecture,
[00:00:29.950]there are some microorganisms that the main control for them
[00:00:33.640]is through personal hygiene and sanitation.
[00:00:36.420]That will be the case of a virus,
[00:00:39.290]a virus and an infectious disease caused by virus.
[00:00:43.130]Not to say that bacterial infections
[00:00:46.140]cannot be prevented this way,
[00:00:47.230]they could as well, and they are,
[00:00:49.560]but the main control for any issues associated
[00:00:54.350]with virus is personal hygiene and sanitation.
[00:00:57.190]So we're gonna briefly cover this topic as well.
[00:01:00.450]So that's again covering our last block here.
[00:01:04.420]So what the sanitation means is adequately treating
[00:01:07.640]food-contact surfaces by a process that is gonna
[00:01:11.493]destroy any vegetative cells of microorganisms
[00:01:14.620]that are of public health concern,
[00:01:17.090]reducing them, the undesirable microorganisms
[00:01:21.270]without affecting the final quality of the product.
[00:01:23.970]So we're gonna do that to prevent product adulteration
[00:01:29.230]and minimize economic losses.
[00:01:32.860]Why should we worry?
[00:01:34.000]Because we wanna make sure that we are reducing
[00:01:38.250]any contamination with pathogenic bacteria.
[00:01:40.960]We are eliminating any risks associated
[00:01:43.620]with potential virus infections.
[00:01:46.360]And when we cook products or process products,
[00:01:49.080]we kill bacteria, but we cannot kill an infinite number.
[00:01:53.410]So we need to keep those numbers down,
[00:01:55.910]so we can keep everything under control.
[00:01:58.430]The sources of microbial contamination,
[00:02:00.730]they can come with a raw product.
[00:02:04.110]They can be seen or be part of your handling,
[00:02:08.600]food handling equipment and surfaces.
[00:02:11.110]They can come with your employees,
[00:02:13.430]they can be in the hands, or clothing of employees,
[00:02:17.210]so that's why personal hygiene is extremely important.
[00:02:20.610]And they can also be part of the water
[00:02:22.220]that you use in preparation, washing
[00:02:24.670]or cooking of that food.
[00:02:27.470]We wanna make sure that we can control contamination
[00:02:30.810]in your processing facility, in your restaurants,
[00:02:34.190]by cleaning and washing all raw agricultural products,
[00:02:38.010]frequently cleaning any food handling equipment,
[00:02:42.050]use ingredients that are coming from suppliers
[00:02:44.530]that you trust and making sure that the water,
[00:02:47.340]that you use, it's also of very good quality.
[00:02:51.270]Just to kinda get a little bit of a definition here,
[00:02:53.750]food soil is any visible or invisible,
[00:02:57.380]unwanted material on food-contact surfaces.
[00:03:00.690]And they can be grouped by what they are soluble in,
[00:03:04.729]if they're soluble in water, acids, alkali, surfactants.
[00:03:08.490]Why does it matter?
[00:03:09.323]It's because choosing the right detergent,
[00:03:11.800]it's gonna matter depending on probably
[00:03:13.320]the type of foods you have on the surface.
[00:03:15.370]You could have a lot of fat,
[00:03:16.650]you may have to have a detergent that is a little stronger,
[00:03:19.500]making sure that it can remove all that fat.
[00:03:21.900]And so, depending upon the types of food soil
[00:03:26.690]and any food residue that is left on the surface,
[00:03:29.140]we call it food soil.
[00:03:30.558]To be able to remove them,
[00:03:31.800]you gotta choose the right detergent.
[00:03:34.120]And sanitizing starts with cleaning.
[00:03:36.210]You can't sanitize a surface
[00:03:38.130]if you don't clean the surface first.
[00:03:40.170]So the basic steps would be rinse it,
[00:03:42.960]whatever you're trying to sanitize.
[00:03:45.290]Then you clean it with the soap, with the detergent,
[00:03:48.000]then you rinse it again
[00:03:49.070]and then you apply the sanitizer later.
[00:03:51.410]So those would be the main steps.
[00:03:53.010]So the rinsing is gonna just remove
[00:03:54.860]that food soil that's loose.
[00:03:57.320]Any particles on the surface,
[00:03:58.630]you should use a warm water to do that.
[00:04:01.000]And then, you're gonna clean it by removing that food soil
[00:04:04.620]with a soap or with a detergent.
[00:04:09.200]And you need to make sure again that you know
[00:04:11.450]what kind of soil you're trying to remove,
[00:04:13.520]making sure that your detergent is good for that.
[00:04:16.750]Then you're gonna rinse it again.
[00:04:18.400]And then finally, you're gonna sanitize.
[00:04:20.660]And when you get to the point of sanitizing
[00:04:22.470]now what we're trying to do is destroy any microorganisms
[00:04:25.610]that can cause disease.
[00:04:27.200]We're gonna reduce the microbial load,
[00:04:29.750]kill viruses, that's what we're actually trying to do,
[00:04:32.770]when we get to that step.
[00:04:35.110]Types of sanitizers,
[00:04:37.000]chlorine, iodophors, quaternary ammonium compounds,
[00:04:40.460]also known as quats, those are the ones
[00:04:42.570]that are mostly used.
[00:04:43.650]In your facilities, which one would you be,
[00:04:46.802]the one that buy (mumbles) or the more you're using?
[00:04:51.495]Quats and chlorines, yeah.
[00:04:53.890]In this particular presentation,
[00:04:55.720]we're gonna, there are other ones available,
[00:04:58.120]peroxyacetic acid, ozone, ultraviolet radiation,
[00:05:01.790]but in this particular presentation,
[00:05:03.880]we're gonna focus a little bit on chlorination, on chlorine.
[00:05:07.303]But the principles here may, to a certain extent, may not,
[00:05:11.900]dependent upon the factor that we're talking
[00:05:13.920]about, applied to quats as well.
[00:05:15.920]But focusing on chlorine,
[00:05:18.850]what is important to know about it
[00:05:20.550]is that the effectiveness of that sanitizer
[00:05:23.710]will depend upon how much organic and impurities
[00:05:27.060]you may have in your water that you're using,
[00:05:31.170]or in the surface that you're trying to clean.
[00:05:34.240]So that's why it's important.
[00:05:35.730]So let's just look at this chart over here.
[00:05:38.550]So if I have a water that I'm gonna use it
[00:05:42.270]to sanitize my surfaces,
[00:05:45.210]and I'm gonna put chlorine inside,
[00:05:46.980]and I have a lot of organic and inorganic impurities,
[00:05:50.520]those compounds are gonna grab those chlorine molecules.
[00:05:54.730]And this may be there and you don't even see,
[00:05:58.070]and I can guarantee that they will be there.
[00:05:59.900]Is just part of the water, the nature of the water,
[00:06:03.040]unless you're using a RO water,
[00:06:06.080]there are gonna be some organic and inorganic impurities,
[00:06:08.970]you just can't see it.
[00:06:10.230]So they are gonna grab the chlorine.
[00:06:12.210]Is that solution as it is now effective at all?
[00:06:17.060]No, it only gonna be effective when the chlorine
[00:06:19.970]is floating by itself, because it needs to be able to go
[00:06:23.230]and attack the bacteria.
[00:06:24.710]If the chlorine is busy, binding something else,
[00:06:28.010]it's not gonna have any sanitizing effect.
[00:06:30.890]So let's think of another situation here,
[00:06:33.960]where I keep add more chlorine to that solution.
[00:06:37.300]So that's when I have free chlorine here.
[00:06:39.960]That now, that, this solution can be used for sanitation.
[00:06:44.370]It's a, that free chlorine is available for disinfection.
[00:06:48.810]So what are the factors
[00:06:50.190]that are gonna affect getting to that point,
[00:06:53.330]of having enough chlorine?
[00:06:54.840]The concentration, right, if I don't add enough,
[00:06:57.610]I'm not gonna have enough available.
[00:06:59.560]The pH of the water, organic
[00:07:01.410]and inorganic impurities and temperature,
[00:07:03.220]we'll talk very briefly about each of them.
[00:07:05.630]The concentration is very obvious,
[00:07:07.790]and you know, easy to understand.
[00:07:10.060]If I don't add enough chlorine to go beyond
[00:07:14.220]that break point where I bound all the impurities
[00:07:17.820]and I have chlorine that is free.
[00:07:20.060]If I have only 20 ppms as an example,
[00:07:22.830]I might be able to kill a certain amount of bacteria.
[00:07:26.200]But if I increase that free chlorine to maybe 50,
[00:07:29.760]now I can kill them all.
[00:07:31.240]That's just kind of like a visual graphic
[00:07:33.800]of how that would work.
[00:07:35.700]The effect of the pH, what we know is that the chlorine,
[00:07:39.610]it's better, it works better in an acidic environment,
[00:07:43.220]just because of the nature of the molecule.
[00:07:45.610]It, it's more active, it can grab the bacteria,
[00:07:48.530]it can reach the bacteria and cause more harm
[00:07:51.110]if it is on a slightly acidic environment.
[00:07:54.320]So if your water is slightly acidic, it's better.
[00:07:57.920]It makes the chlorine more effective.
[00:08:00.160]We can see that in this chart over here,
[00:08:02.310]number of survivor bacteria.
[00:08:05.010]I can kill some, may take 30 minutes at a pH eight.
[00:08:09.600]If I dropped the pH to six,
[00:08:11.280]that same amount of kill
[00:08:12.740]or even more kill, can happen in maybe seven minutes.
[00:08:16.960]So it's more efficient at a slightly acidic pH.
[00:08:21.870]However, there is a slight drawback here
[00:08:24.380]because chlorine on itself, it's a basic compound.
[00:08:29.680]So the more I add to my water,
[00:08:32.180]I might change the pH because I'm adding too much of it.
[00:08:35.740]So it's kind of like a counter effect.
[00:08:37.570]So we need to be careful,
[00:08:39.010]because the more chlorine we add, the higher the pH becomes,
[00:08:43.450]and then I don't get that kill anymore.
[00:08:46.720]So we should add enough chlorine but not above prescribed.
[00:08:50.750]How do you go about it?
[00:08:52.180]You make sure that you are preparing your solution
[00:08:54.780]and always measuring the amount
[00:08:56.130]of free chlorine in that water.
[00:08:57.870]If it's within the prescribed levels
[00:08:59.910]that you should have it, you're good to go.
[00:09:02.220]But don't add too much.
[00:09:03.700]This is the case that the more is not the merrier.
[00:09:06.800]So don't think that, oh, I'm gonna keep adding here,
[00:09:10.274]and it's gonna be just as good.
[00:09:12.310]No, because you might cross that boundary
[00:09:14.580]and push yourself out of the killing power
[00:09:18.720]of the chlorine, okay.
[00:09:21.410]And then the other effect is organic and inorganic matter.
[00:09:25.180]We kinda talked about it,
[00:09:26.910]that if you have organic and inorganic matter,
[00:09:28.930]it's gonna bind the chlorine.
[00:09:30.670]But now, let's just imagine two situations, two buckets,
[00:09:34.430]because that's what this chart is about.
[00:09:36.540]You have one bucket, that you have very few organic
[00:09:41.560]and inorganic molecules floating
[00:09:43.470]around and you add chlorine.
[00:09:45.480]And then you kept adding
[00:09:46.670]and now you have 10 ppms of free chlorine.
[00:09:50.830]So you met all those organic compounds,
[00:09:53.680]and you have 10 of free.
[00:09:55.890]On this other bucket, I have dirty water.
[00:09:58.410]Dirty, end of the shift, dirty water.
[00:10:01.580]Now I'm adding chlorine and I add it enough
[00:10:04.780]that I met all of those,
[00:10:07.030]I met the demand of the water
[00:10:08.450]like the organic and inorganic compounds.
[00:10:10.740]And I also have 10 free ppms.
[00:10:14.440]So I have 10 ppm free here, 10 ppm free here,
[00:10:18.720]but this water was clean water, this water was dirty water.
[00:10:22.280]Which one do you think works better,
[00:10:23.810]the 10 here or the 10 here?
[00:10:26.809]Certainly the clean.
[00:10:27.642]The clean, because now the molecules,
[00:10:30.980]the dirt that is in that water becomes a physical impediment
[00:10:35.510]for that 10 ppms of chlorine to find the bacteria.
[00:10:39.260]It's much easier to find somebody Downtown Lincoln
[00:10:42.030]than Downtown New York, right?
[00:10:44.080]So if you have more noise around, you can't find,
[00:10:48.070]so chlorine cannot find bacteria, cannot kill it.
[00:10:51.520]So that's what the chart is showing,
[00:10:53.560]that when you have buffer, pretty much water,
[00:10:58.120]you can kill it much faster,
[00:11:00.020]and than if you to start adding things to that solution.
[00:11:04.010]Even though the amount of free chlorine is the same,
[00:11:07.140]you just can't find the bacteria.
[00:11:09.740]Message home, don't use dirty water.
[00:11:12.700]Make sure that all the sanitizer solutions
[00:11:15.340]that you're using, it's clean,
[00:11:17.140]and once it starts to become soiled, change that.
[00:11:19.930]Don't add more chlorine, not gonna help.
[00:11:22.930]Dump it, start over.
[00:11:27.350]So even when the levels of free chlorine are the same,
[00:11:30.310]the suspended matter will physically block the action.
[00:11:34.170]Effect of temperature.
[00:11:35.670]The higher the temperature, the more the chlorine is active
[00:11:38.820]because it can find the bacteria faster.
[00:11:41.060]It's moving a little bit faster inside of that solution.
[00:11:44.950]But if we warm up too much,
[00:11:48.080]the chlorine is gonna start bubbling out of my solution.
[00:11:51.770]It's gonna volatize.
[00:11:52.680]That's why when you get closer to a hot tub,
[00:11:55.940]you can smell chlorine, because that water is too hot.
[00:11:59.540]So you wanna use warm water for sanitation, and cleaning,
[00:12:03.050]but not extremely hot.
[00:12:04.570]Just again, go back to the food code,
[00:12:06.720]and look at the temperatures, it's all prescribed there.
[00:12:09.430]What is the good temperature for your water?
[00:12:11.760]Don't think that I'm gonna warm it up more
[00:12:14.150]and I'm gonna make it better,
[00:12:15.600]'cause you might again fall on the other side of the curve.
[00:12:20.270]How you make sure that you're doing everything right?
[00:12:22.900]By measuring that residual chlorine or the free chlorine.
[00:12:25.980]There's little strips that are available, commercially,
[00:12:29.360]that you can purchase
[00:12:30.193]and you can measure the levels that have in your water.
[00:12:32.620]Everybody using those?
[00:12:34.730]Yeah, I see hands going, so yeah, that's how you do it.
[00:12:38.150]And now you know why it's important, right?
[00:12:41.170]To have those measurements.
[00:12:43.460]How do you choose a sanitizer?
[00:12:44.810]You may wanna make sure that it kills microorganisms,
[00:12:47.320]it's safe, it's rinseable,
[00:12:49.330]don't have any adverse effects of food,
[00:12:51.170]compatible with other chemicals and soluble in water.
[00:12:54.280]So those are the things.
[00:12:55.540]Beyond sanitation, you wanna make sure
[00:12:57.900]that you're preventing cross-contamination
[00:13:00.530]and contamination of your food
[00:13:02.610]by keeping your employees' health.
[00:13:05.330]Don't let them come to work if they're sick.
[00:13:07.870]Making sure that they have good employee hygiene practices.
[00:13:11.610]Using the restrooms, wash your hands afterwards,
[00:13:14.570]wash your hands after touching anything
[00:13:16.460]that's not food related.
[00:13:18.240]No hand bearing in contact with food, right?
[00:13:23.830]Color coding cleaning supplies,
[00:13:25.610]the ones that are used for restrooms versus the ones
[00:13:28.360]that are used for the restaurant area,
[00:13:31.250]you don't want those two cross.
[00:13:33.610]Color coding utensils, you may have cutting boards
[00:13:37.210]for fruits and vegetables, cutting boards for raw meat
[00:13:40.680]and you may wanna keep those separate if you can,
[00:13:43.410]it's the best.
[00:13:44.610]Organizing food storage.
[00:13:46.400]Always keeping the cooked products on the top,
[00:13:49.220]raw foods on the bottom,
[00:13:50.800]so if there's any drips,
[00:13:52.150]you don't have cross-contamination in your storage areas.
[00:13:55.900]And most importantly, be aware and share,
[00:13:58.600]making sure that your working environment
[00:14:01.270]is doing everything on its power to keep the products safe.
[00:14:06.080]Any questions about the sanitation?
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