Elizabeth I: To speak or use silence
This staged reading of the new original play “Elizabeth I: To speak or use silence,” by internationally recognized scholar UNL professor Carole Levin expands our knowledge of Queen Elizabeth I and explores her life through the intersecting lenses of politics, sex and power. Featured readers include actress Tamara Meneghini, plus UNL Honors and History students.
icon search Searchable Transcript
Toggle between list and paragraph view.
[00:00:04.990]Hi everybody, I'm Jan Deeds,
[00:00:06.780]I'm the director of the Women's Center here at UNL,
[00:00:09.320]I've a couple things to read and
[00:00:10.810]I'm really happy to see you all here, this is lovely.
[00:00:13.820]First I have to let you know that this program
[00:00:15.380]is brought to you by Humanities Nebraska,
[00:00:17.490]a state wide non-profit organization
[00:00:19.430]inspiring and enriching personal and public life,
[00:00:22.130]by offering opportunities to thoughtfully
[00:00:24.030]engage with history and culture.
[00:00:26.410]With additional funding from
[00:00:27.460]the Nebraska Cultural Endowment.
[00:00:29.260]If you enjoy this type of programing,
[00:00:31.050]please consider supporting
[00:00:32.080]Humanities Nebraska with a contribution.
[00:00:34.110]Donations are matched by state and federal funds,
[00:00:36.510]your support helps preserve our past and infirm our future.
[00:00:39.530]And before you leave there are some assessment forms
[00:00:41.940]out on the table, if you would fill one of those out,
[00:00:44.790]if we do those it encourages them to give us more funding.
[00:00:48.110]Next time we apply, so we would appreciate that.
[00:00:53.470]So welcome to the Mary Martin McLaughlin Memorial Event,
[00:00:56.600]this stage reading of Carole Levin's play
[00:00:58.730]Elizabeth I: To Speak or Use Silence.
[00:01:01.560]This event is part of women's week,
[00:01:03.160]and a part of a celebration of women's history
[00:01:05.580]as we begin Women's History Month this March.
[00:01:08.600]Mary Martin McLaughlin died in 2006 at the age of 87.
[00:01:12.510]She's known as one of those who established
[00:01:14.997]the field of pre-modern women's studies.
[00:01:16.430]She received her B.A. in 1940, and her M.A. in 1941
[00:01:20.160]in history from the University of Nebraska.
[00:01:22.520]She then went on to Columbia University for her PHD.
[00:01:26.050]Her research focused on the role of
[00:01:27.530]women, children, and families in the middle ages.
[00:01:30.340]Subjects that were for the most part overlooked
[00:01:32.900]when she began her career in the 1940's.
[00:01:36.090]Much of her life was devoted to the study of Heloise
[00:01:38.640]and her correspondence to Peter Abelard.
[00:01:41.020]In 2010 the Medieval and Renaissance Studies program
[00:01:44.755]held the first Mary Martin McLaughlin Memorial Lecture
[00:01:46.680]with Professor Bonny Wheeler, who completed McLaughlin's
[00:01:49.390]addition, the Letters of Heloise and Abelard.
[00:01:52.070]We are so pleased to honor
[00:01:53.170]Mary Martin McLaughlin this afternoon.
[00:01:56.230]In putting on this event,
[00:01:57.530]we are very grateful to the Women's Center staff,
[00:01:59.760]especially for our coming assistant Brittany Dickens,
[00:02:01.780]who you met in the hall, and who will be coming in a minute.
[00:02:04.670]And also to the Medieval and Renaissance Studies program,
[00:02:07.630]the Department of History and the Honor's program.
[00:02:10.200]We are grateful to Humanities Nebraska for their support,
[00:02:12.630]and ask for everyone to fill out their evaluation form,
[00:02:14.890]I just need to remind you of that again.
[00:02:17.810]Really, really leaning on that.
[00:02:19.550]We're especially grateful to the donation
[00:02:21.240]that allowed us to do the website,
[00:02:22.670]and have this event video taped as well as other support.
[00:02:25.970]We are so delighted to have students
[00:02:28.455]from the Honor's program,
[00:02:29.288]the Medieval and Renaissance Studies program,
[00:02:30.370]and the History Department reading in this play,
[00:02:32.380]and for all the work they did
[00:02:33.470]to make this event such a success.
[00:02:35.470]And we're honored to have Tamara Meneghini
[00:02:37.540]from Colorado to read the play.
[00:02:39.770]For those who would like to learn more about Queen Elizabeth
[00:02:41.890]there is a book table, as you saw coming in.
[00:02:44.350]And we also thank Stephanie Budel for organizing it.
[00:02:47.620]Carole would be delighted to sign books after the reading.
[00:02:50.250]And please, everyone have some marzipan,
[00:02:52.740]this was Queen Elizabeth's favorite dessert.
[00:03:06.302]The old Elizabeth is sitting on stage, apparently asleep.
[00:03:09.130]She's at a desk that has chronicles and letters.
[00:03:12.100]In 1601 there was much worry in England over the behavior
[00:03:14.960]of the Earl of Essex and his conflicts with the Queen.
[00:03:17.720]A women named Jon Nott, of Mansel Gamet Hertfordshire
[00:03:20.290]on two successive Saturdays had such powerful warning dreams
[00:03:23.260]about a potential assassination of Queen Elizabeth,
[00:03:25.820]that she passionately entreated her Godfather to send word
[00:03:28.010]of it to the Queen's secretary Sir Robert Cecil.
[00:03:30.680]I dreamed that Anne Boleyn came to her daughter Elizabeth.
[00:03:33.670]Anne Boleyn enters and goes to Elizabeth,
[00:03:35.840]who wakes up to see her mother standing before her.
[00:03:39.490]My dear daughter, these are very dangerous times.
[00:03:42.239]Whatever you do, do not leave court
[00:03:45.070]as this would put you in peril.
[00:03:46.800]Young Elizabeth enters followed by two men in black.
[00:03:49.500]One grabs her and the other stabs her
[00:03:51.026]and they carry her off stage.
[00:03:52.670]Such danger if you leave court.
[00:03:54.670]At court you are in power, such power,
[00:03:56.860]my brave and brilliant daughter.
[00:03:58.830]In the background young Elizabeth has reentered the stage
[00:04:01.760]regal and proud and Anne Boleyn wanders toward her.
[00:04:04.850]Dear girl, I died before you were three years old,
[00:04:08.070]and now you still have so much of your life ahead of you.
[00:04:11.120]What you must learn, which I did not in my peril,
[00:04:13.814]is when to speak, and when to use silence.
[00:04:17.090]Anne Boleyn exits and young Elizabeth
[00:04:19.070]moves toward the back of the stage.
[00:04:21.020]Enter Lady Mary Fitton, lady-in-waiting.
[00:04:24.029]Lady Mary, how good to see you.
[00:04:27.840]I'm having such strange dreams,
[00:04:29.810]I need something to distract me.
[00:04:32.010]For the last few years I have been a Maid of Honor
[00:04:35.389]to Elizabeth sometimes sleeping in the Queen's bedchamber.
[00:04:37.830]All too often I suffer from the disease of the mother
[00:04:40.230]and feel most sad and disordered.
[00:04:42.470]Sometimes I wonder if the Queen
[00:04:44.180]feels so too with all that is going on.
[00:04:46.520]She enjoys having us read aloud to her on occasion.
[00:04:49.230]There is a play that has been preformed of late,
[00:04:51.220]Master William Shakespeare's Richard the Second.
[00:04:53.800]It has been much on the Queen's mind lately.
[00:04:56.073]This royal throne of kings, this sceptered isle,
[00:04:59.250]this earth of majesty, the seat of mars,
[00:05:01.780]this other Eden, demi paradise,
[00:05:03.930]this fortress built by nature for herself,
[00:05:05.990]against infection and the hand of war.
[00:05:08.140]This happy breed of men, this little world.
[00:05:10.710]This precious stone set in the silver sea
[00:05:12.990]which serves it in the office of a wall
[00:05:15.060]or as a moat defensive to a house
[00:05:16.810]against the envy of less happier land.
[00:05:19.240]This blessed pot, this earth, this realm, this England.
[00:05:23.880]Thank you Mary.
[00:05:27.050]In this year 1601,
[00:05:30.060]I have now been England's Queen for 43 years.
[00:05:33.660]So many that I loved and trusted are gone.
[00:05:37.770]Sir Francis Walsingham,
[00:05:39.540]who's spy network kept me safe I lost in 1591.
[00:05:43.750]My dear William Cecil Lord Burghley,
[00:05:46.520]who had loyal to my interest since before the reign began,
[00:05:51.050]died in 1598.
[00:05:52.967]As soon as I became Queen I made
[00:05:55.640]my principal secretary, telling him.
[00:05:58.894]This judgment I have of you,
[00:05:59.930]is that you will not be corrupted by any manner of gift,
[00:06:03.030]and that you will be faithful to the state.
[00:06:05.280]And that without respect of my private will
[00:06:07.240]you will give me that counsel that you think best.
[00:06:09.870]He said to his son Robert on his deathbed.
[00:06:12.750]Serve God by serving the Queen.
[00:06:15.058]I lost my dear Kat Ashley, who's loyal to me in the
[00:06:20.920]difficult years before I became Queen was priceless to me.
[00:06:25.280]She entered my service when I was only three years old.
[00:06:28.760]And in 1547, she became my governess.
[00:06:31.800]And I am so thankful she encouraged my education,
[00:06:35.670]we were deeply loyal to each other
[00:06:37.650]and when I became Queen she became
[00:06:39.710]my Chief Gentlewoman of the Privy Chamber.
[00:06:43.190]Kat Ashley enters and she and young Elizabeth
[00:06:45.630]dance together on one side of the stage.
[00:06:48.230]She died in 1565.
[00:06:51.400]Much too early in my reign.
[00:06:56.810]And oh, Robin, Robert Dudley, the Earl of Leicester.
[00:07:03.840]Died unexpectedly right after the Armada in 1588.
[00:07:09.720]Robert enters and he and young Elizabeth hug each other.
[00:07:13.450]We had dined together most nights after the victory
[00:07:16.220]and then he left to take the baths,
[00:07:18.550]the waters in Buxton and died on his way there.
[00:07:22.440]Though I still love to dress up in my beautiful gowns
[00:07:25.130]and I have more than one thousand items of clothing,
[00:07:28.690]when times are difficult, it has always been my books
[00:07:31.734]and my studies that have helped to sustain me.
[00:07:35.590]But as I look at them now,
[00:07:37.830]remembering history can be painful.
[00:07:40.920]As we have learned from the plays
[00:07:42.520]of Master William Shakespeare,
[00:07:45.440]Henry Bolingbroke pushed his cousin
[00:07:47.580]Richard the Second off the throne.
[00:07:50.220]Bolingbroke was attractive, and a military leader
[00:07:53.870]too much like the Earl of Essex.
[00:07:57.810]A man who was my favorite, and the stepson of Robert Dudley.
[00:08:03.920]One man I truly did care about.
[00:08:09.540]He was fascinating and charismatic.
[00:08:15.120]And he made me feel young again in some ways.
[00:08:18.320]But, I have had hard problems with charismatic but
[00:08:22.330]unscrupulous men going all the way back to Thomas Seymour.
[00:08:26.620]Older Elizabeth pauses, she glances
[00:08:28.920]and sees at the back of the stage the young Elizabeth
[00:08:31.080]being pursued by Thomas Seymour
[00:08:32.630]and struggling to fight him off, they then exit.
[00:08:35.440]Oh, and Essex's letters sounded so romantic even though
[00:08:40.290]I learned later he had his secretary compose them.
[00:08:44.270]But he was never actually my lover
[00:08:47.370]and my feelings for him were not at all what they were for
[00:08:50.260]Robert Dudley, a man who was never actually my lover either.
[00:08:55.420]Oh the rumors that swirled about my reign
[00:08:58.910]of lovers and illegitimate children,
[00:09:00.990]all the way to the Earl of Essex were just that: rumors.
[00:09:04.430]As I told the Spanish Ambassador decades ago.
[00:09:07.650]My life is in the open and I have so many witnesses
[00:09:11.090]that I cannot understand how so bad a judgment
[00:09:13.910]can have been formed of me.
[00:09:15.650]I know we cannot cover everybody's mouth,
[00:09:18.600]but must content ourselves
[00:09:20.500]with doing our duty and trust in God.
[00:09:22.820]For the truth will at last be made manifest.
[00:09:25.900]During the last decade of my reign,
[00:09:27.680]Essex has become one of the
[00:09:29.030]most important people at my court,
[00:09:31.320]and one for whom I have cared deeply.
[00:09:34.440]I early warned him when he ignored what I told him,
[00:09:38.960]where I'll see you fail not, else you will be loathe
[00:09:42.560]to incur our indignation and will answer for the contrary
[00:09:45.520]at your utter most peril.
[00:09:48.900]He was convinced that he knew better than me how to rule.
[00:09:53.127]I know I shall never do her service
[00:09:55.190]so that against her will.
[00:09:58.740]We were in a council meeting discussing who to send
[00:10:01.960]to try to subdue the rebellion in Ireland.
[00:10:05.994]I do not believe that your candidate
[00:10:08.970]Sir George Carol will do well in Ireland.
[00:10:11.670]How can you say that, how can you doubt my advice?
[00:10:15.650]Essex then turns his back on Elizabeth.
[00:10:17.870]Elizabeth then spins him around and boxes his ears.
[00:10:21.050]Essex starts to draw his sword against Elizabeth,
[00:10:23.770]the unnamed lord restrains him and takes his sword
[00:10:25.870]and places it on Elizabeth's desk.
[00:10:28.568]This is your Queen, you must apologize.
[00:10:30.820]I owe Her Majesty the duty of an Earl,
[00:10:33.480]but I can never serve her as a slave.
[00:10:36.460]Cannot princes err, cannot subjects receive wrong?
[00:10:39.900]I neither could nor would to put up with so great an affront
[00:10:43.160]and indignity neither would I have taken it
[00:10:46.170]at King Henry the Eighth's hands.
[00:10:50.010]My father would have struck off his head then.
[00:10:54.410]But I made up with him, and when he told me he
[00:10:58.530]was the only one who could settle the rebellion in Ireland,
[00:11:01.520]I not only agreed to appoint him,
[00:11:03.970]but I gave him the largest army ever raised in my reign.
[00:11:07.340]Oh the crowds, they cheered for him when he left London,
[00:11:10.980]but then he got to Ireland and he did nothing, nothing!
[00:11:14.570]He never brought about a capital rebel,
[00:11:17.670]against whom it would have been worthy
[00:11:19.080]to have ventured 1000 men.
[00:11:20.850]Oh, so much money was spent for no return.
[00:11:25.390]I needed to comfort and cherish the hearts of my people,
[00:11:29.460]who groan under the burden of continual levies
[00:11:32.080]and impositions who were occasioned by Essex.
[00:11:36.590]All he did was send excuses.
[00:11:39.560]If we had mended Ireland after all the calamities
[00:11:42.840]in which they have wrapped it should have been abandoned,
[00:11:46.000]then it was superfluous to have sent over
[00:11:50.990]a personage such as Essex.
[00:11:54.320]Then, though I had commanded him that he could not
[00:11:57.520]leave Ireland without my express consent,
[00:12:00.250]he secretly rode all night, and he came to court
[00:12:05.970]mud splattered and marched into my bedchamber.
[00:12:09.450]Essex returns to the stage looking splattered.
[00:12:11.870]He pushes Lady Mary Fitton aside to reach Elizabeth.
[00:12:14.160]My Lord, you cannot go in there.
[00:12:17.330]I'm still dressing, he'll see me as no man ever have,
[00:12:19.890]my gray hairs about my ears.
[00:12:22.340]He may have an army behind him, I need to be careful.
[00:12:25.270]Essex breaks through Mary Fitton's restraining arms.
[00:12:32.730]Oh my Lord, how tired you looked.
[00:12:35.950]Clearly you rushed back to see me.
[00:12:39.270]You should let me get properly dressed,
[00:12:42.320]and you as well get rested and cleaned up
[00:12:45.500]and then we can have a talk.
[00:12:48.270]I so appreciate Your Majesty's kindness.
[00:12:54.710]Lady Mary, get my guards and have
[00:12:57.460]the Earl of Essex placed under house arrest.
[00:13:01.930]Well I knew I could never trust him again.
[00:13:04.710]He could have gone into private life,
[00:13:06.090]but he felt his life was ruined.
[00:13:08.360]And when I told him my conditions
[00:13:10.420]for his released he complained that--
[00:13:12.630]Elizabeth is an old woman as crooked in mind as in body.
[00:13:18.240]Crooked, her conditions were as crooked as her carcass.
[00:13:24.494]Did he think that I would not hear about this.
[00:13:28.510]And then he started planning his rebellion,
[00:13:30.720]and had some of his friends pay
[00:13:33.230]William Shakespeare's company to put on a
[00:13:35.430]special performance of his play Richard the Second.
[00:13:39.310]Showing the King forced to abdicate.
[00:13:42.520]For God's sake let us sit upon the ground
[00:13:44.830]and tell sad stories of the death of kings.
[00:13:47.380]How some have been deposed, some slain in war,
[00:13:50.860]some haunted by the ghost they have deposed.
[00:13:53.310]Some poisoned by their wives,
[00:13:54.820]some sleeping killed, all murdered.
[00:13:57.080]For within the hall of crown, that rounds the mortal temples
[00:14:00.130]of a king, keeps death his court.
[00:14:02.240]And there the antic sits, scoffing his fate,
[00:14:05.320]and grinning at his pomp.
[00:14:10.720]I am Richard the Second.
[00:14:13.640]Know ye not that?
[00:14:16.480]And though the crowds cheered Essex
[00:14:19.280]when he took to the streets to march against the Queen,
[00:14:23.290]none joined him.
[00:14:25.940]He was found guilty of treason.
[00:14:29.020]I had to have him executed.
[00:14:31.630]Older Elizabeth picks up the sword and points it at Essex.
[00:14:35.500]Essex departs the stage with his head down.
[00:14:41.690]Around the same time I went to the wedding.
[00:14:45.510]Lady Anne Russell and Henry Somerset.
[00:14:47.840]The entertainment was a masque,
[00:14:49.520]and nine ladies danced representing different qualities.
[00:14:54.240]Lady Mary Fitton asked me to dance with her.
[00:14:57.800]I asked her what she represented and she responded.
[00:15:03.221]Affection, affection's false.
[00:15:07.080]But, I did get up and dance.
[00:15:10.933]In the background young Elizabeth has two dancing puppets.
[00:15:14.690]But I soon had to leave court too.
[00:15:16.500]I fell in love with Lord William Herbert,
[00:15:18.590]and would disguise myself as a boy
[00:15:20.350]to leave court and be with him.
[00:15:21.950]He told me he would marry me
[00:15:23.530]and all too soon I was pregnant.
[00:15:26.270]The Queen was furious.
[00:15:27.440]You are a disgrace.
[00:15:29.280]A disgrace to yourself, to the court, to the Queen, leave.
[00:15:33.344]Leave the court!
[00:15:34.177]Your Majesty, I am so sorry!
[00:15:36.250]Elizabeth walks away from Mary Fitton.
[00:15:39.370]She sent me away, and my lover abandoned me.
[00:15:42.420]He utterly renounces all marriage.
[00:15:44.750]My baby son died and I was never in court again.
[00:15:48.584]Lady Mary leaves the stage weeping.
[00:15:50.440]Didn't these young girls understand that
[00:15:52.700]it hurt my honor as well as theirs if they misbehaved?
[00:15:58.750]There were a number I had to send away,
[00:16:00.350]so much loss in my last years.
[00:16:03.930]If only you were still here with me at court.
[00:16:06.660]Kat Ashley comes out and puts her arm around
[00:16:09.040]the young Elizabeth, gives her a hug and then exits again.
[00:16:13.680]Oh Essex was just the latest threat, the latest pain.
[00:16:19.220]But there were glories too during my reign,
[00:16:21.810]and perhaps the greatest was our defeat over
[00:16:24.970]King Philip of Spain's Spanish Armada in 1588.
[00:16:30.510]Philip considered himself his most Catholic Majesty.
[00:16:36.230]He wanted to re-establish Catholicism all over Europe
[00:16:39.790]and he saw me as the one who was really standing in his way.
[00:16:44.800]I kept trying to make peace,
[00:16:47.060]but that soon became impossible.
[00:16:49.130]My Lord Admiral Howard wrote to me that--
[00:16:53.671]For the love of Jesus Christ,
[00:16:55.130]Madam awake thoroughly and see the villainous treasons
[00:16:58.240]round about you against Your Majesty and your realm.
[00:17:02.150]And draw your forces around you
[00:17:04.110]like a mighty prince to defend you.
[00:17:06.570]Truly Madam, if you do so there is no course for fear.
[00:17:10.750]If you do not, there will be danger.
[00:17:15.180]Well I did all I could to help recruit brave sailors
[00:17:18.710]such as Sir Francis Drake
[00:17:20.640]to help the Lord Admiral find effective ships.
[00:17:23.180]And my dear Robin Dudley, the Earl of Leicester,
[00:17:28.500]to find soldiers to protect the realm
[00:17:30.530]if the English ships could not stop the Armada
[00:17:32.670]that Philip called invincible.
[00:17:34.760]Robin wrote to me--
[00:17:36.590]Now for your person being the most dainty and sacred thing
[00:17:39.950]we have in this world to care for,
[00:17:42.360]a man must tremble when he thinks of it.
[00:17:44.980]Especially finding Your Majesty to have the princely courage
[00:17:48.100]to transport yourself to the utmost confines of your realm
[00:17:52.130]to meet your enemies and to defend your subjects.
[00:17:56.010]You shall comfort not only these thousands,
[00:17:59.869]but many more shall hear of it.
[00:18:01.570]See Robin had invited me to the Camp of Tilbury
[00:18:05.900]to help raise the troop's morale.
[00:18:08.830]While my main advisers William Cecil,
[00:18:10.920]and Lord Burley, Sir Francis Walsingham
[00:18:13.760]wanted me to stay in London where they could keep me safe,
[00:18:16.700]but I was determined to go to Tilbury
[00:18:19.840]and encourage the troops.
[00:18:22.170]Robin was also worried that someone might try to harm me.
[00:18:26.330]So protect me, to protect me my dear Robin
[00:18:30.340]stayed at my side the entire time.
[00:18:34.010]Robert Dudley stands with Elizabeth.
[00:18:36.030]Great Queen, I would give my life to protect you.
[00:18:39.810]The soldiers await your speech.
[00:18:49.460]My loving people, we have been persuaded by some,
[00:18:55.430]that are careful of our safety to take heed.
[00:18:58.340]How we commit ourselves to the armed multitudes
[00:19:01.680]for fear of treachery.
[00:19:03.760]But I assure you, I do not desire to live to distrust
[00:19:08.120]my faithful and loving people.
[00:19:11.040]Let tyrants fear!
[00:19:13.880]I have always so behaved myself that under God
[00:19:17.410]I have placed my chief of strength and safeguard
[00:19:20.690]in the loyal hearts and the goodwill of my subjects.
[00:19:24.970]And therefore, I am come amongst you at this time
[00:19:29.570]being resolved in the midst and the heat of the great battle
[00:19:33.700]to live or die amongst you all.
[00:19:37.660]To lay down for my God, for my kingdom, and for my people.
[00:19:43.220]My body, my honor, my blood, and even this dust.
[00:19:49.700]I know I have but the body of a weak and feeble woman,
[00:19:54.220]but I have the heart of a king, and a king of England too!
[00:19:58.500]And think foul scorn that Parma or Spain,
[00:20:01.870]or any other Prince of Europe
[00:20:04.199]should dare to invade the borders of my realms,
[00:20:06.330]to which rather than any dishonor should grow by me.
[00:20:09.500]I myself will take up arms and we shall shortly
[00:20:14.640]have a famous victory over the enemies
[00:20:18.072]of my God, my kingdom, and my people.
[00:20:24.792]The English fire ships and the storms God provided
[00:20:27.410]saved England from the dangers of the Armada.
[00:20:31.050]Older Elizabeth takes off her pearls
[00:20:33.120]and looks at them, and then puts them on the desk.
[00:20:38.070]Things are happening.
[00:20:45.860]I want you all to imagine me taking off my pearls.
[00:20:54.540]Well, I wore these after the portrait done,
[00:21:02.160]after our great victory and I love these pearls.
[00:21:06.500]Originally Pope Clement the Seventh,
[00:21:09.590]gave them to his niece Catherine de'Medici
[00:21:12.210]when she married the heir to the throne of France.
[00:21:15.970]And then they were passed on to my cousin Mary Stuart.
[00:21:20.460]When she married the Dauphin,
[00:21:23.120]she brought them back to Scotland with her,
[00:21:25.100]but when she fled Scotland, the Earl of Moray
[00:21:27.890]asked if I wished to purchase them.
[00:21:31.000]I so wanted them I outbid Catherine and now they are mine.
[00:21:38.890]My dear Robin, Lord Robert Dudley,
[00:21:46.040]my great support since the reign of my sister Mary.
[00:21:51.370]Died in September on the 4th of 1588.
[00:21:56.270]Robert kisses Elizabeth on the cheek
[00:21:58.310]and then exits the stage.
[00:22:03.130]I was so devastated I locked myself in my room.
[00:22:08.620]I read and I reread the final letter
[00:22:12.366]I ever received from him,
[00:22:14.950]finally writing on it his last letter.
[00:22:21.550]I most humbly beseech Your Majesty to pardon
[00:22:24.060]your poor old servant to profess bold and
[00:22:27.849]sending to know how my gracious Lady doth.
[00:22:30.520]And what ease of her late pain she finds
[00:22:32.780]being the chiefest thing in the world I do pray for,
[00:22:36.230]for her to have good health, and long life.
[00:22:40.100]For my own poor taste I continue to steal your medicine
[00:22:42.940]and finds that amends much better
[00:22:44.480]than any other thing that have been given me.
[00:22:47.700]Thus hoping to find perfect cure at the bath,
[00:22:51.080]but the continuance of my wanton prayer
[00:22:53.440]for you Majesty's most happy preservation.
[00:22:57.160]I humbly kiss your foot.
[00:22:59.490]Your Majesty's most faithful and obedient servant.
[00:23:05.160]I stayed there until some days later,
[00:23:08.420]Lord Burley worried about his Queen
[00:23:11.690]ordered the door to my room be broken down.
[00:23:16.260]Oh Robin, Robin, oh he was gorgeous in his youth.
[00:23:23.900]I had known Robin since we were eight years old.
[00:23:26.850]And I told him then I would never marry.
[00:23:29.280]But though I told Robin that I would have
[00:23:31.920]but one mistress and no master,
[00:23:34.240]he was the man that knew me best.
[00:23:36.420]When I became Queen he became my Master of the Horse.
[00:23:39.510]We hunted together.
[00:23:41.360]The Queens Majesty, thanks be to God,
[00:23:43.750]is in very good health and has become a great huntress.
[00:23:47.120]And oh, how we loved to dance together.
[00:23:50.140]Robert Dudley and the young Elizabeth dance.
[00:23:53.585]One time we had such a fight Robin threatened.
[00:24:00.020]I'm leaving court.
[00:24:01.530]I told him you cannot.
[00:24:03.670]I must see you every day.
[00:24:05.830]Oh he preened, until I added you are like my dog.
[00:24:10.750]When people see you they know that I am nearby.
[00:24:19.240]Robin stays on stage and
[00:24:20.580]moves about during the next section.
[00:24:22.110]Coming back to stroke Elizabeth's arm or kiss her neck,
[00:24:24.560]pulling her up into a hug or a dance.
[00:24:27.530]All the ambassadors noted my closeness to Lord Robert.
[00:24:31.760]I remember when one of the French Ambassadors came.
[00:24:35.998](speaks in French)
[00:24:52.888]Her French is superb, and I hear from
[00:24:54.553]the other ambassadors that
[00:24:55.670]she has also greeted them in their languages too.
[00:24:58.208]But we also know how much time
[00:24:59.250]she seems to spend with Lord Robert.
[00:25:02.730]From the beginning of my reign, I worked hard to rule.
[00:25:06.320]But early in my reign, I also did love to go hunting with
[00:25:11.040]Robert Dudley, to dance with him, watch him play tennis.
[00:25:15.700]But there was no dishonor, though many claimed it.
[00:25:18.970]And as I told the Spanish Ambassador--
[00:25:22.020]They charged me with a good many things
[00:25:24.480]in my own country and elsewhere and amongst them
[00:25:27.220]that I show more favor to Robert than is fitting.
[00:25:30.380]Speaking of me as they might speak of an immodest woman.
[00:25:34.130]I have some favor, although not so much as he deserves,
[00:25:37.870]but God knows how great a slander it is,
[00:25:41.566]and a time will come when the world will know it.
[00:25:43.320]Some say Lord Robert's wife Amy,
[00:25:45.930]has a tumor in her breast, and that he is only waiting
[00:25:47.992]for her to die so that he can marry the queen.
[00:25:51.080]Elizabeth looks horrified
[00:25:52.480]and turns away from the ambassador.
[00:25:54.380]When Robin again comes over she turns away from him too.
[00:25:57.670]Lady Mary Sidney enters.
[00:26:00.784]My dear Lady Mary, how good to see you.
[00:26:04.320]I served as Lady-in-Waiting to the
[00:26:05.730]Queen in the earliest years of her reign.
[00:26:07.750]Like my brother Robert, I knew her for many years,
[00:26:10.100]and I met my husband, Henry Sidney,
[00:26:12.070]at Edward the Sixth's court.
[00:26:13.520]I was one of Queen Elizabeth's closest companions.
[00:26:16.270]But oh to be caught in the middle of my brother Robert's
[00:26:18.300]spats and love games with the Queen.
[00:26:20.250]But then there was such a worrying time, in 1560,
[00:26:23.016]Robert's wife Amy Robsart was found dead
[00:26:25.270]at the bottom of some stairs with her neck broken,
[00:26:27.270]where she was living in the country.
[00:26:28.980]They'd only been 17 when they married,
[00:26:31.728]and my brother had not seen her more than a year.
[00:26:32.960]Young Elizabeth takes a puppet and lays her on the floor
[00:26:35.380]with her head at a strange angle.
[00:26:38.360]Many said that he had had her murdered.
[00:26:43.400]This untoward accident, all the malicious talk
[00:26:46.420]that I know the wicked world will use.
[00:26:49.830]My ambassador in Paris wrote.
[00:26:52.380]The brute be so brim and so malicious
[00:26:54.550]we report it here touching the marriage
[00:26:56.070]of Lord Robert and the death of his wife.
[00:26:58.320]As I know not where to turn you,
[00:26:59.883]know what continents to bear,
[00:27:02.090]I had rather perish and quail with honesty than live
[00:27:05.280]and beguile a little time with shame.
[00:27:08.190]Mary Stuart, then Queen of France said that--
[00:27:11.740]The Queen is going to marry her horse keeper
[00:27:13.720]who has killed his wife to make room for her in his bed.
[00:27:16.520]Mary laughs, does a little dance, and exits.
[00:27:19.920]I knew this was not true.
[00:27:23.300]To save your honor and my own, I cannot have you at court
[00:27:27.200]until all this is thoroughly investigated.
[00:27:29.660]Robin tries to touch Elizabeth,
[00:27:31.230]but she turns away from him.
[00:27:32.570]He cries out--
[00:27:36.970]I would not have him back at court until the Assize court
[00:27:40.120]found that Amy died by misadventure, an accident.
[00:27:45.120]Then the Queen welcomed Robin back to court
[00:27:47.080]and for a time all seemed well.
[00:27:49.150]Robin returns to the stage and he and Elizabeth
[00:27:50.846]bow to each other and briefly hug.
[00:27:53.470]They dance together.
[00:27:55.110]Robert was involved in efforts to occupy La Have,
[00:27:57.800]or New Haven as we called it, early in 1562,
[00:28:00.477]and my husband Henry helped him.
[00:28:02.510]It was rather a family affair as in the early Autumn
[00:28:04.760]there was another expedition and this time
[00:28:06.440]it was my brother Ambrose, Earl of Warwick,
[00:28:08.439]who was with Henry at New Haven.
[00:28:10.630]But soon after they left court England was truly in crisis.
[00:28:13.160]Far more than my brother's with the death of his wife.
[00:28:15.240]As our Queen became ill.
[00:28:17.009]My body is aching all over, I'm so cold.
[00:28:22.400]Oh no, oh no, the Queen has smallpox,
[00:28:24.350]the Queen has smallpox.
[00:28:26.460]If it is God's will that I, I fear I am going to die.
[00:28:31.830]This is my command for the good of the country.
[00:28:34.840]Make Lord Robert the Governor of the Realm.
[00:28:38.050]And I must tell you, with the utmost seriousness,
[00:28:41.944]nothing dishonorable has ever passed between Robin and me,
[00:28:46.800]I promise you that.
[00:28:48.710]I nursed Elizabeth most devotedly
[00:28:50.550]and I never left her side.
[00:28:52.210]But while Elizabeth survived the disease with few scars,
[00:28:54.570]I became ill as well and was terribly marked.
[00:28:56.870]My husband was devastated.
[00:28:59.009]Ugh... When I went to New Haven
[00:29:05.430]I left her a full fair lady,
[00:29:07.820]in mine eye at least, the fairest.
[00:29:10.120]And when I returned I found her
[00:29:11.580]as foul a lady as the smallpox could make her.
[00:29:15.220]Which she did take by continual attendance of
[00:29:17.680]Her Majesty's most precious person.
[00:29:20.490]Sick of the same disease, the scars of which,
[00:29:23.231]to her resolute discomfort, ever since have done,
[00:29:27.190]and do remain in her face.
[00:29:29.080]So she lives like a night raven in the house.
[00:29:32.390]But Henry always exaggerated.
[00:29:34.300]Not about my scars, alas,
[00:29:36.180]but claiming I refused to be seen by any.
[00:29:38.230]I was not only up and around the house at night,
[00:29:40.060]when no one could see me but during the day as well,
[00:29:42.040]as I ran the household.
[00:29:43.500]I even returned to court,
[00:29:44.580]but never felt the Queen appreciated my sacrifice.
[00:29:47.260]She and young Elizabeth are walking around each other,
[00:29:49.583]then Elizabeth nods to Lady Mary and turns away.
[00:29:53.170]I wonder if she was embarrassed by me.
[00:29:54.910]We were never as close and my assigned rooms
[00:29:57.030]at court were far away from her.
[00:30:00.280]I recovered from the smallpox
[00:30:02.210]but my illness so frightened my advisors and my people
[00:30:05.700]that there was more pressure than ever
[00:30:07.340]that I marry so that I could give birth to a son
[00:30:09.970]and provide for masculine succession.
[00:30:12.860]Madam, your counsel, your parliament,
[00:30:15.510]and your people demand that you marry.
[00:30:17.830]We must have a king to help you rule,
[00:30:19.735]and you must have a son so eventually
[00:30:21.800]we will have a king again in this realm.
[00:30:24.100]I was not sure at all that I ever wanted to marry,
[00:30:27.580]but from the beginning of my reign I had many who horded me.
[00:30:31.270]My own brother-in-law, Philip the Second of Spain,
[00:30:33.870]once husband to my older sister Mary,
[00:30:36.450]the Archduke Charles, Eric the 14th of Sweden,
[00:30:39.740]Henry the Third of France and his younger brother
[00:30:42.100]the Duke of Alencon, later Anjou.
[00:30:45.070]Your Majesty, my dear Elizabeth,
[00:30:47.440]you should commit yourself to a suitor
[00:30:49.040]who is worthy and a responsible match.
[00:30:51.099]One who befits your rank
[00:30:52.620]and will please the people of England.
[00:30:55.740]But I was not so eager to marry.
[00:30:58.930]As I told the Spanish ambassador.
[00:31:00.743]If I could appoint such a successor to the crown,
[00:31:03.375]as would please me and the country, I would not marry.
[00:31:08.490]As it is a thing for which I have never had any inclination.
[00:31:12.824]And then of course, there was Robert Dudley.
[00:31:16.950]Robert Dudley comes on stage
[00:31:18.700]and leads Elizabeth in a short dance.
[00:31:24.838]I had even suggested in 1563,
[00:31:27.604]that Robin marry my Catholic cousin
[00:31:29.760]Mary Stuart the Scottish Queen.
[00:31:31.740]Mary Stuart enters, walking about and shrugging.
[00:31:34.330]She looks at Elizabeth and laughs
[00:31:36.180]and stands to the side of the stage.
[00:31:37.860]I told the Scottish ambassador Sir James Melville,
[00:31:40.970]that I esteemed Robert as my brother and my best friend.
[00:31:46.310]And whom nature had implanted so many graces
[00:31:49.530]that I would have married him myself
[00:31:52.570]if I had ever minded to have taken a husband.
[00:31:56.050]I made him the Earl of Leicester.
[00:31:58.420]Robert kneels before the young Elizabeth.
[00:32:00.760]Elizabeth puts the sword on his shoulder.
[00:32:03.280]She hands off the sword to the English Lord,
[00:32:05.580]and then leans over and tickles Robin about the neck.
[00:32:09.580]Perhaps tickling his neck was
[00:32:11.780]a bit too openly affectionate and I was not sure that
[00:32:16.710]I could do without his company.
[00:32:18.660]Robert now standing puts an arm around her.
[00:32:22.020]I wondered what to do when in January 1565.
[00:32:26.170]Well I would certainly consider
[00:32:27.890]marrying the new Earl of Leicester,
[00:32:29.560]if Elizabeth would make me heir to the crown of England.
[00:32:32.360]I just so want to be the Queen of England,
[00:32:34.390]and I am nine years younger and more attractive too.
[00:32:38.530]But Robin had no interest in marrying her,
[00:32:42.280]as he still wanted to marry me.
[00:32:45.680]Now that the death of my wife Amy was behind me
[00:32:48.150]I very much hoped that Elizabeth would become my bride.
[00:32:52.130]I worked to make this happen for years.
[00:32:54.930]I was her close companion and advisor.
[00:32:58.690]I gave her lavish gifts.
[00:33:00.680]And of course, I wondered how much was his love for
[00:33:04.310]Elizabeth Tudor and how much his Dudley desire
[00:33:07.570]to become the King of England.
[00:33:10.080]I cannot really tell the answer to that myself.
[00:33:14.449]Instead, Mary became enamored
[00:33:17.530]of her young cousin Henry Stuart, Lord Darnley.
[00:33:19.957]When he rode into Edinburgh she proclaimed--
[00:33:23.100]He was the lustiest and best proportioned
[00:33:25.280]long man that I had seen.
[00:33:27.050]I am tired of being a widow.
[00:33:29.090]I am so eager to marry my gorgeous young cousin.
[00:33:32.100]He is such a good dancer.
[00:33:33.570]He assures me how much he loves me.
[00:33:35.740]Elizabeth is just so envious of my good fortune
[00:33:38.770]having such a gorgeous love.
[00:33:40.980]I gave him a set of gilded armor.
[00:33:43.310]But I still want to be named heir to the English throne.
[00:33:46.050]Truly since Henry was still Catherine of Aragon's husband
[00:33:48.800]when Elizabeth was born, she is a bastard
[00:33:51.050]and I should be the true Queen of England now.
[00:33:53.200]Right now, with my attractive cousin husband on my arm.
[00:33:59.030]Many thought that this marriage would strengthen
[00:34:01.500]her claim to my throne, since he was our cousin.
[00:34:04.830]But though I knew that she had fallen in love
[00:34:06.930]with an arrogant drunken fool,
[00:34:09.550]I had no idea of all the problems this marriage would cause.
[00:34:13.540]Darnley treated Mary badly.
[00:34:15.600]Even murdering her Italian secretary David Rizzio.
[00:34:19.360]They had a son, James, in June 1566.
[00:34:23.480]I was his Godmother, but she never forgave Darnley.
[00:34:27.730]What a mistake to marry Darnley.
[00:34:29.680]He insists that he should be the King and rule
[00:34:32.270]and I merely the Queen.
[00:34:34.030]I am weary from him and shrink from his touch.
[00:34:36.740]Mary started spending too much time
[00:34:38.650]with James Hepburn, Earl of Bothwell.
[00:34:41.080]A Protestant, but the only one she felt she could trust.
[00:34:44.430]Bothwell is daring, impetuous, and dangerous.
[00:34:47.700]He has bold ambitions.
[00:34:49.740]Oh Mary and her men.
[00:34:52.160]Did she not realize that the safest
[00:34:54.100]and strongest Queen was one who ruled alone?
[00:34:57.210]Darnley was ill and at the house he was in, Kirk o'Field,
[00:35:01.991]when on February 9th, 1567 there was a great explosion.
[00:35:06.780]But Darnley was not killed in the blast.
[00:35:10.000]He and his manservant were found strangled in the garden.
[00:35:12.860]My husband is dead, my husband is dead!
[00:35:15.290]She runs about a bit and then stands
[00:35:16.999]at the side of the stage pretending to weep.
[00:35:19.580]Everyone said that Bothwell had planned it.
[00:35:22.360]But Mary protected him.
[00:35:24.200]I told Mary, Madam, my ears have been so deafened
[00:35:28.367]and my understanding so grieved and my heart so a fainted,
[00:35:33.770]to hear of the dreadful news of the abominable murder
[00:35:37.400]of your mad husband and my killed cousin
[00:35:40.670]that I scarcely have the wits to write about it.
[00:35:44.630]I cannot dissemble that I am more sorrowful
[00:35:47.990]for you than for him.
[00:35:49.860]I will not at all dissemble
[00:35:51.100]what most people are talking about,
[00:35:52.570]which is that you mill look through your fingers
[00:35:55.230]at the revenging of this deed.
[00:35:58.170]However, I exhort you.
[00:36:01.090]I counsel you and I beseech you
[00:36:04.540]to take this thing so much to heart
[00:36:07.100]that you will not fear to touch even Bothwell,
[00:36:11.660]whom you have nearest to you, if the murder touches him.
[00:36:15.960]And that no persuasion will prevent you
[00:36:17.990]from making an example of justice out of this to the world.
[00:36:23.090]Mary Stuart stands there defiantly and says nothing.
[00:36:27.410]When Mary did not answer I became even more
[00:36:29.830]passionate and emphatic in my advice.
[00:36:32.500]For the love of God, madam.
[00:36:35.160]Use such sincerity and prudence in the matter of the hearing
[00:36:40.460]which touches you so merely that all the world
[00:36:42.920]may feel justified in believing you innocent
[00:36:45.610]of so enormous a crime.
[00:36:48.060]Which, if you were not, would be good cause
[00:36:50.480]for degrading you from the rank of princess
[00:36:53.100]and bringing you upon the scorn of the vulgar.
[00:36:56.130]Mary Stuart turns her back on Elizabeth
[00:36:57.950]and then walks off the stage.
[00:37:00.630]But the trial was a joke.
[00:37:03.840]Accused by Darnley's father, Bothwell showed up
[00:37:06.690]with many followers and was known to be protected by Mary.
[00:37:10.360]He was quickly found not guilty
[00:37:12.650]but no one believed the verdict.
[00:37:14.600]And many whispered, though he already had a wife,
[00:37:17.290]he would soon marry the Scottish Queen.
[00:37:19.900]And instead of being in mourning for at least a year,
[00:37:23.700]only a month after the trial and three months
[00:37:26.750]after Darnley's death she did indeed marry Bothwell.
[00:37:31.030]A man all said was a murderer and by then many wondered
[00:37:35.300]if she was also part of the plot.
[00:37:37.650]She claimed that Bothwell, quickly divorced,
[00:37:40.980]had kidnapped her and ravished her,
[00:37:42.960]and that the only way to save her honor was to marry him.
[00:37:47.900]If someone had tried that with me
[00:37:49.490]he would lose the head off his shoulders
[00:37:51.130]instead of having his ring on my finger.
[00:37:53.784]And many thought it was a plot to explain
[00:37:57.220]a marriage to a woman already pregnant.
[00:38:00.050]I told Mary how could a worse choice be made
[00:38:03.450]for your honor than in such haste to marry such a subject.
[00:38:08.090]Who besides other a notorious lacks, public fame has charged
[00:38:12.020]with the murder of your late husband?
[00:38:15.540]There is a strong idea in the world
[00:38:17.940]that a woman may not live unless she is married.
[00:38:22.260]Or else by all events if she refrains from marriage
[00:38:24.930]she does so for some bad reason.
[00:38:27.400]Well I say, look at Mary Stuart's marriages,
[00:38:30.650]and my reign as Virgin Queen.
[00:38:33.040]Kat Ashley applauds her.
[00:38:36.760]Some say Mary was bewitched, the Scots rebelled.
[00:38:40.940]Shouting burn the whore.
[00:38:42.700]Burn the whore! Burn the whore!
[00:38:45.730]Bothwell had to flee the country,
[00:38:48.360]and I heard that some years later
[00:38:49.750]he died insane in a Danish prison.
[00:38:52.310]Mary was forced to abdicate the throne
[00:38:54.740]in favor of her infant son.
[00:38:57.110]I was 25 when I became queen.
[00:39:00.010]She was forced off the throne at the same age.
[00:39:03.400]She managed to escape her imprisonment and fled to England.
[00:39:07.110]She immediately wrote to me for help
[00:39:09.870]and her letters become more and more frantic.
[00:39:12.440]I entreat you to send to fetch me
[00:39:14.980]as soon as you possibly can, for I am in pitiable condition.
[00:39:18.260]Not only for a queen but for a gentlewoman.
[00:39:20.790]For I have nothing in the world
[00:39:22.150]but what I had had on my person when I made my escape.
[00:39:24.700]When I did not send her my own gowns to wear
[00:39:26.922]and invite her to court,
[00:39:28.300]she wanted me to know that others,
[00:39:30.790]who might well be my enemies would be glad to aid her.
[00:39:34.300]If for any reason I cannot come to you,
[00:39:36.690]seeing I have freely come to throw myself in your arms,
[00:39:39.850]you will I am sure permit me to
[00:39:41.540]ask assistance of my other allies.
[00:39:43.900]I would not give her an army to use against Scotland.
[00:39:47.370]And was weary of letting her go to France or Spain
[00:39:49.770]because I was afraid that she would raise an army
[00:39:52.532]that she could use not only against Scotland,
[00:39:55.970]but against England and me too.
[00:39:57.740]No, no keeping her in England seemed the best plan.
[00:40:01.420]Freely as I came to throw myself into your arms
[00:40:04.460]as my best friend, you will permit me on your refusal
[00:40:07.830]to seek sucker from the other Princes
[00:40:09.620]and my friends and allies.
[00:40:11.260]As may seem most convenient to me.
[00:40:13.610]For God be thanked, I have got good friends and neighbors
[00:40:17.120]in my just so quarrel and there is nothing to
[00:40:20.581]prevent me from applying them to this detention.
[00:40:22.640]I have chosen you from among all other Princes,
[00:40:26.130]as my nearest kinswoman and perfect friend.
[00:40:29.110]Doing as if I supposed it an honor to be called
[00:40:31.780]Queen restorer who hoped to receive this kindness from you.
[00:40:35.790]I see to my great regret, I am mistaken.
[00:40:39.529]I was never her best friend.
[00:40:43.860]In truth, she was no friend to me at all.
[00:40:47.370]As well as these letter to me she also wrote to others.
[00:40:50.720]I am writing to the Spanish Ambassador,
[00:40:52.810]I entreat him to tell his master King Philip
[00:40:55.620]that if he shall help me, I shall be Queen of England
[00:40:58.270]and in three months mass shall be said all over my kingdom.
[00:41:01.520]For years I refused to allow her to leave England.
[00:41:04.530]And for years she conspired against my life.
[00:41:07.210]Parliament and my counsel kept begging me
[00:41:09.330]to have her executed.
[00:41:10.860]After she conspired to marry my cousin
[00:41:13.050]Thomas Howard, Duke of Norfolk, so that they could be
[00:41:15.640]King and Queen of Scotland and England,
[00:41:18.010]Norfolk was finally executed.
[00:41:20.260]The Bishop of London argued that--
[00:41:22.493]For the safety of our Queen and realm
[00:41:25.610]forthwith to cut off the Scottish Queen's head.
[00:41:29.360]Mathew Parker, the Archbishop of Canterbury
[00:41:32.140]wrote to my dear Lord Burley that if
[00:41:34.160]Mary gained her freedom--
[00:41:36.336]He doubted not that Henry's bones and Mistress Elizabeth's
[00:41:39.120]too should be burned in Smith Field.
[00:41:41.420]With plot after plot against me
[00:41:43.190]parliament kept insisting that Mary must lose her head.
[00:41:46.420]Yet I refused, despite her intrigue.
[00:41:49.890]She was my cousin and an anointed Queen.
[00:41:53.782]Many of the leaders of my kingdom
[00:41:56.670]signed a bond of association putting Mary supporters
[00:41:59.470]on notice that were I killed, they would kill Mary.
[00:42:02.340]Yet even with that, Mary would not stop
[00:42:05.520]becoming involved in conspiracies to have me assassinated.
[00:42:09.330]Make her Queen, bring back Catholicism
[00:42:12.020]and burn those who refused to accept her rule.
[00:42:15.440]My Catholic subjects must be brave an work to get me
[00:42:18.220]out of here, destroy my bastard cousin, and make me Queen.
[00:42:21.860]I will rule as a great Catholic Queen
[00:42:24.110]and destroy the heretics.
[00:42:25.420]It had to end.
[00:42:29.089]When Sir Anthony Babington, another foolish romantic youth
[00:42:34.940]in love with the idea of Mary Stuart,
[00:42:39.000]again planned to have me murdered and make my cousin Queen,
[00:42:41.940]I had to give in.
[00:42:44.330]I was so fortunate that Sir Francis Walsingham
[00:42:46.710]was alert to all dangers and found the correspondence
[00:42:50.100]between my cousin and the other conspirators.
[00:42:53.780]Mary was put on trial at Fotheringhay Castle.
[00:42:56.730]I am an absolute Princess and therefore
[00:42:59.010]exempt from answering to the law.
[00:43:01.110]You have no right to try me, none at all.
[00:43:03.820]Your Queen is a bastard and a heretic
[00:43:06.140]and you are all heretics too.
[00:43:08.210]You not only have no right to put me on trial
[00:43:10.780]but you are doing it solely because I am Catholic.
[00:43:13.300]I am an innocent, a Catholic to be martyred for her faith.
[00:43:16.560]I told Mary, you have in various ways and manners
[00:43:22.540]attempted to take my life
[00:43:24.550]and bring my kingdom to destruction by bloodshed.
[00:43:28.590]I therefore require, charge, and command you
[00:43:31.500]to make answer for all that I have been
[00:43:33.370]well informed of your arrogance.
[00:43:36.870]English counselors found her guilty of treason.
[00:43:39.860]Condemned her to death.
[00:43:42.330]But for months, I could not bring myself
[00:43:44.240]to sign the death warrant.
[00:43:45.810]How could I execute an anointed Queen and my own cousin.
[00:43:50.401]Would the other Monarchs condemn me?
[00:43:53.171]I told Parliament--
[00:43:54.530]I am not so void of judgment as not to see mine own peril.
[00:43:59.210]Nor yet so ignorant as not to know it where in nature
[00:44:03.520]a foolish course to cherish a sword to cut mine own throat.
[00:44:08.210]I kept thinking bear with her or smite her.
[00:44:14.010]Strike lest thou be stricken.
[00:44:19.290]Sir Francis Walsingham was ill
[00:44:20.790]but he kept sending me messages to sign the death warrant.
[00:44:25.068]You must sign this warrant Your Majesty.
[00:44:28.627]I had been troubled that night
[00:44:31.290]upon a dream that the Scottish Queen was executed.
[00:44:34.610]Do not worry about vain dreams.
[00:44:36.580]Dread sovereign, please, just sign the warrant.
[00:44:40.734]Older Elizabeth takes a pen and quickly signs.
[00:44:44.811]Let Sir Francis Walsingham know that I have signed it.
[00:44:48.868]Given the delicate nature of his health right now,
[00:44:52.100]the excitement over the news may cause his death,
[00:44:54.150]but you must not have the warrant sent on
[00:44:58.010]without my express consent.
[00:45:00.830]But it was sent on immediately
[00:45:04.210]and Mary Queen of Scots was soon dead.
[00:45:07.300]Older Elizabeth picks up the sword
[00:45:09.400]and points it at Mary Stuart.
[00:45:11.530]Mary dejectedly leaves the stage.
[00:45:15.340]I was distraught when they told me.
[00:45:17.970]How could I not think of my own mother?
[00:45:20.330]Another Queen and how she was killed.
[00:45:23.570]Anne Boleyn enters again
[00:45:24.870]and stands with the young Elizabeth.
[00:45:26.610]Yet for close to two decades Mary had sought my death.
[00:45:30.190]Strike lest thou be stricken.
[00:45:32.590]The stage is draped in black.
[00:45:35.913]In August 1572 my court was the most bleak of mornings
[00:45:40.650]after thousands of Protestants were slaughtered
[00:45:42.970]in Paris on St. Bartholomew's day.
[00:45:46.410]I was so deeply distraught as soon as I heard it.
[00:45:49.460]I have since heard that whilst the Queen was
[00:45:51.310]hunting in company with her principal counselors
[00:45:53.184]the said post from France reached her
[00:45:55.350]and she read the letters at once,
[00:45:57.070]whereupon she immediately abandoned her hunting
[00:45:59.020]and returned to the palace so distressed at the news
[00:46:01.530]that all the court was downcast.
[00:46:04.430]At first there was only solemn silence.
[00:46:07.030]Almost as if it were a funeral.
[00:46:08.990]The Lord is on stage but when the Ambassador
[00:46:11.020]approaches him the Lord ignores him.
[00:46:13.440]The Ambassador then goes to the older Elizabeth.
[00:46:15.880]I was so sorry to hear of the great slaughter
[00:46:18.626]made in France of noblemen and gentlemen.
[00:46:22.210]Unconvicted and untried so suddenly.
[00:46:27.240]We could not but with lamentation
[00:46:29.080]and with tears of our heart hear it,
[00:46:31.900]of a Prince so well allied with us.
[00:46:34.800]We do hear it marvelously evil taken,
[00:46:37.500]and as a thing of a terrible and dangerous example.
[00:46:40.790]And are so sorry that our good brother
[00:46:43.310]was so ready to condescend to any such counsel.
[00:46:47.080]Who's nature we took to be more humane and noble.
[00:46:51.070]But when more was added unto it, that women, children,
[00:46:55.459]maids, young infants, and sucking babes
[00:46:58.940]were at the same time murdered and cast into the river.
[00:47:02.740]And that liberty of execution was given to the
[00:47:05.180]vilest and basest sort of the popular,
[00:47:08.430]without punishment of such cruelties done afterwards by law,
[00:47:12.350]upon those cruel murderers of such innocents.
[00:47:15.460]This increased our grief and sorry
[00:47:17.560]in our good brother's behalf, that he should suffer himself
[00:47:20.940]to be led by such inhuman counselors.
[00:47:24.570]Members of the counsel told me that France
[00:47:26.430]had been guilty of the most terrible crime
[00:47:28.660]since the crucifixion of Jesus.
[00:47:31.330]Sir Francis Walsingham, in Paris when this happened,
[00:47:34.800]sheltered all he could in household
[00:47:36.720]and begged to return to England.
[00:47:38.700]I think it less peril to live with them
[00:47:40.970]as enemies than as friends.
[00:47:42.410]But I was convinced that diplomacy
[00:47:44.795]rather than hostility would not only be better for England,
[00:47:48.900]but for the Protestants in France as well.
[00:47:52.160]Kat Ashley removes the black draping.
[00:47:53.980]The French Ambassador exits.
[00:47:55.830]In the Autumn of 1574 I sent Rodger, Lord North,
[00:48:01.030]to Paris to congratulate the new King Henry the Third
[00:48:04.900]on his ascension and negotiate with him and his mother,
[00:48:08.650]Catherine, for a treaty that would protect our trade
[00:48:11.900]as well as safeguard the French Protestants.
[00:48:15.186]Lord North is a highly educated and able man.
[00:48:21.540]His command of French and Italian were of great value
[00:48:24.990]as was his charm, presence, and tact.
[00:48:29.810]I know how tactful he is because
[00:48:31.690]he regularly loses to be when we play cards together.
[00:48:36.069]And he never fails to give me a New Year's gift.
[00:48:38.840]We have great pleasure chatting in french together.
[00:48:42.790]He had been to Paris before in 1570,
[00:48:46.210]when Sir Francis Walsingham went to attempt to secure
[00:48:49.110]more tolerations for the Protestants.
[00:48:51.576]But what happened at the French Court,
[00:48:54.792]was too much even for his tactful ways.
[00:48:59.760]The French had a buffoon dressed up
[00:49:03.690]as my father Henry the Eighth.
[00:49:06.670]Catherine de' Medici and Lord North enter.
[00:49:08.820]The Queen Mother Catherine turned to Lord North
[00:49:10.780]to make sure he realized who her fool was.
[00:49:13.260]My Lord North, do you see that my fool
[00:49:15.990]is dressed like King Henry of England?
[00:49:18.520]Lord North could not let this go.
[00:49:20.835]The tailors of France aught to know how
[00:49:23.330]the great king was accustomed to dress,
[00:49:25.870]for he came over the sea diverse times
[00:49:28.500]with banners flying and made some noise among the men there.
[00:49:33.730]I railed at the French Ambassador about this
[00:49:36.440]in front of the whole court but one insult was such that
[00:49:40.660]I had to discuss it with him privately.
[00:49:44.256]I have been gravely insulted by
[00:49:48.090]the Queen Mother of your country.
[00:49:49.920]Lord North has told me that in her private chambers
[00:49:53.390]she has an ugly female dwarf dressed up as me,
[00:49:58.019]and another as a member of my court.
[00:50:01.720]Now Queen Catherine and her ladies
[00:50:03.250]had excited them to mimic me ever and anon,
[00:50:06.300]throw in injurious words to prompt the vile little buffoons
[00:50:10.300]to a vein of greater derision and mockery.
[00:50:13.400]In the background the young Elizabeth
[00:50:14.880]plays with the two puppets, having them swan at each other.
[00:50:18.906]Oh most gracious Queen, this is so untrue.
[00:50:21.830]The Queen Mother values your intelligence and great beauty
[00:50:24.880]and loves you as she would her own daughter.
[00:50:27.100]She had been unwearied in praising
[00:50:29.030]Your English Majesty's beauty and good qualities
[00:50:31.670]to her son the King of France.
[00:50:33.760]When he was the Duke of Anjou and your suitor.
[00:50:36.270]As you well know, my Lord North has utter ignorance
[00:50:39.900]in the French language which have caused him to mistake
[00:50:42.180]the whole tenor of what he described.
[00:50:44.220]And besides, the Queen's dwarves are lovely miniature women.
[00:50:47.640]Like your own Thomasina.
[00:50:49.550]Oh well of course, of course Ambassador.
[00:50:53.583]Lord North's poor French is the
[00:50:57.760]cause of this misunderstanding
[00:51:00.000]and no doubt my poor French as well.
[00:51:03.230]I do desire to be excused if out of ignorance
[00:51:06.480]of the French language I have made myself use
[00:51:10.820]of any unbecoming phrases regarding
[00:51:13.380]your Excellent Queen Mother.
[00:51:15.430]This has all been ill interpreted by Lord North.
[00:51:19.830]Since you assure me that the dwarves are very pretty ones,
[00:51:25.020]and very properly dressed,
[00:51:27.840]I would like above all things to see them.
[00:51:33.380]Please request that the Queen Mother
[00:51:34.960]would send me one of them as a present.
[00:51:41.810]Of course she did not.
[00:51:44.470]And I do have my own lovely Thomasina.
[00:51:47.320]Young Elizabeth brings one of the puppets
[00:51:49.130]to the older Elizabeth.
[00:51:50.450]I have my own dresses, and when I tire of them
[00:51:53.820]I cut them down for her.
[00:51:55.770]Thomasina is known as being
[00:51:58.879]as beautifully dressed as her Queen.
[00:52:00.650]For more than 25 years she has been loyal to me
[00:52:04.650]and has given me great pleasure.
[00:52:07.060]People sometimes call her my doll,
[00:52:09.560]but she is a real if miniature person
[00:52:14.950]and an entertaining companion.
[00:52:16.900]Very smart and very loyal.
[00:52:20.720]But I did make it very clear to the French
[00:52:23.530]how I should be respected.
[00:52:25.740]And the King did sign our treaty
[00:52:27.880]but even so the wars of religion
[00:52:30.360]and the slaughter of Protestants continued in France.
[00:52:33.360]Why is there such violence over religion?
[00:52:39.160]There is one Jesus Christ and all the rest
[00:52:42.150]is dispute about trifles.
[00:52:47.200]When I became Queen, after my half sister Mary's
[00:52:50.280]bloody reign, the other Mary in my life,
[00:52:53.490]England was again separated from Rome.
[00:52:55.890]But unlike my father and brother
[00:52:57.490]I was not appointed head of the English Church.
[00:53:00.740]Many were opposed to it.
[00:53:02.500]The Archbishop of York said that--
[00:53:04.550]To preach or minister the Holy Sacraments a woman may not.
[00:53:09.340]A woman in the degrees of Christ's Church is not called
[00:53:12.270]to be an Apostle, neither a doctor or a preacher.
[00:53:16.210]Therefore she cannot be
[00:53:17.510]Supreme Head of Christ's Militant Church.
[00:53:21.710]But that was not the reason I did not take the title.
[00:53:25.670]I seriously maintained that this honor was due to
[00:53:28.640]Christ alone and cannot belong to any human being so ever.
[00:53:34.430]I took my position as Supreme Governor of the Church
[00:53:39.510]My first Parliament again abolished mass,
[00:53:42.540]church services were once again celebrated in English.
[00:53:46.270]I insisted that the act of uniformity be flexible enough
[00:53:49.490]that for most people it would be
[00:53:51.810]at least somewhat satisfactory.
[00:53:54.140]I did not wish to argue about religious matters.
[00:53:57.860]I only wanted outward conformity from my subjects.
[00:54:01.080]I did not want to make windows
[00:54:02.760]into men's hearts and secret thoughts.
[00:54:06.150]Except the abundance of them did overflow
[00:54:08.600]into overt and express acts and affirmations.
[00:54:13.070]I wanted to restrain only manifest disobedience.
[00:54:17.950]I sometimes got very tired of preachers telling me
[00:54:21.821]as a woman what I could and could not do.
[00:54:26.447]I am a Queen!
[00:54:28.790]I would much rather talk to God myself
[00:54:31.330]than listen to others lecture me about God.
[00:54:36.070]Oh Lord, it is thou who hast raised and exalted me.
[00:54:40.920]By thy providence to the throne
[00:54:43.160]and hast crowned me with peace to this end.
[00:54:46.200]That I may govern my people and nourish thy church.
[00:54:50.170]I thank thee, my good God,
[00:54:52.670]for the honor that thou hast done me.
[00:54:55.210]And I entreat thee to give me grace that I may equip myself
[00:54:58.990]of my duty of well governing the state
[00:55:01.840]and faithfully administering justice
[00:55:04.440]without making exceptions for any persons.
[00:55:08.040]No Catholics were executed during
[00:55:09.860]the first decade of my reign.
[00:55:12.100]But once Mary Queen of Scots was in my realm,
[00:55:15.770]religious and politics became inextricably intertwined.
[00:55:20.950]I had to protect my realm.
[00:55:23.360]Many Catholics suffered.
[00:55:25.200]Some were true hearted in their beliefs
[00:55:26.940]and I shuttered to think of their fates,
[00:55:28.810]Margaret Clitherow was crushed to death.
[00:55:31.810]Did she deserve that?
[00:55:33.840]Yet I had to protect my realm.
[00:55:36.310]This is what had been in my heart
[00:55:37.810]from the beginning of my reign.
[00:55:39.520]Oh, I remember when I became Queen.
[00:55:43.372]The people loved me and I loved being Queen.
[00:55:47.080]Kat Ashley enters and she and Elizabeth
[00:55:49.160]swing each other in a circle laughing.
[00:55:53.330]The Spanish Count of Fiera said that--
[00:55:56.130]She is incomparably more feared than her sister Mary
[00:56:00.020]and gave orders and had her way
[00:56:01.900]as absolutely as her father did.
[00:56:04.610]Yes, I wanted to be powerful.
[00:56:07.380]But I also wanted to be loved.
[00:56:10.360]I told the French Ambassador how it was almost unbelievable,
[00:56:15.280]the love that my people had for me
[00:56:17.110]and how I loved them no less than they loved me.
[00:56:21.190]That I would die rather than see any
[00:56:23.660]diminution on one part or the other.
[00:56:26.890]When the Lord Mayor welcomed me on my coronation day,
[00:56:30.130]I said that I thank my Lord Mayor, his brethren and you all,
[00:56:34.795]and where as your request is that I should I continue
[00:56:38.270]your good lady and Queen, be ensured that I will be
[00:56:42.070]as good unto you as ever Queen was unto her people.
[00:56:46.900]No will in me can lack.
[00:56:48.970]Neither do I trust shall there lack any power.
[00:56:52.910]And persuade yourselves that for the safety and quietness
[00:56:56.990]of you all I will not spare if need be to spend my blood.
[00:57:02.130]Many thought ill of me and both
[00:57:03.720]my sister's and my brother's reigns as well.
[00:57:07.010]She holds up the puppets.
[00:57:09.300]My sister Mary distrusted me.
[00:57:11.950]She never forgave what my mother did to hers.
[00:57:15.040]She even claimed that I should not be heir,
[00:57:17.580]as I was not her sister at all.
[00:57:19.610]I cannot stand this illegitimate child of a criminal,
[00:57:23.710]who was published as a public strumpet,
[00:57:26.720]as on the points of inheriting throne
[00:57:29.470]with better fortune than myself,
[00:57:31.340]who's descent was rightful, legitimate, and regal.
[00:57:35.750]I refuse to call her sister.
[00:57:37.860]She is not even my sister,
[00:57:39.070]I know she is not my sister, she is not my father's child,
[00:57:43.060]she has not royal blood, not a drop of it.
[00:57:46.820]She is a bastard, a bastard!
[00:57:50.080]Elizabeth is the bastard child of that whore
[00:57:53.480]Anne Boleyn and her musician executed as her lover.
[00:57:58.100]She has the face and countenance of Mark Smeaton,
[00:58:01.470]who was a very handsome man, not my father Henry the Eighth.
[00:58:05.870]Perhaps she did not think our father was so handsome,
[00:58:09.610]but I had red hair just like his.
[00:58:13.070]Life at court was so uncomfortable,
[00:58:15.690]I asked the Queen if I could leave court
[00:58:17.840]and go to my residence at Ashbridge,
[00:58:20.150]but I begged Mary to agree to see me in person
[00:58:23.730]if she heard anything to my discredit.
[00:58:26.430]I pleaded with her not to put faith
[00:58:28.650]in treasonous stories about me without a hearing.
[00:58:32.100]She promised me she would but then she broke her promise.
[00:58:37.030]After Thomas Wyatt's rebellion against
[00:58:39.150]the Queen's marriage to Philip of Spain in 1554
[00:58:43.320]Mary insisted that I return to court and be examined.
[00:58:46.970]She was sure that I knew about and had encouraged
[00:58:50.270]the rebellion though I had not.
[00:58:52.850]Mary had just put our cousin Jane to death
[00:58:55.920]and I felt such--
[00:58:57.260]Extreme misery, sickness, fear, and peril.
[00:59:02.183]When they came to take me back to London,
[00:59:05.230]I told them truly I was too ill to travel.
[00:59:08.700]I felt such a cold and headache
[00:59:12.210]that I have never felt there like.
[00:59:14.500]They informed me that--
[00:59:16.130]We must need to bring you with us.
[00:59:17.810]Either alive or dead.
[00:59:19.320]They took me in a litter to London.
[00:59:22.340]As I traveled through the city dressed all in white,
[00:59:25.990]I had the curtains open so that all could see me.
[00:59:29.410]The people looked at Elizabeth
[00:59:30.910]and saw a brave young woman.
[00:59:33.210]For a month I was at court
[00:59:35.700]and the Queen refused to see me.
[00:59:38.749]You are to be immediately taken to the tower.
[00:59:41.450]I am terrified, please, please let me write a letter
[00:59:46.400]to my sister Mary before you take me to the tower.
[00:59:49.490]I cannot allow that, we will lose the tide.
[00:59:51.710]Please let me write, I am the sister of the Queen,
[00:59:55.070]was the daughter of a King, please, let me write.
[00:59:59.950]Yes, you are the daughter of Henry the Eighth.
[01:00:02.700]I will let you compose a letter and I'll take it
[01:00:04.960]to the Queen herself myself, even if it angers her.
[01:00:09.990]I knew the Spanish Ambassador was telling Mary
[01:00:12.860]she would be safer if I were dead.
[01:00:15.230]It is considered that she will have to be executed,
[01:00:18.010]as while she lives it will be very difficult
[01:00:20.640]to make the Princes entreat you're safe.
[01:00:23.050]Oh, I was terrified.
[01:00:25.500]I feared I would die like my mother.
[01:00:29.319]I wrote Mary if any ever did try this old saying
[01:00:33.741]that a king's word is more than another man's oath,
[01:00:37.090]I most humbly beseech Your Majesty to verify it in me.
[01:00:41.150]And to remember your last promise and my last demand
[01:00:44.320]that I not be condemned without answer and due proof.
[01:00:48.920]And to this present hour I attest for God
[01:00:52.550]who shall judge my truth who so ever mal shall devise
[01:00:57.100]that I never practiced, counseled, nor consented
[01:01:01.480]to anything that might be prejudicial to your personage
[01:01:04.480]in any way or dangerous to the state by any mean.
[01:01:09.100]And therefore I humbly beseech Your Majesty to let me answer
[01:01:13.830]afore yourself, afore I go to the tower.
[01:01:18.570]Also, I most humbly beseech Your Highness
[01:01:22.120]to pardon this boldness which innocency procures me to do,
[01:01:26.720]together with the hope of your natural kindness.
[01:01:30.400]Therefore, once again, with humbleness from heart
[01:01:34.380]because I am not suffered to bow the knees of my body,
[01:01:37.720]I humbly crave to speak with Your Highness.
[01:01:41.900]Which I would not be so bold as to desire
[01:01:44.890]if I knew not myself most clear, as I know myself most true.
[01:01:50.470]I humbly crave but only one word answer from yourself.
[01:01:56.950]Queen Mary sent me no answer.
[01:02:00.440]But was furious that my being taken
[01:02:02.480]to the tower was delayed.
[01:02:04.730]The next day there was no reprieve.
[01:02:07.620]As we landed at tower gate I proclaimed my innocence.
[01:02:11.210]Here lands as true a subject being prisoner
[01:02:14.600]as ever landed at these stairs.
[01:02:17.210]And before thee oh God, I speak it.
[01:02:19.870]Having no other friends but thee alone.
[01:02:23.370]They kept me in a tower for two months.
[01:02:26.530]And I thought so often of my mother and her fate.
[01:02:31.100]Anne Boleyn enters and watches Elizabeth.
[01:02:34.084]Robert Dudley was also in the tower
[01:02:37.230]and we found a way to communicate through a little boy.
[01:02:40.090]A young child of one who worked there.
[01:02:42.400]As I walked the tower grounds the boy
[01:02:44.380]would bring me flowers with messages from Robin.
[01:02:47.780]But one day he told me.
[01:02:49.900]Madam, I can bring you no more flowers.
[01:02:52.478]And he cried, and they no longer
[01:02:55.949]let me take exercise at all.
[01:02:58.580]I did not understand when Sir Henry Bedingfeld
[01:03:00.970]came with his men that I was to be moved to Woodstock.
[01:03:05.600]I begged my people to pray for me telling them.
[01:03:08.380]For this night I think to die.
[01:03:12.150]They continued to interrogate me at Woodstock.
[01:03:14.610]I used my diamond to carve into the window.
[01:03:18.010]Much suspected by me, nothing proved can be.
[01:03:21.710]Quoth Elizabeth, prisoner.
[01:03:24.520]I was told I would be freed if only I would
[01:03:27.720]confess and beg my sister's mercy,
[01:03:30.280]but I answered.
[01:03:31.500]That rather than would I do so
[01:03:33.400]I would lie in prison all my life,
[01:03:36.480]that I have never offended against the Queen
[01:03:39.340]in thought, word, or deed.
[01:03:41.982]That I craved no mercy at Her Majesty's hand.
[01:03:46.530]I had rather be in prison with honesty
[01:03:49.170]than to be abroad suspected of Her Majesty.
[01:03:52.250]That which I have said I will stand to.
[01:03:55.295]In the end though, I did not confess and was finally allowed
[01:03:59.980]to go back to my residence at Hatfield.
[01:04:02.880]It was such a hard time.
[01:04:05.320]Many years later Mary Stuart tried to use my time
[01:04:08.600]with my sister to make me give her what she wanted.
[01:04:12.180]I am a free and absolute Prince
[01:04:14.230]and I may not be worse handled than Queen Elizabeth
[01:04:16.860]herself was when she was a subject
[01:04:18.774]and kept imprisoned by her sister.
[01:04:21.040]I was never conspiring against my sister,
[01:04:24.500]the way my cousin conspired against me.
[01:04:27.160]But I was in such danger when my sister Mary was queen.
[01:04:31.110]Yet I was not only in great danger in my sister's reign,
[01:04:34.460]but in my younger brother's as well.
[01:04:37.060]After my father died, he was both splendid and terrifying,
[01:04:41.560]I lived with Queen Catherine my step-mother, whom I loved,
[01:04:45.040]at Chelsea, but she too soon
[01:04:48.140]married Lord Admiral Thomas Seymour.
[01:04:51.210]Glamorous and fun but also a frightening man.
[01:04:54.810]He had keys to every room in Chelsea,
[01:04:57.730]including my bedchamber.
[01:04:59.530]He would come many mornings into
[01:05:01.220]the Lady Elizabeth's chamber before she were ready
[01:05:04.160]and sometimes before she did rise.
[01:05:06.470]He would be wearing only his nightshirt and was bare legged.
[01:05:09.580]And if she were up he would bid her good morrow
[01:05:12.040]and ask how she did and strike her upon
[01:05:14.020]the back or the buttocks familiarly.
[01:05:16.159]And if she were in bed he would pull open the curtains
[01:05:21.531]and bid her good morrow and make as though
[01:05:23.990]he would come at her and she would go further in the bed
[01:05:26.710]so that he could not come at her.
[01:05:28.630]While Kat is speaking we see young Elizabeth
[01:05:30.880]being hunted by Thomas Seymour who's trying to
[01:05:33.060]kiss and embrace her and she is struggling.
[01:05:35.270]This is the same scene we saw at the beginning.
[01:05:37.820]Another time when she was in bed
[01:05:40.080]and heard the lock at her door being opened,
[01:05:42.180]she ran out of her bed and then went behind
[01:05:44.250]the curtain of the bed and one morning
[01:05:46.333]he tried to kiss her in bed.
[01:05:48.470]I was there an bade him go away for shame.
[01:05:51.540]Young Elizabeth breaks away from Thomas and comes forward.
[01:05:56.210]I got up earlier and earlier so that
[01:05:59.380]I would be dressed and at my studies when he entered.
[01:06:02.990]He kept trying to kiss me and I felt both horrified
[01:06:07.420]but perhaps excited, a bit curious.
[01:06:12.360]Finally Catherine, now pregnant with his child,
[01:06:16.350]thought it better if I went to live in another household.
[01:06:19.810]I was replete with sorrow to depart from Catherine
[01:06:23.590]and though I thought a great deal about
[01:06:25.320]what she told me as I wrote to her.
[01:06:27.597]All be it I answered little,
[01:06:29.400]I waded more deeper when you said you would warn me
[01:06:32.000]of all the evils that you should hear of me.
[01:06:34.640]For if Your Grace had not a good opinion of me,
[01:06:37.570]you would not have offered friendship to me.
[01:06:41.814]I was glad I had my governess Kat Ashley still with me
[01:06:45.820]as I cared for her deeply.
[01:06:47.850]Kat Ashley puts her arm around Elizabeth.
[01:06:51.420]But I missed Queen Catherine.
[01:06:53.940]We continued to send each other affectionate letters
[01:06:57.110]and I expressed my wish that we could be together again.
[01:07:01.120]Although it were the worst soil in the world,
[01:07:04.710]your presence would make it pleasant.
[01:07:07.510]How tragic that she died giving birth to her daughter,
[01:07:11.280]who was soon dead too.
[01:07:13.500]Everyone said that I would now marry Seymour myself,
[01:07:16.890]some even said that I was already pregnant with his child.
[01:07:20.840]Learning how damaging gossip could be
[01:07:23.040]I wrote to him not to visit me.
[01:07:25.550]Thomas Seymour was a man of much wit
[01:07:28.253]and very little judgment.
[01:07:31.320]He tried to kidnap the King, my brother Edward,
[01:07:34.940]and was sent to the tower.
[01:07:36.800]My beloved Kat Ashley was also in the tower
[01:07:39.800]and examined him about what happened
[01:07:42.050]in the household at Chelsea.
[01:07:43.960]They asked if I planned to elope with my Lord Admiral.
[01:07:47.340]And the Lord Protector sent Sir Robin Turwit to examine me.
[01:07:51.200]If they could prove that I had planned
[01:07:53.160]to marry Thomas Seymour without the council's consent
[01:07:55.930]I could lose my place in the succession
[01:07:58.190]or perhaps even my life.
[01:08:01.181]I was 15 year old.
[01:08:04.420]I explained that Kat Ashley never advised me
[01:08:07.173]to make such a marriage but said always
[01:08:10.320]when any talked of my marriage--
[01:08:13.130]That I would never have her marry,
[01:08:14.790]neither in England or out of England
[01:08:17.000]without the consent of the King's Majesty and the councils.
[01:08:21.471]I wrote to the Lord Protector,
[01:08:22.570]my conscience bareth me witness
[01:08:24.980]which I would not for all earthly things
[01:08:27.340]offend in anything for I know that I have a soul to save.
[01:08:31.770]And then I learned as I wrote,
[01:08:34.380]that there goeth rumors abroad
[01:08:36.220]which be greatly both against my honor and honesty,
[01:08:39.530]which above all other things I esteem, which be these:
[01:08:43.940]That I am in the tower and with child by my Lord Admiral.
[01:08:48.010]My Lord, these are shameful slanders.
[01:08:51.420]I ask that I may come to court,
[01:08:53.170]that I may show myself as I am.
[01:08:55.720]When he refused to allow me to come to my brother's court
[01:08:58.830]I asked that he send out a proclamation of my innocence.
[01:09:02.480]It might be so good unto our Lordship
[01:09:04.680]and the rest of the council to send forth
[01:09:06.760]a proclamation that they refrain their tongues.
[01:09:09.680]Declaring how the tales be but lies.
[01:09:13.270]And it should make both the people think that
[01:09:16.560]you and the council have great regard
[01:09:19.680]that no such rumors should be spread
[01:09:22.270]of any of the King Majesty's sisters as I am.
[01:09:27.400]The Lord Admiral was executed and I was constantly told
[01:09:31.130]that I had to confess my own share in his plotting
[01:09:34.060]if I were to be forgiven.
[01:09:35.760]But I would confess nothing.
[01:09:38.160]And I kept writing to the Lord Protector
[01:09:40.330]working to have Kat Ashley released
[01:09:42.260]and returned to my service, I begged that.
[01:09:45.020]It would please the Lord Protector
[01:09:46.810]and the rest of the council to be good unto her.
[01:09:49.680]She hath been with me a long time and a great many years.
[01:09:54.470]And hath taken great labor and great pain
[01:09:56.540]in the bringing of me up and learning honesty.
[01:09:59.786]I was able to have Kat returned to my service.
[01:10:02.840]She would serve me faithfully until her death.
[01:10:06.830]Which grieved me deeply.
[01:10:08.740]Kat Ashley embraces the older Elizabeth
[01:10:11.027]and then leaves the stage.
[01:10:15.430]I learned from what happened with the Admiral
[01:10:18.280]how important it was for me to be careful but strong.
[01:10:23.460]To insist on what was right and to protect not only myself,
[01:10:27.230]but those in my service.
[01:10:29.150]I had learned that I need to take great thought
[01:10:32.030]in all situations, whether I should speak or use silence.
[01:10:37.370]It helped me learn what I needed to be if I became Queen.
[01:10:41.790]She walks over to the older Elizabeth
[01:10:43.890]and they look at each as if each is looking in the mirror.
[01:10:46.860]As they each move their arms or shake their hand
[01:10:49.357]the other does it too.
[01:10:52.397]I wonder what my older self would say,
[01:10:55.360]would tell me about how I should rule.
[01:10:58.630]If I could speak to my younger self,
[01:11:01.350]I would encourage her how to know that above all else,
[01:11:06.140]she needs to keep England safe.
[01:11:09.290]It's economy strong, a religious policy that could include
[01:11:13.300]as many of the English people as possible
[01:11:15.620]and that she must love the people
[01:11:19.160]more than any individuals at her court.
[01:11:22.350]My younger self I would say remain true to yourself
[01:11:27.870]and your ideas and your values.
[01:11:31.200]Never let anyone rule for you.
[01:11:33.990]You are more than capable to accomplish great things.
[01:11:38.270]And yes, you will have dark moments and loneliness,
[01:11:43.000]but remember how strong you are.
[01:11:46.070]And that you are of the race of lions.
[01:11:49.747]As for loneliness, embrace it or it will devour you.
[01:11:56.320]But more importantly have faith in God and in yourself.
[01:12:04.800]You will thrive and know too that when you most need her
[01:12:12.748]your mother will be with you.
[01:12:15.360]Anne Boleyn appears on stage.
[01:12:17.570]She walks over to the Elizabeths,
[01:12:19.150]first putting her hand on the shoulder
[01:12:20.590]of the older Elizabeth then moving to the younger Elizabeth
[01:12:23.190]and in mirror image putting a hand on her shoulder.
[01:12:26.210]Both Elizabeths smile and then Anne Boleyn walks
[01:12:28.740]to the side of the stage.
[01:12:31.710]And most of all, what I would want
[01:12:33.440]my younger self to always remember,
[01:12:36.760]to think carefully and to know when to speak or use silence.
[01:12:44.690]If only I could know how best to be Queen.
[01:12:49.410]Sometimes I think in a dream within a dream.
[01:12:54.100]I see my mother watching me as if in a mirror.
[01:12:58.400]And I hear my older self council me.
[01:13:00.950]The two now turn away from each other.
[01:13:06.130]And now as I near the end of my reign,
[01:13:11.870]I say to my people...
[01:13:17.270]And though God hath raised me high,
[01:13:21.350]yet this I account to the glory of my crown.
[01:13:27.030]That I have reigned with your loves.
[01:13:31.300]That makes me that I do not so much rejoice
[01:13:35.080]that God hath made me to be a Queen,
[01:13:38.390]as to be a Queen over so thankful a people.
[01:13:42.750]And to be the means under God to conserve you
[01:13:45.520]in safety and preserve you from danger.
[01:13:49.600]It is not my desire to live or reign
[01:13:52.210]longer than my life or my reign shall be for your good.
[01:13:56.190]And though you have had and may have many
[01:14:00.160]mightier and wiser Princes sitting in this seat,
[01:14:05.920]you never had or nor shall have any who love you better.
[01:14:15.070]But though that was all true I still grieved
[01:14:17.600]for all those I had lost including the Earl of Essex.
[01:14:21.490]Whose actions had been such that I had to order his death.
[01:14:25.160]Sometimes the Queen sits in the dark
[01:14:27.540]and weeps for the fate of Essex.
[01:14:31.430]The older Elizabeth picks up the sword and looks at it.
[01:14:34.770]Then she puts it down and closes her eyes.
[01:14:38.150]Anne Boleyn enters and places a hand on her shoulder
[01:14:41.620]and she picks up the pearl necklace
[01:14:43.490]and leads her to walk over to the young Elizabeth.
[01:14:49.360]In the Autumn of 1558 I knew that
[01:14:52.660]my sister Mary was deathly ill
[01:14:55.140]but I feared that someone would tell me she was dead
[01:14:59.595]and I would proclaim myself Queen when it was not true.
[01:15:02.270]I said I would not believe that my sister was gone
[01:15:05.240]until they brought me the ring she said
[01:15:07.500]would never leave her finger while she lived.
[01:15:10.420]Mary Fitton, Mary Dudley Sidney, and Kat Ashley
[01:15:13.440]all enter and gather around the young Elizabeth.
[01:15:16.310]A lord enters and hands young Elizabeth the ring.
[01:15:18.910]She looks at it.
[01:15:26.040]My sister Mary is dead, I am now the Queen of England.
[01:15:30.890]The three women around Elizabeth smile and cheer.
[01:15:34.220]Anne Boleyn puts the pearl necklace on Elizabeth
[01:15:36.580]and takes the ring and puts it on her daughter's finger.
[01:15:46.410]This is the Lord's doing.
[01:15:48.670]It is marvelous in our eyes.
[01:16:35.730]We would be happy to do a talk back
[01:16:40.080]for those who would like to stay and answer any questions
[01:16:43.363]or listen to any comments you have about the play
[01:16:47.030]and I also really really really want to thank
[01:16:53.768]these incredible students who have worked so hard
[01:16:58.710]to put on this play and also all the work they did
[01:17:03.950]to support it, the work we did on our website,
[01:17:07.350]the wonderful beautiful flyer that A.J. designed
[01:17:11.700]and I am so impressed with them
[01:17:14.230]and so also deeply grateful to Tammy
[01:17:18.270]who came from Colorado to read the older Elizabeth
[01:17:21.780]and I also must thank Jan Deeds
[01:17:24.570]who was the best partner ever in working
[01:17:27.970]to bring this play here to UNL.
[01:17:31.060]So I really am deeply grateful.
[01:17:34.630]Do you want to take just a quick break
[01:17:36.810]and those of you who want to stay just move up
[01:17:38.670]and we'll be really happy to chat with you.
[01:17:49.440]Wow, wow, you were all fantastic!
[01:17:54.980]You were all great!
[01:18:02.295]Keep your thing on 'cause we're gonna talk at the talk back.
[01:18:08.177]Carole, should we take these off?
[01:18:09.890]I think for the talk back you would keep them on,
[01:18:13.777]Should I record it?
[01:18:14.968]Yeah, I do want to record it.
[01:18:15.990]I do want to record it.
[01:18:39.310]Congratulations, this is awesome.
[01:18:41.470]I will see you Monday morning?
[01:18:44.674]Make sure you relax tonight and tomorrow okay,
[01:18:48.090]have some fun, yes.
[01:18:59.712]I would love that.
[01:19:01.377]That really was really tremendous.
[01:19:08.560]You should be proud.
[01:19:10.240]I'm really proud, yeah.
[01:19:11.763]They did a beautiful job everybody did,
[01:19:12.646]so thank you.
[01:19:13.962]Do you want to stay for a little bit, or--
[01:19:15.418]No I think I won't, then I'll be back too--
[01:19:18.057]Well give your wonderful dog my--
[01:19:22.586]I'm so happy to do Valentines
[01:19:23.980]with your dog this year, that was--
[01:19:24.970]That was the nicest thing!
[01:19:27.219]Well when they sent it around I just--
[01:19:29.810]Where'd you get those, cause you know--
[01:19:30.887]I got an email about it
[01:19:31.720]saying do you want to make this donation--
[01:19:33.480]I mean where'd the food come from?
[01:19:35.802]Where'd those treats come from 'cause he loved them--
[01:19:37.970]Oh I don't even know.
[01:19:39.666]I'm sorry I don't remember.
Well it was a very
[01:19:41.370]thoughtful gift, anybody who gives a gift to my dog--
[01:19:44.131]You know I love Ruckus.
[01:20:03.811]Oh, so sorry.
[01:20:05.314]Something Admiral esque.
[01:20:12.410]We can do our creative work.
[01:20:14.411]Yes, yes, you--
[01:20:16.035]Wow Bob, thank you so much for coming.
[01:20:19.899]We'll be in touch.
[01:20:21.340]I will talk to you, see you.
[01:20:24.098]I can't stay but it was lovely, lovely.
[01:20:26.590]Well maybe we can talk sometime about how we could
[01:20:28.520]actually mount a production of it?
[01:20:30.230]I would love that.
[01:20:32.204]Thank you so much for coming.
[01:20:34.795]Thanks for inviting me.
[01:20:37.692]It was great, okay we got it.
[01:20:45.829]The old and the young and all the whole
[01:20:47.730]history woven into that story.
[01:20:50.400]Great job, they did a great job.
[01:20:53.181]They did do a great job.
[01:20:56.190]You must be so proud.
[01:20:57.646]I'm so proud.
[01:20:59.758]It was wonderful I wasn't bored for one minute.
[01:21:02.869]So does anyone wanna stay for the do a talk back?
[01:21:09.433]Does anyone want to do that?
[01:21:10.777]Are there any people, you're interested.
[01:21:16.790]You were spectacular, yeah lets make sure
[01:21:19.090]we get all these things gathered up here.
[01:21:26.500]Okay, I think we'll just spend a few minutes
[01:21:32.210]answering any questions or comments.
[01:21:34.980]Or, is Hannah around?
[01:21:41.648]Oh I saw here momentarily, where'd she go?
[01:21:44.370]Okay, if we need to Hannah has a mic for people.
[01:21:53.646]Thank you so much for coming, thank you.
[01:21:56.529]I loved the idea of people being in love
[01:22:00.420]with the idea of Mary Stuart.
[01:22:04.980]Carole, I wondered how you chose the order
[01:22:08.060]in which you talked about different aspects of her life,
[01:22:11.850]'cause it wasn't just strictly chronological.
[01:22:14.640]No I was kind of trying to put it together,
[01:22:16.850]that's a great question Elaine, thank you.
[01:22:19.820]Well first I was trying to get the sort of
[01:22:21.400]the sense of her thinking about her life,
[01:22:23.700]but thinking about it thematically in terms of courtship,
[01:22:27.760]in terms of danger, in terms of religion
[01:22:31.193]and so that was what I was trying to do.
[01:22:34.134]So that people could really see how those fit together
[01:22:37.901]in the ways that they did.
[01:22:41.490]I'm gonna share the chair with you.
[01:22:45.620]Other comments or questions.
[01:22:54.049]Here's the history of it.
[01:22:55.050]I have loved Queen Elizabeth since I was a kid.
[01:22:58.830]And (laughs) I, as well as being a scholar
[01:23:06.500]I really love to do things that are creative as well.
[01:23:09.910]And I'd done some short kind of silly plays about Elizabeth
[01:23:13.810]and then in February of 2016 Tammy got in touch with me.
[01:23:18.560]And we'd known each other and had worked on
[01:23:20.560]an Elizabethan salon 10 years earlier
[01:23:23.730]when she was here at the University of Nebraska
[01:23:26.310]and we had the Elizabeth exhibit here,
[01:23:28.230]and she said the Folgers sending out the first folio
[01:23:32.527]to every state it's coming to Boulder,
[01:23:33.570]it'd be great to have a play and at first
[01:23:36.040]we were thinking of a one person play
[01:23:36.920]and then it became a two actor play about Elizabeth
[01:23:40.440]and also really connected a lot with Shakespeare.
[01:23:43.360]And so it was just such an immense pleasure
[01:23:46.740]working with Tammy and I wrote a script
[01:23:49.670]and then we work shopped it
[01:23:51.120]and her director Lynn as also just amazing.
[01:23:55.070]And so I finished it and it was just
[01:23:57.600]one of the joys of my life when I went to Boulder
[01:23:59.960]and got to see it at its premiere,
[01:24:02.680]and the script to it is actually on sale outside.
[01:24:07.430]And it's been performed oh,
[01:24:11.450]probably 1500, 20 times since then.
[01:24:15.000]But I got so excited by that,
[01:24:17.670]and I thought okay well it's nice having Elizabeth
[01:24:19.507]and then a kind of a generic lady-in-waiting
[01:24:21.840]but there's so much more to tell about her life
[01:24:24.920]and she had so many relationships with
[01:24:26.580]her different ladies-in-waiting and with the Earl of Essex
[01:24:29.800]and with Mary Stuart and especially with Robert Dudley
[01:24:33.730]and the ambassadors and then I thought her mother,
[01:24:36.900]she never really knew her mother,
[01:24:38.440]she was not even three when her mother was executed
[01:24:43.380]but I thought her mother had such an impact in her life.
[01:24:46.801]And thank you for playing Anne Boleyn so beautifully!
[01:24:49.240]And so I really wanted the ghost of Anne Boleyn
[01:24:52.410]to be there too and the play starts
[01:24:54.866]with the dream this woman had,
[01:24:56.680]and that's an actual dream when I was working on the book
[01:24:59.550]The Heart and Stomach of a King,
[01:25:01.740]I just went through every ...
[01:25:03.090]I don't know any shortcuts to doing research
[01:25:04.960]so I just went though everything I could find.
[01:25:08.330]And I found that dream!
[01:25:10.520]I found the letter about that dream
[01:25:11.890]and nobody had ever written anything about it
[01:25:13.570]and I was so excited and I thought
[01:25:15.640]what a great way to start the play,
[01:25:18.170]what a great way to have Anne Boleyn here
[01:25:20.150]at all the kind of key moments of Elizabeth's life.
[01:25:23.500]So that was, so I started drafting it the summer of 2016,
[01:25:27.697]and then I just kept working on it
[01:25:31.580]and then I was just really lucky in June,
[01:25:35.466]there was a table reading of it with professional actors
[01:25:37.950]in the D.C. area and actually hearing it read
[01:25:41.840]gave me lots more ideas, so how to make it more dramatic,
[01:25:44.810]and involve the characters more.
[01:25:48.020]And then I've just been writing
[01:25:49.590]and rewriting and rewriting and rewriting.
[01:25:52.850]So it's been kind of an ongoing project,
[01:25:55.670]which is, having these wonderful and amazing students
[01:25:59.610]and Tammy come to do it here has just been,
[01:26:02.940]you know, really a dream come true.
[01:26:08.300]Other comments or questions?
[01:26:10.890]And any for any of the students of for Tammy as well.
[01:26:16.100]Okay, well mostly for the sort of the (mumbles) people,
[01:26:20.640]if you had to be at court, who would you want to me?
[01:26:25.500]Knowing, you know, this group.
[01:26:28.000]You'd say oh I'd want to be a,
[01:26:29.890]or would you want to now after having you know,
[01:26:32.450]learned about politics and want to run as far away from--
[01:26:40.860]Lord North seems okay.
[01:26:49.578]I think Thomasina has kinda the best deal.
[01:26:51.920]She just gets to hang out
[01:26:53.850]and have cool dresses and eat well.
[01:26:55.978]And no one wants to kill her!
[01:27:00.750]Yeah I think at this point I'd probably just run,
[01:27:03.160]'cause like okay, Marry Fitton didn't have it so great,
[01:27:06.620]okay Jon Notts there, she got two lines, woo.
[01:27:10.144]And then like Queen Mary the First, oh gosh.
[01:27:12.710]Her life sucked, like I do not want to be her.
[01:27:16.930]This experience really did not glamorize
[01:27:20.240]the King and Queen's court at all.
[01:27:24.670]Yeah like, hello, you put a single foot wrong,
[01:27:26.580]okay now your heads chopped off, sorry.
[01:27:38.200]I think I would go with Jessa as well
[01:27:40.520]that I would run from court.
[01:27:43.018]I think that would be my plan of attack.
[01:27:47.370]My 11 year old who's seen the show several times,
[01:27:51.270]and my husband who's obsessed with news,
[01:27:54.550]one day said, well, at least it's not
[01:27:57.030]Queen Elizabeth's court because then
[01:27:58.380]everybody's head would be getting cut off.
[01:28:02.810]So, you know.
[01:28:07.100]How many people that would have in court did get executed?
[01:28:12.820]I can't tell you exactly.
[01:28:14.900]And a lot of people were executed
[01:28:16.710]actually weren't necessarily at the court.
[01:28:20.607]Elizabeth reigned for close to 45 years,
[01:28:25.670]and there certainly were a lot of executions.
[01:28:28.090]However, compared to the number in her father's reign,
[01:28:31.890]and compared to the number of so called heretics,
[01:28:36.300]they would consider themselves Protestants,
[01:28:38.760]who were burned in Mary the First's reign,
[01:28:41.440]it was actually safer in Elizabeth's reign
[01:28:43.830]than some of her relative's reigns.
[01:28:46.589]But talking about that it makes me think of,
[01:28:50.117]and we talked a lot about Thomas Seymour
[01:28:51.970]and how he was eventually executed.
[01:28:54.920]But he was the brother of Jane Seymour,
[01:28:58.340]and his brother Edward was the Lord Protector,
[01:29:01.470]and it doesn't say it in the play
[01:29:02.590]but he was also executed and I think about,
[01:29:04.780]she had three brothers, she had Henry,
[01:29:06.810]she had Edward, and she had Thomas.
[01:29:08.790]Henry decided to stay home, the other two went to court
[01:29:10.628]going wahoo and Henry was the only one who died in his bed.
[01:29:14.330]So you can see it was very problematic,
[01:29:19.200]it was very problematic.
[01:29:21.350]And of course for Elizabeth, and this was,
[01:29:23.290]I really am so grateful to both Tammy and to Olivia,
[01:29:27.820]you could see the danger she was in
[01:29:30.300]and how terrifying that was for her
[01:29:33.010]both before she became Queen
[01:29:34.540]and then during her reign as Queen.
[01:29:42.540]I suppose nearly everyone would learn things from emails
[01:29:46.969]but, you know, back home all of this knowledge you have,
[01:29:50.397]did it come from letters?
[01:29:52.930]A lot of it is from letters.
[01:29:54.830]A lot of it is from letters, documents at court,
[01:29:57.930]but lots, the ambassadors would write home
[01:30:02.750]sometimes two or three times a day.
[01:30:04.850]And they really wanted to show how much they knew
[01:30:07.420]and how much information they should gather.
[01:30:09.910]And so that was just for me just amazing.
[01:30:12.980]But then also William Cecil was very organized
[01:30:19.860]and I think he kept, and his son Robert after him,
[01:30:22.060]kept every letter that ever came.
[01:30:24.340]And so there's volumes of them.
[01:30:27.457]And I've gotten so much stuff from that as well.
[01:30:31.854]One of the things I think is really fascinating though
[01:30:34.800]is all the gossip and rumors and slander
[01:30:37.790]and a lot of that comes from people actually being arrested
[01:30:42.000]and, oh you were slandering the Queen, what were you saying?
[01:30:44.810]And so those kind of trials were really fascinating too.
[01:30:50.020]And what's also kind of interesting about the letters
[01:30:53.150]is so much of it has now been digitized.
[01:30:56.271]There are collections such as early English books online,
[01:31:00.624]that have a lot of those large collections that
[01:31:04.040]are available and I mean, if you can get access in some way
[01:31:07.670]to like a computer in the library, if you're a visitor here,
[01:31:10.592]they pay those subscription fees
[01:31:12.840]that would normally be required
[01:31:14.100]so you can actually just start combing
[01:31:15.590]through those letters in just digital format.
[01:31:18.280]And they're amazing, they're really amazing to read.
[01:31:21.135](background noise drowns out question)
[01:31:25.060]I did in some cases, yeah.
[01:31:27.560]And that I have to say when I was a grad student,
[01:31:31.530]I think after about a year of grad school,
[01:31:33.350]and I was in a rare books library,
[01:31:37.340]and I actually had this book
[01:31:38.550]that was published in 1548 in my hands
[01:31:41.607]and my heart was going... to actually hold this book
[01:31:46.390]and then what was amazing about it
[01:31:47.920]which shows that even eye witness you can't really trust
[01:31:50.900]because it was talking about the death of Henry the Eighth
[01:31:53.780]had happened in 1547 just a year earlier.
[01:31:56.610]And it was so terrible when the King died,
[01:31:59.150]according to this book it rained blood.
[01:32:03.440]There were hailstones the size of eggs
[01:32:05.700]with the faces of devils on them.
[01:32:08.884]I thought it was pretty interesting.
[01:32:10.000]Having that be the very first kind of 16th century book
[01:32:12.590]I ever had in my hands,
[01:32:13.450]I've never forgotten reading that passage.
[01:32:23.700](mumbles) On this last trip was very concerned
[01:32:29.733]about being poisoned and so (mumbles)
[01:32:32.207]did she worry about being poisoned?
[01:32:36.100]She didn't worry but everybody worried terribly about her
[01:32:39.100]because they felt she was way too careless.
[01:32:41.610]She loved to go on progress.
[01:32:43.510]Part of this is the summers in London,
[01:32:47.870]the smells wouldn't be great.
[01:32:48.950]Part of it is that she once put it herself,
[01:32:50.890]she loved to take with both hands
[01:32:52.340]and give with her little finger.
[01:32:53.950]And going on progress she could go visit
[01:32:56.610]her various courtiers and it was like,
[01:32:59.730]oh this is such an honor, oh this has broken the bank.
[01:33:02.990]So she'd go on all these progresses in the summers,
[01:33:06.530]but she'd go into a town and they'd put on
[01:33:08.700]a little play for her and some woman would say
[01:33:10.930]oh, I baked you this cake, and she'd...
[01:33:12.706]Oh it's great and meanwhile the people around her are going
[01:33:15.470]oh my god! (laughs)
[01:33:18.560]So she was amazingly brave about stuff like that.
[01:33:22.110]Her feeling was, the people loved her, she should be okay.
[01:33:25.590]But one time, and again I didn't have it in this play,
[01:33:28.080]but she actually was out in a garden
[01:33:32.190]with a few of her ladies and this assassin,
[01:33:35.190]who again wanted to get Mary Stuart on the throne, broke in
[01:33:38.010]and he had a knife and she saw him with the knife
[01:33:40.900]and she just glared at him.
[01:33:43.410]And she stared him down so he got ,ah,
[01:33:46.680]and the knife dropped out of his hand
[01:33:48.370]and then she called for guards and said,
[01:33:50.110]ah, you know, it would be nice to have some help here.
[01:33:52.950]She didn't put it quite like that.
[01:33:56.135]But I thought it was just kind of amazing that she did that.
[01:33:59.870]I mean she just out of force of will, protected herself.
[01:34:10.040]Anything else? Yes.
[01:34:12.671](background drowned out the question)
[01:34:24.932]And I should say, the honor students
[01:34:26.970]have a whole range of different majors.
[01:34:31.410]Jameson is a History major, Ben is a PHD candidate
[01:34:37.150]in Medieval and Renaissance Studies, Jess is a English
[01:34:40.620]and Medieval and Renaissance Studies major--
[01:34:43.200]Yeah, but I have a History minor though, so.
[01:34:45.700]And Sam is a History major, and Olivia's English,
[01:34:51.230]but Claire for example, is training
[01:34:54.090]to be a physical therapist.
[01:34:59.340]A.J.'s doing Global Studies.
[01:35:04.080]So I was just kind of blown away by
[01:35:06.369]they all kind of pulled together on this.
[01:35:09.473]But I want to let them talk about that.
[01:35:10.470]Yeah, so about the research,
[01:35:12.020]for those of us that are in the Honor's program,
[01:35:14.190]we were assigned two to three topics to investigate,
[01:35:17.850]and they are mostly about the characters we're portraying.
[01:35:20.620]So I was Anne Boleyn and then had
[01:35:23.040]a one liner from Catherine de' Medici,
[01:35:25.330]so my three topics were those two characters
[01:35:27.490]and then the St. Bartholomew's day massacre
[01:35:30.100]which is mentioned in here.
[01:35:32.380]Which I was really kind of honored to be assigned those
[01:35:34.860]by Dr. Levin because when I was in her class last semester
[01:35:39.010]I got to do research paper on Catherine de' Medici.
[01:35:42.610]So it was like someone who I was already
[01:35:44.620]very interested about and passionate about
[01:35:46.490]and had already begun research on that.
[01:35:49.020]So it was really interesting to get the opportunity
[01:35:52.620]to further investigate things
[01:35:53.913]that I was already so interested in.
[01:35:57.080]It's certainly been interesting taking a class
[01:36:00.380]this semester on the Tudors and Stuarts and you know,
[01:36:04.988]this was approached to us at the beginning of the semester,
[01:36:08.650]basically to work on it.
[01:36:10.993]So I've just been sitting in class
[01:36:12.280]and then a quote will show up on the PowerPoint slides
[01:36:14.640]or something and it's like oh yeah,
[01:36:15.490]I remember that already being said in the script, so.
[01:36:19.590]So yeah there's just like certainly a lot of history
[01:36:22.500]that goes into this play and it's just fun to have it
[01:36:26.490]both from sort of the performance side
[01:36:29.110]and then more of like the student side of things.
[01:36:32.870]And Dr. Levin was really good with working at us,
[01:36:35.155]so that if we were interested in a specific event,
[01:36:38.440]or a specific person if they were in the play,
[01:36:40.830]we usually get to read that, so actually
[01:36:43.220]my favorite Tudor was Mary the First
[01:36:44.860]because she's well, incredibly problematic, but fascinating.
[01:36:48.970]So that's why I got to research her,
[01:36:51.410]that's why I got read her part,
[01:36:53.250]is because she's my favorite.
[01:36:56.080]So she was really good at working with us
[01:36:58.630]and giving us yeah, okay, you should look here for this.
[01:37:00.986]Just generally making the process fairly easy.
[01:37:08.410]It was really fun, it was really fun.
[01:37:10.745]They did a lot of research, we went back and forth on that,
[01:37:15.000]and that is now up on the website.
[01:37:18.030]We did a whole number of rehearsals
[01:37:20.470]before I final one last night when Tammy was here.
[01:37:24.659]So it was, it's been a, yeah, we've been working on this
[01:37:27.430]since early January and it's been a really fun project.
[01:37:31.630]Is the website present on the program somewhere?
On the very bottom.
[01:37:36.500]Yes, and it's fun and there's also more
[01:37:41.530]about the wonderful actors and--
[01:37:44.091]And the recording.
[01:37:45.030]And the recording.
Full entry there so.
[01:37:51.230]Did working on the project end up make you think
[01:37:54.560]of politics (mumbles) contemporary politics?
[01:38:02.310]I think some of it is still relevant.
[01:38:05.210]One thing that's like mentioned is here,
[01:38:07.930]is how Elizabeth wants someone
[01:38:10.360]to release her declaration of innocence,
[01:38:12.780]and it shows how much the public
[01:38:14.641]was influenced by her reign and how that's so much about
[01:38:18.830]how the public has influence in like our democracy here.
[01:38:24.191]So just like how public opinion isn't just see now,
[01:38:27.870]but it something that was also so very prevalent
[01:38:30.500]back in her reign.
[01:38:33.000]Well and also something that this was maybe
[01:38:35.500]brought up a little bit more in the class itself
[01:38:37.930]but as Dr. Levin mentions, if Elizabeth had died
[01:38:42.110]around the time of the Spanish Armada,
[01:38:44.260]everyone probably at that point would have had
[01:38:46.360]a great public opinion of her at the time,
[01:38:49.700]but then she went through some really hard stuff afterwards
[01:38:53.650]with famine and I mean inflation and everything.
[01:38:58.398]And Essex, and so lots of hard decisions
[01:39:02.040]that had to be made, so at the time,
[01:39:04.879]the people weren't such a huge fan of her decisions
[01:39:08.990]but its been interesting then how you look
[01:39:11.905]five, 600 years later essentially
[01:39:15.377]now she has such this powerful image
[01:39:19.530]and this adoration from lots of people.
[01:39:23.132]And we see that in politics all the time too,
[01:39:26.180]people that may be at the time were very unpopular
[01:39:30.980]but they did the things that had to be done
[01:39:33.090]to keep the country running.
[01:39:34.920]And I just thought it was so great
[01:39:39.000]to see a really effective woman ruling in the 16th century
[01:39:44.609]when we have not yet had a woman
[01:39:48.040]become president of the United States.
[01:39:50.200]So there's a number of women running
[01:39:52.670]for the nomination this time so maybe it'll actually happen.
[01:39:56.150]So it seems to me that that's a real...
[01:39:58.940]The things that she faced are still issues women,
[01:40:02.810]in terms of power and politics,
[01:40:05.240]are facing today too.
[01:40:07.380]Yeah and I personally think that's one of
[01:40:09.080]the most interesting parts of Elizabeth's life
[01:40:11.600]is that she and her older sister were the first women
[01:40:14.580]to rule England in their own right.
[01:40:16.970]Nobody else had done it before,
[01:40:18.250]and we still only have, what like five or six Queens
[01:40:20.830]that have ruled on their own in England.
[01:40:22.810]So they were really figuring out what on earth
[01:40:25.410]they were doing and something that did come up in the play
[01:40:27.900]is okay, Philip the Second who was married
[01:40:30.150]to her older sister Mary thought he was King of England.
[01:40:33.670]Anyone who was going to marry Elizabeth
[01:40:35.520]thought they were going to be King
[01:40:36.560]because they were still shaking out
[01:40:38.590]the gender dynamics there.
[01:40:40.100]So I do think that this is something
[01:40:41.710]that we do see in this country today too is,
[01:40:43.890]as we're starting to get more women into political office,
[01:40:47.500]we're redefining how the systems work
[01:40:49.990]because when they've always been held by men,
[01:40:52.050]what does that mean then to stick a woman in there
[01:40:54.910]when she sometimes has different responsibilities.
[01:40:57.710]Well and then you think of the rhetoric
[01:40:59.900]as sort of in this Armada speech that Tammy gave too,
[01:41:02.800]that she seemed to say that
[01:41:05.240]she embodies sort of these qualities.
[01:41:08.040]What was that quote Dr. Levin that we had
[01:41:10.430]a couple of days prior where it's like that is great as a--
[01:41:16.030]Oh, Robert Cecil said of her
[01:41:18.241]she's better than a man but kind of less than a woman.
[01:41:24.730]Which is kind of her final secretary,
[01:41:27.190]which is kind of hurtful.
[01:41:30.953]But it just, its an interesting peek into like
[01:41:33.210]sort of how she was using sort of the gendered expectations
[01:41:37.250]I guess you could say, while probably being well aware
[01:41:40.400]of what she was doing and you know,
[01:41:42.990]she knew what she was saying in those moments.
[01:41:46.663]We started touring this, the two person version of this
[01:41:50.350]in 2016, and it was before the election.
[01:41:53.850]And we had no idea so it's quite different, it's Elizabeth
[01:41:58.290]and then lots of Shakespeare integrated with it.
[01:42:00.210]But the theme is still the same.
[01:42:02.520]And we were blown away by how political it became.
[01:42:06.870]And it really became sort of a rally cry
[01:42:08.980]for in most cases the young women in the audience
[01:42:12.890]and we did a number of universities and libraries
[01:42:16.570]and art galleries and most of the commentary afterwards
[01:42:20.040]was about the politics and how they aligned so closely
[01:42:23.220]with the politics of today.
[01:42:25.010]So that was a huge wonderful gift at the time
[01:42:28.130]and I think still part of the power of the story.
[01:42:31.180]One other thing I would say is I don't know
[01:42:33.130]how many of you saw the recent Mary Stuart film.
[01:42:37.080]Elaine and I saw it together,
[01:42:38.300]but one of the things that bothered me about it
[01:42:41.560]was I thought it was boring actually.
[01:42:43.160]I thought they made her really interesting life
[01:42:45.020]kind of dull, but I really wanted to show,
[01:42:49.240]you know they never actually met,
[01:42:51.030]but it was really exciting through their letters
[01:42:52.930]to have them on stage at the same time
[01:42:54.690]responding to each other, but actually doing it accurately,
[01:42:58.720]as opposed to all these fantasies
[01:43:00.720]which I think are less interesting
[01:43:02.610]than the actual relationship was.
[01:43:04.340]And kudos to Claire for doing a great Mary Stuart.
[01:43:08.630]I think that's something great that Professor Levin does
[01:43:11.400]is that she's not creating a story here, like a lot of times
[01:43:15.350]they put twists on historical events to make them
[01:43:18.220]more interesting but the historical events themselves
[01:43:21.500]are so very interesting and you present them in a way
[01:43:23.810]that people can understand and they can feel influenced by,
[01:43:27.040]which is so amazing.
[01:43:30.470]The script is situated, if you're ever interested
[01:43:32.770]to ask Carole to see the script,
[01:43:35.460]that it's situated so that you have actual quotes
[01:43:38.530]from Elizabeth embedded in the script.
[01:43:40.850]So the quotations are all in italics
[01:43:43.040]so you're talking along and then you have a
[01:43:44.890]oh my gosh, it's Elizabeth, okay.
[01:43:47.180]And it's just, it's fascinating because it's all there.
[01:43:51.350]She didn't you know, the dramaturgy is all there already
[01:43:54.930]in the woman and her story,
[01:43:56.740]but its so cleverly put together that way, it's nice.
[01:44:00.250]We have one more question.
[01:44:02.127]I have a question for the cast.
[01:44:04.264]So since you've been working so closely
[01:44:06.170]for these past couple of months, has this class,
[01:44:09.082]do you think discover anything about yourself?
[01:44:14.263]That I'ma complete ham.
[01:44:29.130]That's an excellent question,
[01:44:30.250]it definitely makes you think,
[01:44:33.030]I think I really enjoyed studying Kat Ashley
[01:44:35.790]and just her relationship with Elizabeth
[01:44:37.847]and the impact she had and it just kinda
[01:44:41.070]makes you think about all the people
[01:44:42.260]that have impacted your life
[01:44:43.530]and the impact you want to have on others.
[01:44:46.968]I think Kat Ashley was very supportive and encouraging,
[01:44:49.768]and it definitely made me desire to have those qualities.
[01:44:55.170]And be there for someone else,
[01:44:57.257]but I don't know that I can say
[01:44:58.767]I really would like to relate to Mary Stuart as much.
[01:45:04.455]I think just the fact that we're talking about her
[01:45:06.650]500 years later is just amazing.
[01:45:10.553]I think it's pretty amazing too.
[01:45:12.980]Thank you all again so much for coming.
Log in to post comments