General Standards Recertification
Pesticide applicators refresh on topics related to IPM, pesticide rules and regulations, labels and labeling, storage, spills, sprayer cleanout, off-target damage, protecting water, human health, respirators, licensing and fees.
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[00:00:00.386](upbeat instrumental music)
[00:00:12.060]Hello, my name is Frank Bright
[00:00:13.320]and welcome to the General Standards'
[00:00:15.220]Recertification Category 00 training.
[00:00:19.310]This will serve as review for many important topics
[00:00:22.520]when applying different pesticides.
[00:00:25.050]As an applicator it is your job
[00:00:27.250]to be knowledgeable about the products that you're using
[00:00:30.150]and the sites that you are using them on.
[00:00:32.280]Today we'll hear from a variety of specialists
[00:00:34.640]covering a wide range of topics that you should be aware of
[00:00:38.350]when making these applications.
[00:00:40.600]Today's program, in the morning session,
[00:00:42.900]will be the General Standards Recertification.
[00:00:45.540]Later, in the afternoon,
[00:00:46.790]it will be for the Category Recertification Sections.
[00:00:50.240]Each one of those sections will be specific
[00:00:52.820]to the category that you re-certifying for.
[00:00:56.300]Today you will hear mention of Neb Guides
[00:00:58.480]and ECs, or Extension Circulars.
[00:01:01.200]These are an in-depth look at the topic
[00:01:03.080]that is being discussed by the specialists.
[00:01:05.800]You can review these if you would like a more in-depth
[00:01:10.450]and complete knowledge of the topic,
[00:01:13.060]and you can find those for free at extensionpubs.unl.edu,
[00:01:17.860]As I said today, will cover many different topics,
[00:01:20.450]and hopefully you will gain a little bit of review
[00:01:23.380]of the important information that you already know.
[00:01:25.680]And remember, the label is the law.
[00:01:27.844](upbeat instrumental music)
[00:01:32.840]Hi, my name is Jody Green, I'm an Extension Educator
[00:01:35.730]with Nebraska Extension in Lancaster County.
[00:01:38.260]Today, I'm gonna talk to you about IPM.
[00:01:42.050]So, first off what is IPM?
[00:01:44.230]Well, IPM is Integrated Pest Management.
[00:01:47.460]And, let's describe what that is.
[00:01:49.480]So, let's just say, we see a pest like a cockroach.
[00:01:52.250]Sometimes people will grab the chemicals.
[00:01:55.180]This may be part of an integrated pest management program,
[00:01:58.650]but it isn't really IPM.
[00:02:01.320]IPM uses a wide range of pest control methods or tactics
[00:02:05.610]to control or manage pest populations
[00:02:08.370]which could be any type of organism,
[00:02:09.940]including plants, wildlife and insects.
[00:02:15.570]This is a few of measures or methods
[00:02:18.650]that can be used to control these cockroaches.
[00:02:22.100]IPM prevents pests from reaching the damaging levels.
[00:02:25.290]So, even though you may have some pests,
[00:02:27.680]they may not be reaching aesthetically damaging levels,
[00:02:31.340]economic levels, some pests are just nuisances
[00:02:34.350]and you have to determine what level
[00:02:35.910]you want to keep them below.
[00:02:38.720]Other things that IPM does is it protects the environment
[00:02:44.293]So non-target is anything that is not the pest,
[00:02:47.210]so people, children, pets
[00:02:51.710]So we want to be cognizant of that.
[00:02:54.310]When it comes to IPM,
[00:02:55.830]we want to know why we need to practice that.
[00:02:58.070]Well, sometimes pesticides are not going to be effective
[00:03:00.710]and we can talk a little bit
[00:03:01.640]about insecticide resistance later on,
[00:03:03.910]but other places it may not be available.
[00:03:06.820]It may be too expensive to treat,
[00:03:08.400]it just may not be an option,
[00:03:09.770]so it's always good to have other options available
[00:03:12.480]and IPM is a great solution.
[00:03:14.990]IPM promotes a healthy environment.
[00:03:16.990]It helps maintain a balanced ecosystem
[00:03:18.850]where you have organisms that are both beneficial
[00:03:22.940]and we'll take care of them naturally.
[00:03:25.710]It can save money in the long run.
[00:03:28.330]So really practicing IPM is a positive public image
[00:03:32.200]for your company or for your practices.
[00:03:35.650]There are basically five components or steps
[00:03:38.880]to an IPM program.
[00:03:40.700]The first one is gonna be to identify the pest.
[00:03:43.530]So you want to know the biology and the behavior
[00:03:46.230]and find out if it is a key pest,
[00:03:49.270]a secondary pest, like an indication
[00:03:51.120]that there is some other type of problem,
[00:03:53.180]or it may be just be an occasional issue
[00:03:56.160]and not something to be worried about,
[00:03:58.090]and no control may not be needed.
[00:04:01.590]Monitoring or tracking the population,
[00:04:03.690]you can use monitors like sticky boards
[00:04:05.960]and find out how the population changes over time,
[00:04:10.210]calculate the losses and damage of that pest
[00:04:13.150]and determine thresholds.
[00:04:14.920]So this is from the manual page 11
[00:04:17.750]and it just talks about how to determine those thresholds.
[00:04:20.630]So you want to develop a goal,
[00:04:22.140]and so it can't really be eliminating everything,
[00:04:24.850]100% of every pest or every weed,
[00:04:27.760]it really needs to be managed
[00:04:29.590]at an economically acceptable level.
[00:04:32.110]And so you should know that point where it's time to treat.
[00:04:36.170]Then you want to implement your IPM program
[00:04:38.470]and we'll talk about different components
[00:04:40.338]and different types of control,
[00:04:43.040]but you want to choose things
[00:04:44.390]that are most effective to eliminating the problem.
[00:04:48.120]Again, you want to protect the environment,
[00:04:50.080]you want to be within regulation,
[00:04:51.830]so you don't get in trouble
[00:04:53.220]and you want to protect those non-targets.
[00:04:55.330]And then, lastly, you want to keep those records,
[00:04:58.840]so you can evaluate the program
[00:05:00.100]because you will get into these situations again.
[00:05:03.260]And that way,
[00:05:04.093]you'll be able to be more efficient in the future.
[00:05:06.980]And so keep those records.
[00:05:09.320]Now we're gonna talk about the six types of control
[00:05:12.300]used in IPM practices
[00:05:14.360]and we will go into each one of those very briefly,
[00:05:17.230]but biological, cultural, mechanical, physical, genetic,
[00:05:21.360]chemical and regulatory.
[00:05:23.970]And that is all part of IPM.
[00:05:26.200]So first we'll talk about biological control.
[00:05:28.930]This involves using natural enemies,
[00:05:31.520]when encouraging natural enemies, like predators, parasites,
[00:05:34.590]pathogens, things that are competing with your pests.
[00:05:37.680]In these pictures, I've got some insect pests
[00:05:40.000]and you can see that they've either been parasitized,
[00:05:42.160]or they being preyed on by other insects,
[00:05:46.245]and this can be a number of things.
[00:05:48.440]We do use a lot of parasitic wasps today.
[00:05:51.520]These can be imported
[00:05:53.210]and they could be released in mass numbers
[00:05:56.310]to try to control pests.
[00:05:58.260]The other type we have is culture control,
[00:06:01.060]and this involves sanitation.
[00:06:02.990]It can also involve cultural practices
[00:06:06.280]when it comes to other areas like crop and turf,
[00:06:10.770]but you're gonna want to reduce the establishment of pests
[00:06:13.430]and their reproduction and survival abilities.
[00:06:15.530]So the way you store food, decreasing clutter,
[00:06:19.220]just really cleaning up,
[00:06:20.570]and putting your fermenting fruits in the refrigerator.
[00:06:24.380]This will also include reducing the water
[00:06:27.280]and the shelter or harborage areas and also breeding sites.
[00:06:30.970]So you can see the trash in the standing water,
[00:06:33.580]those are going to be attractive to pests.
[00:06:36.510]This also includes reducing vegetation around the home
[00:06:39.310]or pests, they find shelter and they can get indoors.
[00:06:43.410]In terms of using cultural control for turf,
[00:06:48.070]it could be changes in the practices
[00:06:50.140]for mowing or irrigation, aeration and fertilization.
[00:06:53.130]And when it comes to agricultural production,
[00:06:56.360]crop selection, the timing of planting and harvesting
[00:06:59.250]and crop rotation are cultural means of control.
[00:07:03.910]Next, we'll go on to mechanical and physical controls.
[00:07:07.100]And so you think of a physical trap
[00:07:10.430]or something that's going to be there,
[00:07:12.420]a device used to trap capture or kill a pest,
[00:07:15.150]and you can see a variety there.
[00:07:17.060]These include interceptors, sticky traps, snap traps,
[00:07:19.830]live traps, all different types of things
[00:07:22.570]that are going to be physically there
[00:07:25.150]to get that passed before it becomes a problem.
[00:07:29.210]This will also include pest proofing
[00:07:31.540]or exclusion techniques.
[00:07:33.440]And we can always see gaps within a building
[00:07:36.120]where pests are gonna enter, so pipe chases or under doors.
[00:07:40.310]And so you want to use devices like netting
[00:07:42.490]or door sweeps, air curtains, all those type of things.
[00:07:46.220]Those are physical controls.
[00:07:48.730]And then another type of physical control
[00:07:51.590]is modifying the environment.
[00:07:52.990]So it makes it less favorable.
[00:07:55.250]Changing the humidity, the temperature, the moisture
[00:07:57.710]and even reducing the lighting can stop pests.
[00:08:01.680]Genetic control is another type in the IPM toolbox.
[00:08:07.600]It involves using molecular techniques
[00:08:09.790]and genetically modified organisms.
[00:08:12.060]And so what happens here is that plants and animals
[00:08:14.240]can be bred or selected to resist pest problems,
[00:08:17.230]and that may be economical for some situations.
[00:08:20.910]When it comes to chemical control,
[00:08:22.680]which all of us know about,
[00:08:25.270]it can be all types of different pesticides.
[00:08:27.570]So you know insecticides, miticides, fungicides, herbicides
[00:08:31.480]and it will kill, attract, repel, regulate
[00:08:35.230]and interrupt the growth of a pest.
[00:08:36.590]Those are all considered pesticides.
[00:08:39.010]And these can be naturally derived.
[00:08:42.150]They can be synthetic compounds.
[00:08:44.030]They usually act on a specific target site
[00:08:47.190]or a certain pest,
[00:08:48.480]and they can have different modes of action,
[00:08:50.550]so their toxicity and the way they actually control
[00:08:54.030]the pests will be different.
[00:08:56.340]And this is a good slide for showing
[00:08:59.870]that sometimes chemical control
[00:09:02.050]involves biological controls.
[00:09:04.010]So these are where they both come together,
[00:09:06.270]because it's a pesticide, so it is registered with the EPA.
[00:09:10.530]But it's a control agent that is a natural control agent,
[00:09:14.510]like a fungus or a bacteria.
[00:09:16.640]So we've got a bedbug that has been killed by a fungus
[00:09:21.460]and then these are Mosquito Dunks here on the right
[00:09:23.800]and these are put into standing water
[00:09:25.880]to control the larvae of mosquitoes.
[00:09:28.750]So that's biological control,
[00:09:30.640]but in terms of in a chemical type of method.
[00:09:34.900]But that is all part of IPM.
[00:09:36.870]The last one that we don't talk about regularly
[00:09:40.670]So the government agencies
[00:09:43.240]are responsible for some situations
[00:09:45.000]where some pests may cause such serious damage
[00:09:48.170]that they will put in quarantines and eradication in place.
[00:09:52.710]And that really doesn't have anything to do with us,
[00:09:54.770]but I'm putting the emerald ash borer up there,
[00:09:56.410]because that is something that we do need to deal with
[00:09:59.950]in Nebraska these days.
[00:10:01.870]So I'm gonna talk a little bit about pesticide resistance,
[00:10:04.670]because this relates to IPM and why we should practice it.
[00:10:10.330]So pesticide resistance is the ability of a pest
[00:10:12.720]to tolerate a pesticides that once controlled it.
[00:10:15.810]So for an example here I have a regular head lice,
[00:10:19.450]head louse, sorry.
[00:10:20.860]And after continual use of pesticides
[00:10:23.130]or frequent applications,
[00:10:25.497]and usually it's the same mode of action, these head lice
[00:10:30.350]can turn into what people will call super head lice,
[00:10:33.850]or super lice.
[00:10:36.130]Really it's the same lice.
[00:10:38.160]It's just that they are shown
[00:10:41.000]to have insecticide resistance.
[00:10:42.650]And what happens is they are not going to be controlled
[00:10:46.220]the way they once were.
[00:10:48.000]So we do have some resistance pest species in Nebraska.
[00:10:51.140]This includes insects,
[00:10:53.060]and it also includes a variety of weeds
[00:10:54.810]and the weeds have developed resistance
[00:10:56.760]to a number of herbicides over the years,
[00:10:58.980]but we've got different types of resistance as well.
[00:11:03.140]The German cockroach became averse
[00:11:05.015]to the inert ingredients in some cockroach baits,
[00:11:08.450]and so it wasn't affecting them.
[00:11:11.670]So they had to change the formula a little bit,
[00:11:13.750]but we've got Western corn rootworm, the head louse,
[00:11:17.080]as I mentioned,
[00:11:18.060]and we've also have pyrethroid-resistant bedbugs these days.
[00:11:22.590]I'm gonna talk about how resistance occurs.
[00:11:25.410]So this is a population that's exposed to a pesticide
[00:11:29.980]and a small portion survives
[00:11:31.870]and passes along the genes for the resistance.
[00:11:34.760]So, let's just say, we'll go back to the super lice example,
[00:11:39.760]so the population is treated frequently with the same class
[00:11:42.610]and insecticide and over time some of the lice will die
[00:11:47.810]and some will not.
[00:11:49.190]But over a period of time
[00:11:51.480]where there is frequent application,
[00:11:53.740]what is left may be resistance because of genetics.
[00:11:58.470]And these survivors will inherit these resistant traits
[00:12:03.060]and pass them on to their offspring.
[00:12:05.280]And so when the same pesticide is used,
[00:12:07.680]many of them will not be affected
[00:12:09.660]and over time the population becomes resistant
[00:12:12.210]and it becomes harder to control.
[00:12:15.200]So that is definitely something we want to avoid
[00:12:19.900]and reduce and manage.
[00:12:21.420]So the ways to do that
[00:12:22.810]is to practice integrated pest management.
[00:12:25.430]So I really encourage you to follow the steps of IPM
[00:12:28.230]and to explore different methods
[00:12:30.940]to be able to conquer and treat
[00:12:33.000]and manage your pests below the thresholds.
(upbeat instrumental music)
[00:12:41.867]Hi, my name is Trevor Johnson,
[00:12:43.330]with the Nebraska Department of Agriculture,
[00:12:45.120]and today I'm gonna give you a brief overview
[00:12:46.920]of some of the laws and regulations
[00:12:48.630]as they pertain to pesticide application in Nebraska.
[00:12:54.300]There are two main laws
[00:12:55.380]that govern pesticide applications in Nebraska.
[00:12:57.870]The first is going to be FIFRA,
[00:13:00.310]which is the Federal Insecticide Fungicide
[00:13:02.790]and Rodenticide Act.
[00:13:04.560]This is a law enacted by the EPA
[00:13:07.560]that covers pesticide registration, classification,
[00:13:10.800]labeling, as well as use and application of pesticides.
[00:13:15.290]The second law that governs pesticide applications
[00:13:17.500]in Nebraska is going to be the Nebraska Pesticide Act.
[00:13:20.720]This was enacted in 1993, relates to certification
[00:13:25.560]about pesticide applicators in Nebraska,
[00:13:27.360]as well as specific record-keeping requirements.
[00:13:30.690]And in many cases this law
[00:13:32.140]is going to be more stringent than FIFRA.
[00:13:36.970]So who needs a license in Nebraska to apply pesticides?
[00:13:40.980]Anyone who's using a restricted-use pesticide
[00:13:43.840]needs to be licensed,
[00:13:45.550]or anybody using a general-use pesticide
[00:13:48.120]or restricted-use pesticide commercially in lawns,
[00:13:51.000]landscapes or structures.
[00:13:53.310]And then anyone using a pesticide
[00:13:55.700]to control vectors of disease on behalf of a community
[00:13:59.480]or political subdivision of the state.
[00:14:01.850]This would be typically
[00:14:02.730]your city employees controlling mosquitoes.
[00:14:06.440]And there are three types of licenses in Nebraska.
[00:14:09.250]The first is going to be a commercial license.
[00:14:11.470]This is for people who apply pesticides
[00:14:13.892]to other people's property for hire.
[00:14:16.660]There's a 90-dollar fee associated with this license.
[00:14:19.490]The second one is going to be a non-commercial license.
[00:14:21.950]This is going to be specific to your employer.
[00:14:25.320]This would be for people who work for cities, parks,
[00:14:29.300]other government institutions.
[00:14:31.310]They're required to maintain their employment information
[00:14:33.870]with the Nebraska Department of Agriculture.
[00:14:36.660]And this is a fee exempt license.
[00:14:38.370]And then the third type of license
[00:14:39.660]is a private applicator license.
[00:14:41.770]This would be for individuals
[00:14:42.830]applying restricted-use pesticides to their property
[00:14:47.020]in the production of an agricultural commodity.
[00:14:51.360]This is likely the most important slide
[00:14:53.190]that you're going to see today.
[00:14:54.670]The label is the law,
[00:14:56.570]so there's a statement on every pesticide label
[00:14:58.880]that says it is against federal law to use this product
[00:15:01.840]in a manner inconsistent with its labeling,
[00:15:04.160]and it's your responsibility as the applicator
[00:15:06.630]to follow all instructions on those labels.
[00:15:11.450]So there's going to be two types of language
[00:15:13.650]that you'll see on pesticide labels.
[00:15:15.820]The first is going to be mandatory language.
[00:15:18.900]This would be language such as do, do not, or must.
[00:15:23.210]So anytime you see a statement
[00:15:24.550]with one of those words in it,
[00:15:26.750]this is where it's going to be legally enforceable.
[00:15:28.990]So you're required to follow those directions
[00:15:31.370]on the label by law.
[00:15:32.910]An example of this
[00:15:33.770]would be in your personal protective equipment statements
[00:15:36.810]such as applicators and other handlers
[00:15:38.490]must wear long-sleeved shirt, long pants, shoes plus socks
[00:15:42.330]and protective eyewear.
[00:15:43.540]So you must wear all that PPE by law.
[00:15:48.450]The second type of language on the label
[00:15:49.980]that you'll see is going to be suggestive language.
[00:15:52.870]This is not necessarily legally enforceable,
[00:15:55.500]however, it's really important that you pay attention
[00:15:57.560]to these phrases as they are designed
[00:15:59.830]to protect you and the environment.
[00:16:02.200]These are going to be things that say should or may,
[00:16:06.220]in this case, users should wash their hands
[00:16:08.070]before eating, drinking, chewing gum, using tobacco,
[00:16:11.270]or using the toilet.
[00:16:12.200]I think we can all agree that's great advice to follow,
[00:16:15.530]so it's really important that you pay attention
[00:16:17.570]to all the language found on the label.
[00:16:22.460]There's also going to be language on those labels
[00:16:24.340]that relate to the specific sites
[00:16:26.240]or formulations where you can apply those products.
[00:16:29.770]Let's say in this scenario
[00:16:30.860]you want to control some vegetation along the shoreline
[00:16:34.100]of a creek or pond.
[00:16:36.540]You want to use a product that contains glyphosate.
[00:16:38.700]Here we have two products.
[00:16:39.830]We have ShoreKlear Plus, as well as Roundup Pro.
[00:16:42.990]Both of these products
[00:16:44.060]have the active ingredient glyphosate.
[00:16:46.720]However, only one of these products
[00:16:48.990]is approved for use on aquatic site.
[00:16:51.170]So make sure every time you read that label
[00:16:52.970]that the site that you're applying to
[00:16:54.820]is found on that label.
[00:16:59.470]I'd briefly like to discuss disposal of unused pesticides.
[00:17:04.070]It's really important
[00:17:05.010]that you dispose of any unused pesticides
[00:17:06.940]on a label-approved site, rinsate,
[00:17:10.220]or the water that's collected after you wash your tanks
[00:17:13.610]is considered a waste pesticide
[00:17:15.230]and should be disposed of accordingly.
[00:17:18.080]You should triple rinse all containers, puncture them
[00:17:21.360]to make sure they aren't used for any other use,
[00:17:23.820]and then, if possible,
[00:17:24.870]we always recommend recycling those containers.
[00:17:27.290]The University of Nebraska
[00:17:28.360]Pesticide Safety Education Program,
[00:17:30.160]does run a recycling program,
[00:17:32.030]so you can contact them for more information.
[00:17:35.250]If you have any questions about disposal
[00:17:36.870]or use of any pesticides,
[00:17:38.420]feel free to contact the Nebraska Department of Agriculture,
[00:17:41.470]and we should be able to point you in the right direction.
[00:17:46.300]Another important law in Nebraska is record-keeping.
[00:17:50.730]So all applications of restricted-use pesticides
[00:17:53.410]have specific records that must be kept.
[00:17:56.230]However, it's a good idea to keep records
[00:17:58.680]of all pesticides you apply.
[00:18:01.040]This is mostly to help you out
[00:18:04.100]in the event that a complaint would be filed against you,
[00:18:06.530]or if the Nebraska Department of Agriculture
[00:18:08.340]would like to see those records,
[00:18:09.800]it'll be beneficial to you to have accurate records.
[00:18:14.550]There are specific things that must be recorded.
[00:18:17.680]These are going to be the specific requirements
[00:18:19.630]for all restricted-use pesticides,
[00:18:21.910]as well as pesticides applied commercially in structures,
[00:18:25.480]regardless of whether they're general-use or restricted-use.
[00:18:28.940]It'll include things such as product name,
[00:18:30.660]EPA registration number, the total amount you applied
[00:18:34.400]and then another important one is the method of disposal.
[00:18:37.480]So, as we discussed in the previous slide,
[00:18:39.180]you want to document
[00:18:40.530]how you dispose of those unused pesticides,
[00:18:43.290]whether that's applying on a label-approved site,
[00:18:45.430]or taking to the appropriate recycling center.
[00:18:51.240]These records must be maintained for three years.
[00:18:54.140]They must be recorded within 48 hours
[00:18:56.360]of the pesticide application and they must be maintained
[00:18:59.290]at the principal place of business.
[00:19:01.920]We do not have any specific regulations
[00:19:03.790]on how you keep these records.
[00:19:06.100]Many companies prefer to keep them digitally
[00:19:08.830]as long as they are maintained
[00:19:10.030]at the principal place of business and can be provided
[00:19:12.340]to the Nebraska Department of Agriculture upon request.
[00:19:15.530]Here at the bottom, I gave a URL.
[00:19:17.770]This links to our pesticide record-keeping brochure
[00:19:21.480]and it'll contain all the information
[00:19:22.870]you need to know about records in Nebraska.
[00:19:25.410]And now I'd like to talk to you about another federal law,
[00:19:27.780]which is the Worker Protection Standard.
[00:19:30.530]This is a law that was enacted in 1993
[00:19:33.230]by the Environmental Protection Agency.
[00:19:35.810]It was intended to reduce the risks of injury and illness
[00:19:39.110]to agricultural workers
[00:19:40.620]associated with exposures to pesticide.
[00:19:43.550]It was revised in 2015
[00:19:46.410]and I'm gonna go over some of the key points of this law
[00:19:48.580]in the following slides.
[00:19:51.780]So when does the Worker Protection Standard, or WPS, apply?
[00:19:55.530]Any time you see this box on a pesticide label,
[00:19:58.970]this would be an agricultural-use pesticide.
[00:20:01.630]So anytime, a pesticide with this box
[00:20:03.600]is used on an agricultural establishment
[00:20:06.040]in the production of an agricultural plant,
[00:20:08.600]the Worker Protection Standard applies in its entirety.
[00:20:13.180]So what is an agricultural establishment?
[00:20:16.000]This would include areas such as row crops, sod farms,
[00:20:19.690]nurseries or Christmas tree farms.
[00:20:22.250]If you have any questions
[00:20:23.300]about whether your specific application types or locations
[00:20:26.810]require the Worker Protection Standard,
[00:20:28.730]feel free to give us a call.
[00:20:33.010]So, who is responsible for complying
[00:20:34.810]with the Worker Protection Standard?
[00:20:36.740]Ultimately, it's the employers responsibility
[00:20:39.060]to ensure that they're in compliance with WPS
[00:20:42.913]and there's going to be two types of employers
[00:20:45.770]that are defined in the rule.
[00:20:47.420]The first is going to be an agricultural employer.
[00:20:50.490]This would be somebody
[00:20:51.323]that maintains or owns the establishment.
[00:20:53.750]This could be the farm owner,
[00:20:55.420]a nursery owner or a nursery manager.
[00:20:58.510]They're responsible for things
[00:20:59.740]like exchanging information with their employees
[00:21:01.860]regarding where pesticides were implied
[00:21:04.460]and the hazard information associated with those
[00:21:07.280]that are required for worker and handler protections
[00:21:10.810]and training, I'll get into what workers and handlers are
[00:21:13.080]in just a bit.
[00:21:14.480]They're also required to provide emergency assistance
[00:21:17.190]in case workers and handlers are exposed to pesticides.
[00:21:21.260]Finally, some record-keeping,
[00:21:22.790]as well as the REI, or Restricted Entry Interval,
[00:21:26.030]notification and compliance.
[00:21:29.880]The second type of employer
[00:21:31.090]is going to be a commercial pesticide handler employer.
[00:21:34.630]This would be a institution like a co-op
[00:21:37.410]that hires applicators to apply to other people's farms
[00:21:41.430]or an individual who's self-employed
[00:21:43.480]as an agricultural applicator.
[00:21:46.060]They're responsible for handler protections and training.
[00:21:49.560]Pesticide application information exchange
[00:21:51.630]with the AG establishment
[00:21:52.970]that they're applying those pesticides to
[00:21:56.400]emergency assistance for handlers,
[00:21:58.040]as well as posting or oral notification of applications
[00:22:03.240]as they pertain to the restricted entry interval.
[00:22:07.930]So employees, these would be those workers and handlers
[00:22:11.650]that I described earlier.
[00:22:13.920]They're provided certain protections
[00:22:15.580]under the Worker Protection Standard,
[00:22:18.840]including the EPA-approved safety training,
[00:22:21.130]prior to beginning work, decontamination supplies,
[00:22:24.380]personal protective equipment,
[00:22:26.380]notification regarding which areas were treated.
[00:22:31.390]They're required to be 18 years old if they're a handler
[00:22:34.330]or early entry worker.
[00:22:36.330]And then also they're required
[00:22:37.960]to be excluded from certain areas,
[00:22:39.520]while the restricted entry interval is in effect.
[00:22:44.670]All right, so workers are any person who is employed
[00:22:47.480]and performs activities directly related
[00:22:49.540]to the production of an agricultural plant
[00:22:51.750]on the agricultural establishment.
[00:22:53.850]These are going to include people such as detasselers,
[00:22:56.110]pruners, people who repot nursery stock.
[00:22:59.890]Here in Nebraska, the majority of our workers
[00:23:02.040]are going to be either nursery employees or detasselers
[00:23:04.710]on agricultural establishments.
[00:23:08.770]Handlers would include people such as yourself
[00:23:11.590]who have a pesticide applicator license
[00:23:14.590]and are involved in the application of pesticides,
[00:23:17.120]mixing and loading, disposing of pesticides,
[00:23:19.850]working on equipment that's been used to apply pesticides
[00:23:24.640]or doing crop advisor tasks for the establishment.
[00:23:31.400]So I already described the employers
[00:23:33.440]have the primary responsibility
[00:23:34.960]when it comes to the Worker Protection Standard.
[00:23:37.110]But there are certain responsibilities
[00:23:38.810]that you as a handler need to be aware of.
[00:23:41.610]Every product that has the WPS box on the label
[00:23:44.700]is going to have the statement,
[00:23:46.300]do not apply this product in a way
[00:23:48.110]that will contact workers or other persons,
[00:23:50.310]either directly or through drift.
[00:23:53.110]It's fairly simple.
[00:23:54.270]Just make sure that nobody is going to be impacted
[00:23:56.930]by the application that you're making.
[00:23:59.230]And they've actually spelled out specific requirements
[00:24:02.680]of how far back people need to be from your application
[00:24:06.360]depending upon the application type.
[00:24:08.440]And that's going to be the application exclusion zone.
[00:24:11.580]I'm not gonna get into the details of exactly what it is.
[00:24:14.560]It's important that you research this on your own,
[00:24:17.210]but essentially it's a 25 to 100-foot halo
[00:24:20.800]around your application equipment that you need to make sure
[00:24:23.210]that nobody enters during the time of application
[00:24:26.440]or make sure that they don't enter the treated site
[00:24:29.280]while you're applying the pesticides.
[00:24:31.710]As a handler, you're also required to wear the PPE,
[00:24:34.270]that's required on the label
[00:24:36.310]and then obviously comply with all directions
[00:24:38.540]on those pesticide labels.
[00:24:41.850]So you might be asking yourself
[00:24:42.960]how you comply with this fairly complex regulation.
[00:24:47.370]I highly recommend that you visit
[00:24:49.170]the Pesticide Educational Resources Collaborative website,
[00:24:53.540]PERC for short, their website is pesticideresources.org.
[00:24:59.220]This is a great website
[00:25:00.390]that has everything from a how to comply manual
[00:25:02.750]that gives you a comprehensive list
[00:25:04.340]of everything you need to know.
[00:25:06.290]They have online approved training videos,
[00:25:09.730]they also have quick reference guides,
[00:25:12.270]as well as other sort of Q&A documents
[00:25:15.140]that can help guide you through this process
[00:25:18.133]exactly what the Worker Protection Standard is.
[00:25:20.900]Also, if you have any questions, feel free to give us a call
[00:25:23.580]at the Nebraska Department of Agriculture,
[00:25:25.610]and we can point you in the right direction.
[00:25:29.090]Here's what it looks like when you go to the PERC website.
[00:25:31.940]Again, that's pesticideresources.org.
[00:25:35.100]You can find anything from FAQs.
[00:25:37.935]If you click on any of these lists right here,
[00:25:43.120]it'll give you exactly what's required for those individuals
[00:25:45.970]on the agricultural establishment.
[00:25:48.280]A great place to start does WPS apply to you?
[00:25:52.760]That'll ask you a series of questions
[00:25:55.090]that will help determine your role
[00:25:56.750]in the Worker Protection Standard.
[00:25:58.310]So again, pesticideresources.org.
[00:26:02.950]Thank you for listening today.
[00:26:04.830]For further information
[00:26:06.260]about laws and regulations in Nebraska,
[00:26:08.370]you can visit our website, or again that PERC website
[00:26:11.690]if you have questions about the Worker Protection Standard
[00:26:14.610]and then always we're available, give us a call,
[00:26:17.000]and we can answer any questions that you might have.
(upbeat instrumental music)
[00:26:25.130]Hello, I'm Robert Harrison
[00:26:26.410]with the Pesticide Safety Education Program
[00:26:28.550]and in this segment we're going to discuss
[00:26:30.770]the pesticide label.
[00:26:32.530]Pesticide labeling is the law.
[00:26:34.940]As an applicator, you have the legal responsibility
[00:26:38.220]to read and follow label directions.
[00:26:41.130]It is a violation of the law if you use a pesticide
[00:26:44.150]in a manner not allowed or prescribed by the label.
[00:26:48.370]The label is generally printed on
[00:26:50.260]or attached to the pesticide container or wrapper.
[00:26:53.420]However, pesticide labeling includes the label
[00:26:56.400]plus all additional product information,
[00:26:58.640]such as brochures, handouts
[00:27:00.800]and flyers provided by the manufacturer or dealer.
[00:27:04.260]It even includes information referenced on the label,
[00:27:07.120]such as Internet resources.
[00:27:11.240]The purpose of labeling is to provide a detailed description
[00:27:14.390]of the product in clear directions for effective use,
[00:27:17.520]while minimizing risks to human health and the environment.
[00:27:22.410]If you use a pesticide in a way not allowed by the labeling,
[00:27:26.310]you are in violation of the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide
[00:27:29.630]and Rodenticide Act, or FIFRA.
[00:27:33.000]The courts consider the label to be a legal document.
[00:27:35.960]If you fail to follow directions,
[00:27:38.150]you are committing a violation that may result in fines
[00:27:40.990]or other legal actions against you.
[00:27:43.370]Following directions helps to keep you physically
[00:27:46.170]and legally safe as you work with pesticides.
[00:27:53.610]You must know the details of the label information
[00:27:55.910]for each pesticide you use.
[00:27:58.150]Think of the label as your prescription
[00:28:00.150]for using the pesticide.
[00:28:02.050]Some parts of the label
[00:28:03.080]provide you with information necessary
[00:28:05.310]for safe and effective use of the product.
[00:28:08.160]For example, the label will list the application rate
[00:28:11.370]or an approved range.
[00:28:13.200]Problems can occur if you apply pesticides
[00:28:15.150]at rates lower than given on the label.
[00:28:17.790]These problems include pest resistance
[00:28:19.960]and reduce control of target pests,
[00:28:21.880]because at a lower rate the pesticide
[00:28:23.850]may be too weak to be effective.
[00:28:26.360]There could be increased costs as well,
[00:28:28.200]because failure to control a pest
[00:28:30.260]could result in having to buy and apply more product.
[00:28:33.660]Exceeding the maximum rate of application shown on the label
[00:28:36.390]is a violation of pesticide law.
[00:28:38.930]Applying at a higher rate could harm non-targets,
[00:28:41.950]which are plants and animals you did not wish to affect,
[00:28:45.110]and the environment.
[00:28:46.860]The label also tells you the sites
[00:28:48.770]where pesticide can legally be applied.
[00:28:51.710]This may be an animal, a crop,
[00:28:53.820]a residential area or a greenhouse.
[00:28:56.490]Applying the pesticide to a site not listed on the label
[00:28:59.730]is illegal and with good reason.
[00:29:02.490]A pesticide labeled for outdoor use
[00:29:04.650]cannot be applied indoors due to the many differences
[00:29:07.440]in the two sites: sunlight, dissipation,
[00:29:10.680]differences due to wind, or lack of it, or etc.
[00:29:14.880]Other parts of the label will tell you
[00:29:16.310]about necessary safety precautions, environmental issues
[00:29:20.100]and the applications methods to use.
[00:29:26.540]The Federal Insecticide, Fungicide and Rodenticide Act,
[00:29:29.610]or FIFRA, requires specific information
[00:29:32.040]to appear in the certain places on the label.
[00:29:34.810]Other information, however,
[00:29:36.090]can be located anywhere on the label.
[00:29:38.640]The following information is included on a pesticide label,
[00:29:41.710]if applicable to the product:
[00:29:44.630]the brand name, the name of the product,
[00:29:47.730]the common chemical name, the technical chemical name,
[00:29:52.210]an ingredient statement, parts of the ingredient statement
[00:29:57.310]and EPA registration and establishment numbers.
[00:30:04.540]A pesticide may be classified as either general-use
[00:30:09.750]General-use pesticides typically have a lower toxicity
[00:30:12.760]and can be used by the general public.
[00:30:15.100]Restricted-use pesticides, or RUPs, pose a higher risk
[00:30:18.800]to humans or the environment than other pesticides.
[00:30:23.880]The keep out of reach of children statement
[00:30:25.940]appears on all and use pesticide products,
[00:30:28.750]except those pesticides
[00:30:30.280]that are intended for use on children,
[00:30:32.410]or where it is demonstrated
[00:30:34.010]that children will not come in contact with the products.
[00:30:37.290]In these cases, a modified statement is allowed.
[00:30:40.960]In addition, every RUP
[00:30:43.140]must have a use classification statement
[00:30:45.640]that includes some form
[00:30:47.000]of the restricted-use pesticides designation
[00:30:50.120]and a reason for the restricted-use classification.
[00:30:54.280]Because our RUPs have the potential
[00:30:56.010]to cause unreasonable adverse effects to the environment
[00:30:59.070]and injury to the applicators or bystanders
[00:31:01.420]without added restrictions,
[00:31:03.260]you must be trained and certified,
[00:31:05.290]or under the supervision of a certified applicator
[00:31:08.080]to purchase and apply restricted-use pesticides.
[00:31:17.160]The front panel of a pesticide
[00:31:18.800]may also contain a signal word that indicates the toxicity
[00:31:22.510]and/or hazards associated
[00:31:23.990]with the use of a pesticide product.
[00:31:26.620]The signal word is based on the acute oral,
[00:31:29.060]dermal or inhalation toxicity, or ire skin irritation
[00:31:33.530]associated with a particular pesticide.
[00:31:36.820]The signal words from highest to lowest are danger,
[00:31:41.820]warning and caution.
[00:31:44.860]Some pesticides with a very low level of risk
[00:31:47.560]do not have a signal word on the label.
[00:31:50.380]Only pesticides that are the most hazardous
[00:31:52.580]will have the words danger, poison
[00:31:55.050]and/or the skull and crossbones image.
[00:32:02.750]Precautionary statements provide information about toxicity,
[00:32:05.840]irritation and sensitization hazards
[00:32:08.270]associated with the use of a pesticide.
[00:32:10.870]They include treatment instructions
[00:32:12.600]and information to reduce exposure potential.
[00:32:16.170]Four kinds of precautionary statements
[00:32:18.070]can appear on the back panel of a typical pesticide label.
[00:32:21.840]They are hazards to humans and domestic animals,
[00:32:25.830]first aid, environmental hazards
[00:32:28.940]and physical or chemical hazards.
[00:32:31.630]The directions for use section gives instructions
[00:32:33.720]on how to use the product
[00:32:35.330]and identifies the pest to be controlled, application rates,
[00:32:39.060]any required application equipment
[00:32:41.110]and the application sites.
[00:32:43.020]The label may have information
[00:32:44.280]about risk from potential spray drift
[00:32:46.330]and how to reduce that risk.
[00:32:48.420]This could includes the size of nozzle droplets required
[00:32:50.980]or recommended, wind velocity suitable for application, etc.
[00:32:56.220]The label may also contain statements
[00:32:58.040]related to applying the pesticide to crops
[00:33:00.040]through an irrigation system.
[00:33:02.870]The product label may have
[00:33:04.150]voluntary pesticide resistant management guidelines
[00:33:06.810]based on target, site or mode of action
[00:33:09.650]for agricultural uses.
[00:33:11.820]The possibility of a pest population developing resistance
[00:33:15.000]is a concern when using pesticides.
[00:33:17.570]Worldwide Action Committees classify pesticides
[00:33:20.260]based on the modes of action to safeguard new chemistries
[00:33:23.220]as they become available.
[00:33:25.520]With newer compounds
[00:33:26.700]that have very specific modes of action,
[00:33:30.300]will help keep these products effective.
[00:33:33.110]Manufacturers can voluntarily include the pesticide group
[00:33:36.200]that indicates the mode of action on the label.
[00:33:40.180]Usually a Restricted Entry Interval, or REI, if applicable,
[00:33:45.390]also will be on this section.
[00:33:47.570]The REI refers to the amount of time
[00:33:49.580]that must pass before it is safe for people,
[00:33:51.960]without personal protective equipment and training,
[00:33:54.620]or for animals to enter the treated area.
[00:33:58.710]The Pre-Harvest Interval, or PHI,
[00:34:01.020]is also found in the directions for use section
[00:34:03.300]for all pesticide products labeled for food or feed crops.
[00:34:07.210]The pre-harvest interval is the minimum number of days
[00:34:10.030]that must pass after the pesticide application
[00:34:12.950]and before harvest of the crop.
[00:34:15.230]This period of time allows the pesticide to break down
[00:34:17.770]to a level below the residual tolerance limit
[00:34:20.570]when the crop is harvested.
[00:34:22.560]EPA sets the pre-harvest interval.
[00:34:26.540]A pesticide product
[00:34:27.520]is covered by the Worker Protection Standard, or WPS,
[00:34:30.820]if the label has an agricultural use requirements section
[00:34:34.590]and the pesticide is used on agricultural plant.
[00:34:37.730]For example, plants in right-of-way
[00:34:39.620]are not considered agricultural plants.
[00:34:42.170]The agricultural use requirements sections
[00:34:44.420]includes additional statements, such as PPE requirements,
[00:34:48.510]REI, handling contaminated PPE,
[00:34:52.480]engineering controls and user safety.
[00:34:55.917]WPS applies to general-use pesticides
[00:34:58.530]and restricted-use pesticides.
[00:35:01.860]The label directions,
[00:35:02.790]may reference endangered species protection
[00:35:05.030]that informs the user of potential risk
[00:35:07.290]to endangered species.
[00:35:09.130]It may direct the user to EPA Bulletins Live! Two
[00:35:12.720]through a telephone number or a website.
[00:35:15.690]If referenced, this is a part of the label
[00:35:17.950]and must be called or visited.
[00:35:20.580]It is illegal to use a product on a site
[00:35:22.810]not listed on the label.
[00:35:24.780]The label also includes misuse and related statements.
[00:35:28.140]It is a violation of federal law to use this product
[00:35:30.790]in a manner inconsistent with its labeling.
[00:35:33.970]Using a pesticide in a way that is inconsistent
[00:35:36.390]with the label is a violation of FIFRA.
[00:35:38.830]However, in 1978 the original prohibition
[00:35:41.980]of any registered pesticide in a manner inconsistent
[00:35:46.390]with its labeling was modified to allow some deviations.
[00:35:50.800]There are just four exceptions that allow you,
[00:35:53.440]as an applicator,
[00:35:54.650]to vary applications from the label instructions.
[00:35:58.530]You may apply a pesticide at dosages or concentrations
[00:36:03.110]that are less than the dosages concentrations or frequencies
[00:36:06.390]specified on the label.
[00:36:08.340]Keep in mind that a pesticide application,
[00:36:10.400]at less than the recommended rate may be ineffective
[00:36:13.130]or result in the development of resistant pest populations.
[00:36:18.010]You may use application methods
[00:36:19.700]not prohibited by the label instructions.
[00:36:22.240]However, more recent regulations
[00:36:23.820]require that certain types of applications
[00:36:25.790]be specified on the label.
[00:36:27.760]Like chemigation, for example,
[00:36:30.140]you may apply a pesticide against a target pest
[00:36:33.090]not specified on the label if the crop, animal or site
[00:36:36.800]is specified on the label,
[00:36:38.220]unless the label prohibits this use.
[00:36:41.300]You may use mixtures of pesticides
[00:36:43.190]or pesticides with fertilizers,
[00:36:45.130]if these mixtures are not prohibited
[00:36:47.050]by the label instructions.
[00:36:52.600]Pesticide labeling includes the label
[00:36:55.760]plus all product information, such as brochures,
[00:36:58.800]handouts and flyers, provided by the manufacturer or dealer.
[00:37:02.430]It even includes information referenced on the label,
[00:37:04.710]such as Internet resources.
[00:37:06.790]For example, a pesticide label may direct you
[00:37:09.480]to protect endangered plant or animal species
[00:37:11.960]according to information in the online county bulletins
[00:37:15.040]called Bulletins Live! Two.
[00:37:17.120]This online bulletin is considered a legal extension
[00:37:19.590]of the container label and must be followed.
[00:37:23.000]Other labels may require you to check a website
[00:37:25.200]for a list of approved products for tank mixing,
[00:37:27.480]or for approved nozzles to help reduce drift.
[00:37:30.260]Referring you to a website
[00:37:31.670]allows the pesticide manufacturer to easily
[00:37:33.820]and quickly provide updated information as new products
[00:37:36.610]and equipment are continuously being developed.
[00:37:40.200]EPA's Bulletins Live! website
[00:37:42.150]is a great resource of information.
[00:37:44.450]If your pesticide label directs you to this website,
[00:37:47.010]you are required to follow the pesticide use limitations
[00:37:49.940]found in the bulletin for your intended application area.
[00:37:53.900]pesticide active ingredient or product in application month.
[00:37:58.990]EPA's bulletins contain the following information:
[00:38:02.170]map of the user-defined intended application area,
[00:38:05.490]user-selected active ingredient,
[00:38:07.110]and/or pesticide product to be applied,
[00:38:09.670]pesticide use limitations,
[00:38:11.860]the month for which the bulletin is valid.
[00:38:14.940]Bulletins may be accessed for up to six months
[00:38:16.960]before pesticide application.
[00:38:18.890]Be sure that you follow the correct bulletin
[00:38:21.470]for the month of your pesticide application.
[00:38:24.130]When referenced on a pesticide label,
[00:38:26.030]bulletins are enforceable use limitations
[00:38:28.510]under the Federal Insecticide Fungicide and Rodenticide Act,
[00:38:33.080]The pesticide use limitations found in Bulletins Live! Two
[00:38:36.080]are part of EPA's federal program to protect listed species.
[00:38:40.260]Your state may have pesticide use limitations
[00:38:42.740]beyond those found in your bulletin.
[00:38:48.382]Bulletins are not intended to replace
[00:38:50.260]or override any restrictions that your state may impose.
[00:38:53.620]You need to be aware of and follow pesticide use limitations
[00:38:56.550]in your area according to both the state
[00:38:59.160]and federal requirements.
[00:39:01.650]Now, let's move on to pesticide formulations.
[00:39:04.330]To better understand pesticide formulations,
[00:39:06.580]it is helpful to consider what a pesticide is.
[00:39:09.450]In broad terms, a pesticide is a formulation
[00:39:12.110]of active and inactive ingredients
[00:39:14.160]combined for the purpose of inhibiting a pest development,
[00:39:17.550]killing the pest or repelling it.
[00:39:20.450]A substance is regulated as a pesticide
[00:39:22.720]if it is sold for killing, retarding, repelling,
[00:39:25.310]or attracting a pest species.
[00:39:28.260]Under FIFRA, the current legal definition of a pesticide
[00:39:31.940]includes defoliants, plant growth regulators and desiccants.
[00:39:37.770]Key terms to consider include active ingredient,
[00:39:40.520]inert ingredient and adjuvant.
[00:39:43.100]An active ingredient is the actual chemical
[00:39:45.330]in the product mixture that controls the pest.
[00:39:48.940]An inert ingredient, or an inactive ingredient,
[00:39:52.260]and other materials are added to the active ingredient
[00:39:55.070]when the product is formulated.
[00:39:57.360]Inert does not mean non-toxic.
[00:40:00.370]Adjuvant is a material or inert ingredient
[00:40:03.210]added to the pesticide formulation or spray tank
[00:40:05.920]to improve the ability to mix or apply the product
[00:40:08.790]or enhance the effectiveness of the product.
[00:40:11.820]Remember as an applicator,
[00:40:13.400]it is your responsibility
[00:40:14.580]to read and follow all label directions.
[00:40:17.190]It's the law.
[00:40:21.310]Pesticides can be classified in many ways;
[00:40:23.650]grouping them by their target, chemistry, source,
[00:40:26.870]mode of action and use.
[00:40:29.230]Knowing how a pesticide is classified
[00:40:31.140]will help you make decisions regarding application
[00:40:33.560]and resistance management.
[00:40:35.980]You can classify a pesticide
[00:40:37.760]by the types of pests it controls, the target.
[00:40:41.670]Some examples include herbicide, plant growth regulator,
[00:40:45.590]defoliant, desiccant, insecticide and others.
[00:40:49.780]Chemistry is another common classification metric.
[00:40:52.540]Pesticides and other chemical compounds
[00:40:54.500]are often discussed as being inorganic or organic.
[00:40:59.140]Organic pesticides are those that contain carbon
[00:41:02.090]in their molecular structure.
[00:41:04.780]These are overwhelmingly the largest group
[00:41:06.700]of currently-used pesticides.
[00:41:09.160]Inorganic pesticides do not contain carbon
[00:41:11.850]and have been used the longest.
[00:41:14.470]Pesticides can be classified by their source,
[00:41:17.010]or where they came from.
[00:41:19.040]A pesticide can be a natural substance or a synthetic,
[00:41:22.470]or human-made version of the natural substance.
[00:41:26.040]Pesticides may be classified as systemic
[00:41:28.900]or contact pesticides.
[00:41:31.010]Systemic pesticides used on plants
[00:41:33.220]are absorbed through the leaves and/or roots of the plants
[00:41:35.830]and move within the plant.
[00:41:38.060]Contact herbicides are applied directly to growing plants
[00:41:41.480]and do not move through the plant.
[00:41:44.880]Pesticides may be classified
[00:41:46.360]according to when they are applied to crops.
[00:41:49.530]Pre-plant soil herbicide applications
[00:41:52.190]are made before planting a crop and may or may not require
[00:41:55.190]incorporation of irrigation into the soils.
[00:41:58.230]Pre-emergence herbicide applications
[00:42:00.040]are made after planting, but before weed or crop emergence,
[00:42:03.720]or are made after planting when the crop has emerged
[00:42:06.540]but weeds have not.
[00:42:08.240]And post emergent applications are made
[00:42:10.240]after weeds and the crop have emerged.
[00:42:14.060]Pesticides can also be classified by how they harm the pest.
[00:42:17.680]This is called the mode of action.
[00:42:19.700]For example, an insecticide might affect the nervous system,
[00:42:23.370]water balance in cells,
[00:42:24.970]energy production or molting in insects.
[00:42:28.240]Herbicides might interfere with photosynthesis,
[00:42:30.710]affect cell division, or affect cell walls within the plant.
[00:42:34.620]Fungicides might interfere with cell division,
[00:42:37.890]or affect energy production.
[00:42:41.140]Specificity of target
[00:42:42.380]is another common classification metric.
[00:42:45.190]A pesticide may be considered non-selective
[00:42:47.520]when it is toxic to many organisms
[00:42:50.020]and selective when toxic to a narrow range of organisms.
[00:42:57.520]A pesticide formulation
[00:42:58.760]is a combination of the active ingredient
[00:43:00.780]and inert ingredients.
[00:43:02.650]No pesticides you can buy
[00:43:03.950]will contain 100% active ingredients;
[00:43:06.730]instead, the manufacturers formulate pesticides
[00:43:09.410]by adding inert ingredients
[00:43:10.800]to enhance the pesticides' performance
[00:43:13.200]by affecting its characteristics.
[00:43:15.310]These characteristics include ease of handling,
[00:43:18.220]persistence on foliage, safety, ease of application
[00:43:22.550]and the ability to mix with water.
[00:43:25.110]The term inert might give a false impression
[00:43:27.870]that they are not toxic.
[00:43:29.350]Actually, inert ingredients can range
[00:43:31.460]from being low in toxicity, to high in toxicity.
[00:43:34.800]Their effects on human health and the environment
[00:43:37.070]depend on how much is present,
[00:43:39.140]as well as the link frequency and route of exposure.
[00:43:43.050]The US Environmental Protection Agency reviews both active
[00:43:46.340]and inert ingredients for toxicity
[00:43:48.670]to humans and the environment.
[00:43:52.240]Some examples of inert ingredients
[00:43:54.420]are adjuvants and dilutants.
[00:43:57.210]Each formulation can change the performance
[00:43:59.530]of the active ingredient,
[00:44:00.640]so each formulation is individually registered by EPA
[00:44:04.100]under the FIFRA law.
[00:44:06.030]You'll find a variety of types of formulations
[00:44:08.560]available for the pesticides you use.
[00:44:11.060]Some examples include dry flowables, wettable powders,
[00:44:14.650]soluble granules and many more.
[00:44:17.310]The key concept
[00:44:18.330]is that formulations have specific advantages
[00:44:22.800]As an applicator, it is your responsibility
[00:44:25.160]to choose the safest and most effective formulation
[00:44:28.060]for the job at hand.
[00:44:33.780]Adjuvants are ingredients
[00:44:34.910]that come pre mixed in a pesticide product
[00:44:37.070]or that an applicator can add to a pesticide
[00:44:39.610]to improve mixing or application,
[00:44:41.720]or increase the effectiveness of the pesticide.
[00:44:44.820]Since adjuvants are not labeled as pesticides,
[00:44:47.130]they do not need to be registered by EPA.
[00:44:49.890]They do not require residue studies for food tolerances.
[00:44:54.670]are required to meet certain food tolerance standards
[00:44:57.260]when used on food crops.
[00:45:00.220]Adjuvants include buffers, compatibility agents,
[00:45:03.350]defoaming agents, drift retardants, stickers,
[00:45:06.240]thickeners, wetting agents and others.
[00:45:09.390]Some pesticides will break down if the spray water
[00:45:12.100]or carrier is too acidic or too basic.
[00:45:15.000]Buffers are added to adjust the pH of the spray water,
[00:45:17.880]making the pesticide application more effective.
[00:45:20.990]A pesticide that is mixed with fertilizer,
[00:45:22.990]or another pesticide may form clumps
[00:45:25.370]or be unevenly distributed in the spray tank.
[00:45:28.410]They may be physically or chemically incompatible.
[00:45:32.030]A compatibility agent can be added
[00:45:33.910]to help overcome this problem.
[00:45:36.910]When selecting an adjuvant, follow the label directions.
[00:45:40.510]Some labels prohibit the use of an adjuvant.
[00:45:43.590]Don't use industrial products or household detergents.
[00:45:47.130]Test before buying large quantities of adjuvant
[00:45:50.190]and read the label.
[00:45:51.620]Many pesticide products already contain an adjuvant.
[00:45:58.700]Mixing two or more pesticides
[00:46:00.680]or mixing a pesticide and fertilizer may have advantages.
[00:46:04.190]By applying them in a single application,
[00:46:06.170]you reduce the cost and time of making two applications.
[00:46:09.570]In some situations, the pesticides may show synergism.
[00:46:13.200]That is, the application of the two together
[00:46:15.470]may be more effective than either applied alone.
[00:46:19.400]If you can make such a mixture
[00:46:20.600]without reducing safety or effectiveness,
[00:46:22.920]the mixture is considered compatible.
[00:46:26.640]If safety or effectiveness is reduced,
[00:46:28.780]the mixture is considered to be incompatible.
[00:46:32.070]It can cause active ingredients to become ineffective
[00:46:35.040]or may increase environmental hazards,
[00:46:36.750]such as phytotoxicity, which is harm to plants.
[00:46:40.580]Physical incompatibility can result in unwanted physical
[00:46:43.670]and often visible changes in the mixture
[00:46:45.920]such as solidifying of the material
[00:46:49.160]which deposits on the bottom of the spray tank,
[00:46:52.070]formulation of separate layers of components
[00:46:54.380]following agitation, formation of large aggregates,
[00:46:57.800]or clumps, or curdling of the mixture.
[00:47:01.360]Chemical incompatibility can occur
[00:47:02.920]when pesticides are mixed together
[00:47:04.660]or when pesticides and fertilizers are mixed,
[00:47:07.240]especially where highly acidic
[00:47:08.700]or alkaline materials are used.
[00:47:11.110]Heat or fizzing are signs of chemical incompatibility.
[00:47:15.290]The product label will often provide testing procedures
[00:47:17.930]for determining incompatibility.
[00:47:20.370]In addition, you can use the jar test
[00:47:22.490]to test for incompatibility.
[00:47:25.120]More often these days, tank mixes of two or more compounds
[00:47:28.560]are specified on pesticide labels.
[00:47:31.190]You can minimize compatibility problems
[00:47:33.330]by using these previously tested
[00:47:35.200]and registered combinations.
[00:47:38.280]If specific combinations are not listed on the label,
[00:47:41.270]pesticide applicators are allowed to make tank mixtures
[00:47:44.100]unless the label prohibits them.
[00:47:46.360]A manufacturer will list known incompatibilities
[00:47:48.820]on the label.
[00:47:50.140]However, keep in mind that some incompatibility
[00:47:52.580]can still occur even if not listed on the label,
[00:47:55.630]especially as new products enter the market.
[00:47:58.360]If specific tank mixes have not been tested extensively,
[00:48:01.840]please use caution.
(upbeat instrumental music)
[00:48:08.530]Hi, welcome back.
[00:48:09.840]Now, I'm gonna go over a few safe pesticide storage
[00:48:12.720]and disposal tips with you for just some general knowledge.
[00:48:16.950]You want to make sure to follow
[00:48:18.400]all the label directions when storing.
[00:48:21.010]Sometimes there are specific temperature requirements
[00:48:24.410]for certain pesticides.
[00:48:25.550]You don't want them to freeze to make them break down
[00:48:28.480]and you don't want them too hot
[00:48:29.660]to possibly cause an explosion
[00:48:32.230]or something that might be temperature-related.
[00:48:36.860]Another storage thing
[00:48:37.990]is you don't want to buy more than you need.
[00:48:40.320]One of the things is the size of your storage unit.
[00:48:44.300]You don't want it to be too large,
[00:48:46.810]and by regulating the size of your purchase,
[00:48:51.920]you will be able to ensure
[00:48:53.590]that you don't have an unnecessarily large building
[00:48:57.250]for storing your pesticides
[00:48:58.960]and as well as stock piling doesn't do you any favors,
[00:49:02.560]because potential changes in labels
[00:49:05.010]and formulations and the build-up of resistance
[00:49:08.300]could cause that product to go to waste,
[00:49:10.190]so you'll be wasting money as well as having to dispose
[00:49:13.410]of a large quantity of pesticides that are concentrated.
[00:49:18.690]Another major important thing is to store pesticides
[00:49:22.520]in their original containers.
[00:49:25.160]Not only does the label list important information,
[00:49:27.740]such as ingredients,
[00:49:29.310]directions on how to use that pesticide,
[00:49:31.900]but it also has directions for what to do
[00:49:34.290]if somebody does come in contact with that
[00:49:37.510]and is poisoned by it.
[00:49:39.040]So it's important to keep all that information contained
[00:49:41.920]and together, so that you have it when you need it.
[00:49:45.800]Never, never store pesticides in a container
[00:49:50.220]other than its original container,
[00:49:52.590]such as a soft drink or a food container.
[00:49:56.530]They can be mistaken as a drink that is drinkable
[00:50:00.830]and it will cause pesticide poisoning and sometimes death.
[00:50:04.780]So make sure to always use the original container.
[00:50:09.370]When storing your pesticides,
[00:50:11.200]you make sure you have a locked storage device.
[00:50:13.810]You want to make sure that it's clearly labeled
[00:50:17.040]such as this sign, so people know what's stored in there,
[00:50:20.450]so they don't just kind of meander in there
[00:50:22.350]looking around at different things.
[00:50:24.640]Make sure it's well-ventilated
[00:50:26.950]so that it regulates the temperature better
[00:50:30.230]and it doesn't have a buildup of fumes.
[00:50:35.130]So moving on to protecting water sources,
[00:50:37.940]make sure that your storage isn't where floods happen.
[00:50:42.970]You don't want any water coming up through the floor,
[00:50:45.380]seeping through cracks so that it can possibly leach out
[00:50:50.060]and contaminate water sources.
[00:50:53.320]Don't store pesticides near groundwater, wells,
[00:50:58.120]any place that it can contaminate larger water sources
[00:51:01.290]and we'll talk about more water contamination later.
[00:51:08.990]Some of these pesticides are flammable and they,
[00:51:12.260]like we talked about with the temperature regulations,
[00:51:14.280]you want to store them away from
[00:51:16.730]any sort of increased heat source.
[00:51:20.110]Keep them away from fire.
[00:51:21.740]You want to keep them away from furnaces, cars,
[00:51:24.270]outdoor grills, lawnmower, anything that could possibly lead
[00:51:27.450]to combustion of these chemicals
[00:51:29.950]and cause a flammable incident.
[00:51:36.350]Again, with food, you want to make sure
[00:51:38.360]that these chemicals are kept away from food, animals,
[00:51:42.860]pets, anything that could potentially can be contaminated
[00:51:47.870]by the presence of these chemicals,
[00:51:51.080]make sure to keep it out of reach of children.
[00:51:54.010]They can reach higher than you think
[00:51:55.820]so make sure to store some of them on high shelves.
[00:52:00.310]And pets are known to just be curious,
[00:52:03.330]so make sure you keep it locked up and away from them.
[00:52:07.030]When choosing a storage device,
[00:52:11.150]make sure that you use a solid sturdy shelving
[00:52:14.680]that it can support the weights of the chemicals.
[00:52:18.440]We suggest using metal shelving,
[00:52:20.330]'cause it makes for easier cleanup.
[00:52:21.920]It doesn't absorb into the wood.
[00:52:23.900]So then you don't have to replace it as often.
[00:52:28.240]And when organizing, you can see here
[00:52:31.210]that the light pesticides are on top
[00:52:34.600]and then it gradually gets heavier.
[00:52:36.850]And so you want to make sure
[00:52:38.370]that the heavy ones are on the bottom
[00:52:39.910]so that it doesn't break a shelf.
[00:52:42.040]And while you're storing it,
[00:52:43.190]you also want to try and keep liquids lower at the bottom
[00:52:46.130]so that they don't drip onto
[00:52:47.700]and contaminate other pesticides
[00:52:50.130]that might be lower than them if there is a leak.
[00:52:54.680]Make sure you keep a list of your products.
[00:52:57.520]This helps not only in case there's something's missing,
[00:53:01.390]you know what products you have,
[00:53:03.380]and you can have a list of what is being used.
[00:53:09.150]And so, not only can you tell what's being used,
[00:53:11.840]but you can keep track of the quantities.
[00:53:14.060]And so when you take some out, you know how much you have.
[00:53:17.070]It helps with reordering, it helps with just maintaining
[00:53:20.720]a use of what's being consumed
[00:53:23.880]and what you have left available.
[00:53:25.750]So again, you don't overstock and waist money.
[00:53:33.320]In small amounts, you want to apply them
[00:53:35.570]according to the label
[00:53:37.820]on sites that are appropriate with the label.
[00:53:44.080]When you don't want to pour it out,
[00:53:46.710]you don't want to pour it down a drain, a toilet,
[00:53:49.010]sewer or a street drain, because that can potentially
[00:53:52.350]contaminate other water supplies.
[00:53:55.590]If you're running on a sewage system,
[00:53:58.260]it might interfere with their treatment
[00:54:00.470]as well as septic systems,
[00:54:02.190]so you want to be really careful where you dispose of this
[00:54:05.780]and dispose of it according to the label.
[00:54:07.741](upbeat instrumental music)
[00:54:13.240]Hello, I'm Cheryl Alberts.
[00:54:15.370]Today's topic is the proper protocol
[00:54:17.670]to clean up pesticide spills.
[00:54:20.200]We call this the three Cs.
[00:54:22.840]Before getting into the specifics of the three Cs,
[00:54:25.890]let's think about how pesticide spills occur.
[00:54:30.360]Despite our best careful efforts, containers overturn,
[00:54:34.570]tanks slosh, hoses leak, valves crack.
[00:54:38.320]These can occur without your even knowing it.
[00:54:41.110]You could have a leak down a city street,
[00:54:43.430]on a country road or over a bridge.
[00:54:46.900]What do you do if you have a pesticide leaking on a road
[00:54:50.300]that has organic fields on either side of it?
[00:54:53.790]These situations are highly possible.
[00:54:56.410]By the end of this segment, you will be better prepared
[00:54:59.320]with how to deal with pesticide spills.
[00:55:02.930]The main goal is to keep yourself,
[00:55:04.970]others and the environment safe.
[00:55:07.560]Of course, the highest priority
[00:55:09.110]is to immediately administer first aid to anyone injured.
[00:55:13.350]Being prepared, also means having quick access
[00:55:15.710]to additional Personal Protective Equipment, PPE,
[00:55:19.870]and a pesticide spill kit.
[00:55:22.550]All applicators must know how to respond
[00:55:24.660]to a pesticide spill.
[00:55:26.790]The three Cs can help you remember how to deal with spills,
[00:55:30.420]small or large, liquid or dry.
[00:55:34.080]The three Cs are Control, Contain and Clean up.
[00:55:39.490]Let's take each of the three Cs individually.
[00:55:44.800]Before tending to a spill,
[00:55:46.220]quickly protect yourself with proper PPE.
[00:55:49.230]At minimum, long-sleeved shirt, long pants,
[00:55:52.140]shoes, socks and gloves.
[00:55:54.590]Use the pesticide label as your guide.
[00:55:57.540]Follow recommended mixing and loading PPE
[00:56:00.170]for cleaning up the spilled product.
[00:56:03.010]If need be, wear goggles
[00:56:04.660]and chemical-resistant gloves and boots,
[00:56:07.240]especially if your shoes would get saturated
[00:56:09.590]with a liquid pesticide or concentrate.
[00:56:12.990]Protective coveralls also might be in order.
[00:56:16.880]We'll now go ahead and address the first C, Control.
[00:56:20.880]Control the spill, stop the leak.
[00:56:24.460]If a container is turned over, for example,
[00:56:26.870]put the container upright to stop the spill.
[00:56:30.040]For a container that's leaking,
[00:56:31.770]put it into a larger container.
[00:56:34.530]If that's not possible,
[00:56:35.900]try to plug the leak or close the valve.
[00:56:39.270]The goal is to stop the spill.
[00:56:43.380]As the spill is being controlled, make needed phone calls.
[00:56:47.160]Start with the Nebraska State Patrol, 800-525-5555.
[00:56:53.660]The Patrol is the best first resource
[00:56:56.060]and will know what to do.
[00:56:58.240]Labels and safety data sheets
[00:57:00.190]provide critical information to emergency responders,
[00:57:03.730]have them available.
[00:57:07.350]For large spills send for help.
[00:57:09.810]Stay at the site to ensure no one becomes endangered.
[00:57:15.910]For emergencies, besides the State Patrol,
[00:57:18.540]contact the manufacturer for advice on cleanup.
[00:57:22.490]The emergency number is on the product label.
[00:57:27.070]Controlling a spill
[00:57:28.380]also involves roping off the contaminated area
[00:57:31.340]to keep people out.
[00:57:33.370]Create a 30-foot perimeter around the area.
[00:57:36.830]Avoid contact with pesticide drift or fumes
[00:57:39.710]from the spilled pesticide.
[00:57:42.210]If the material is flammable, avoid using flares.
[00:57:46.030]Consider downwind areas
[00:57:47.630]and evacuate people who could be exposed.
[00:57:51.310]This sums up the first C, Control.
[00:57:55.940]The second of the three Cs is to contain the spill.
[00:57:59.880]This is where your pesticide spill kit comes in.
[00:58:02.990]It should include PPE, shovel, broom, absorbent materials
[00:58:07.790]and trash bags.
[00:58:10.500]The spill must be contained to prevent it from spreading.
[00:58:14.210]Build a dam or dike around the spill
[00:58:16.550]with materials from the spill kit.
[00:58:19.080]Spilled pesticides should never enter water,
[00:58:21.940]including sewers and drains.
[00:58:24.670]If the spilled pesticide enters water,
[00:58:27.140]immediately contact the Nebraska State Patrol.
[00:58:31.090]Also notify the local emergency Planning Coordinator,
[00:58:34.570]Sheriff or local police.
[00:58:36.900]Immediate action is required since it may be necessary
[00:58:40.610]to notify downstream users.
[00:58:44.770]Containing large spills can be quite an undertaking.
[00:58:48.180]The top photo shows spill containment in a river
[00:58:51.130]to prevent further downstream contamination.
[00:58:54.450]Remember, keep pesticides out of water.
[00:58:59.310]For spills on a non-porous surface, like a containment pad
[00:59:02.590]or storage room floor,
[00:59:04.490]spread absorbent materials over the spill.
[00:59:07.580]Absorbent flakes, fine sand, vermiculite,
[00:59:10.760]clay and pet litter absorb pesticides well.
[00:59:14.210]Don't use sawdust if the pesticide is a strong oxidizer,
[00:59:17.970]as that would create a fire hazard.
[00:59:20.750]Absorbent pillows, tubes or pads are convenient to use,
[00:59:25.050]but must be disposed of properly.
[00:59:27.760]If possible, use an absorbent that can be diluted
[00:59:30.780]and applied to a labeled site to prevent disposal problems.
[00:59:36.470]and having a well-supplied pesticide spill kit
[00:59:39.360]can save a lot of headaches.
[00:59:42.920]Spill pesticide dust, wettable powders
[00:59:45.690]and granular formulations can be lightly misted
[00:59:49.040]to contain them, or you can cover them with plastic.
[00:59:53.940]So far, we've covered two of the three Cs,
[00:59:56.980]Control and Contain.
[00:59:59.270]The third and final C is Cleanup.
[01:00:04.790]To clean up the spill, pour absorbent material,
[01:00:07.940]such as kitty litter on the liquid product,
[01:00:11.160]give it time to soak up the spill, then sweep it up
[01:00:14.390]and place it in a container for later use or for disposal.
[01:00:19.610]After the material is collected, decontaminate the area.
[01:00:23.540]Mix up a solution of 30% bleach or hydrated line
[01:00:28.350]and work it into the contaminated area, with a coarse broom.
[01:00:32.800]Use cleanup information provided by the manufacturer,
[01:00:36.120]or registrant for best results.
[01:00:39.970]Always wear protective equipment
[01:00:41.680]when cleaning up pesticide spills.
[01:00:44.260]When contaminating the spill area,
[01:00:46.540]do not use bleach and lime together
[01:00:49.990]as the combination can create a poisonous gas.
[01:00:54.330]It may be necessary to repeat the application
[01:00:56.910]of bleach or lime to thoroughly decontaminate the area.
[01:01:03.010]What if soil is contaminated during a pesticide spill?
[01:01:07.210]In that case, the top two to three inches of soil
[01:01:09.900]must be removed.
[01:01:11.560]The contaminated soil must then be mixed with clean soil
[01:01:15.490]and applied at or below the labeled rate to a labeled site.
[01:01:21.440]If contaminated soil can't be legally applied,
[01:01:24.970]it is considered hazardous waste.
[01:01:28.260]That means it's potentially harmful to people
[01:01:31.290]and/or the environment and must have special disposal.
[01:01:35.990]To recondition the soil, layer two inches of lime
[01:01:39.540]over the area then add fresh topsoil over the lime.
[01:01:44.660]If the spill is minor, activated charcoal
[01:01:47.300]can also effectively decontaminate an area.
[01:01:52.240]Remember that after cleaning up a spill,
[01:01:54.930]equipment also needs to be cleaned.
[01:01:58.130]Clean equipment with a 30% bleach or alkaline detergent.
[01:02:03.610]Wear PPE during the decontamination process.
[01:02:07.230]Never mix bleach and detergent.
[01:02:11.320]After the pesticide spill has been cleaned up,
[01:02:14.260]discard brooms and any clothing or materials
[01:02:17.380]that may have been contaminated
[01:02:19.350]or that cannot be decontaminated.
[01:02:23.520]PPE that's disposable,
[01:02:25.770]or any that has been highly contaminated,
[01:02:28.250]should be properly discarded as household hazardous waste.
[01:02:33.240]Wash yourself thoroughly with soap and water
[01:02:36.060]to remove possible pesticide contamination
[01:02:39.020]that may have occurred during the cleanup process.
[01:02:43.320]And then there's paperwork.
[01:02:45.590]When a spill occurs, record all the cleanup procedures
[01:02:48.710]that were used.
[01:02:50.210]This is for your legal protection.
[01:02:54.100]Keep records of all activities
[01:02:55.930]that were conducted during the emergency,
[01:02:58.270]including conversations with regulatory authorities,
[01:03:02.090]emergency personnel and the public.
[01:03:05.460]Your records must clearly show
[01:03:07.330]how emergency response progressed
[01:03:10.280]and how you acted in the best way possible
[01:03:13.360]to protect people and the environment.
[01:03:16.860]As with so many aspects relating to pesticides,
[01:03:19.980]good documentation is critical.
[01:03:24.280]We'll briefly mention disposal of and recycling containers.
[01:03:29.590]When it comes to disposing of
[01:03:31.570]and recycling empty pesticide containers,
[01:03:34.570]remember to read the storage
[01:03:36.240]and disposal section of the label.
[01:03:39.360]All storage and disposal directions must be followed.
[01:03:44.590]Triple rinse or pressure rinse
[01:03:46.310]all empty pesticide containers immediately.
[01:03:49.530]Use the container rinse water
[01:03:51.000]in the spray batch you're making up.
[01:03:54.640]Unrinsed containers are considered hazardous waste.
[01:03:58.300]Doesn't it make sense to clean containers right away,
[01:04:01.370]so any residue doesn't become sticky and harder to remove?
[01:04:05.750]Store cleaned containers in a special section
[01:04:08.620]of your pesticide storage facility.
[01:04:12.690]Properly rinsed pesticide containers can be recycled
[01:04:16.160]through the Agricultural Container Recycling Council.
[01:04:20.400]Nebraska Extension works with the council
[01:04:23.110]in collecting and hauling clean containers.
[01:04:26.600]For more, see pested.unl.edu.
[01:04:31.880]When rinsing containers and your application equipment,
[01:04:36.310]make the initial rinse to the application site.
[01:04:40.190]Tank rinse water can be stored in holding tanks
[01:04:43.140]for later use as mix water for tank batches.
[01:04:48.450]Remember the key points of this segment are the three Cs,
[01:04:51.940]Control, Contain and Cleanup,
[01:04:55.070]and proper container disposal when it comes to pesticides.
[01:04:59.724](upbeat instrumental music)
[01:05:07.580]Hi, I'm Greg Krueger, a Weed Science
[01:05:09.690]and Pesticide Application Technology specialist
[01:05:12.050]at the University of Nebraska Lincoln's,
[01:05:13.590]West Central Research and Extension Center in North Platte.
[01:05:16.450]Today, I'm gonna talk through how to clean a tank
[01:05:19.680]and and why it's important
[01:05:21.470]to go through cleaning a sprayer out thoroughly.
[01:05:24.370]So when we talk about sprayer application,
[01:05:27.180]or spray applications,
[01:05:28.660]the tank clean-out part is one of the most crucial
[01:05:31.080]because we don't want to carry one pesticide
[01:05:33.950]from one field in there one crop into another crop.
[01:05:37.530]There's risk for damage of that subsequent crop
[01:05:41.390]which could result in yield loss
[01:05:43.060]or economic losses in other ways,
[01:05:45.810]as well as the fields
[01:05:47.300]that don't look quite the way we want them to.
[01:05:49.940]So we have these unaesthetic situations.
[01:05:52.910]So, making sure that we thoroughly clean that sprayer out
[01:05:56.760]when we get finished with one application,
[01:05:58.370]before we move to another is absolutely critical.
[01:06:01.180]Now, with that said,
[01:06:02.560]as we move into using more and more dicamba-tolerant crops,
[01:06:07.420]we're seeing that this is even more critical
[01:06:09.950]because of some of the very, very low doses of dicamba.
[01:06:14.080]They can cause injury in non-dicamba-tolerance soybeans.
[01:06:17.640]So when we talk about tank clean-out, it's really important.
[01:06:21.370]As we look ahead, we're seeing more and more restrictions
[01:06:24.810]on pesticide applications,
[01:06:27.070]documenting how and when we've cleaned out that sprayer,
[01:06:30.760]so making sure that we do a thorough job is important
[01:06:33.790]to minimize any kind of risk of injury to subsequent crops
[01:06:38.010]and making sure that we've got the proper documentation
[01:06:41.310]from a legal standpoint.
[01:06:43.040]So when we think about cleaning out a sprayer,
[01:06:45.770]all sprayers have a few common parts in common,
[01:06:49.310]the first ones the tank,
[01:06:50.940]and this is the biggest harbor for potential residues.
[01:06:54.280]So this is when we start to clean out the sprayer,
[01:06:57.000]the first place we're gonna think.
[01:06:59.320]This tank is gonna hold whatever we were spraying.
[01:07:02.800]We've got to make sure we get inside there
[01:07:04.560]and rinse down the walls and get that clean.
[01:07:07.920]Every application, we would recommend a triple rinse.
[01:07:11.180]Some labels may be even more restrictive than that
[01:07:13.620]so make sure you consult the label for the product you use
[01:07:16.100]and from the tank, that solution,
[01:07:19.070]when we're making a spray application,
[01:07:20.580]is gonna run into the hoses.
[01:07:22.310]The hoses are the second place
[01:07:23.700]that we're gonna start to think about
[01:07:25.320]in terms of potential risk of tank contamination,
[01:07:29.010]so cleaning out those hoses and lines are gonna be critical.
[01:07:32.690]Again, like we said with the tank,
[01:07:35.220]triple rinse is gonna be good.
[01:07:36.870]We're gonna want to flush that boom with fresh water,
[01:07:39.370]clean water, to make sure we get everything out of the tank.
[01:07:44.200]Some of our new sprayers are self-propelled sprayers,
[01:07:47.320]which are gonna be much larger than the one behind me,
[01:07:50.270]could hold as much as 50 gallons of solution,
[01:07:53.580]after that tank is completely emptied
[01:07:55.640]just in the the hoses lines and pumps
[01:07:58.370]so making sure that we get all of that, the solution,
[01:08:01.670]that could be setting in those lines is gonna be critical.
[01:08:05.916]On top of that, on the back side here, you can see
[01:08:08.460]that we've got a filter system pulling off those filters
[01:08:12.220]that could harbor residue.
[01:08:14.420]So it's gonna be critical,
[01:08:15.380]making sure those filters are clean
[01:08:16.820]when we go into that next field,
[01:08:19.370]that next crop with a different pesticide is important.
[01:08:23.020]The other place that we want to check is the nozzles.
[01:08:26.280]At the nozzles, we a lot of times have tip screens,
[01:08:29.350]or the nozzles themselves could be harbors for residues.
[01:08:32.750]Making sure that those are clean is also important.
[01:08:35.770]So again, every sprayer is gonna have those components,
[01:08:40.700]how many different filters and nozzles,
[01:08:44.170]and whether we had nozzle screens
[01:08:46.220]is gonna vary from sprayer to sprayer,
[01:08:48.110]but all those components are potential harbors for residues.
[01:08:52.650]Now, when we start to think about
[01:08:54.280]how do we set up a sprayer,
[01:08:56.170]I know when I go to purchase a new sprayer
[01:08:58.862]tank contamination is not the first thing on my mind,
[01:09:02.300]but as we think about purchasing, or building a new sprayer,
[01:09:06.810]we may want to consider some of these components,
[01:09:08.910]as we do that.
[01:09:10.280]Again, starting with the tank,
[01:09:11.990]if we go to a stainless steel tank,
[01:09:13.870]stainless steel tanks tend to be much easier to clean out
[01:09:16.650]less likely to harbor residues.
[01:09:18.750]Some of the poly tanks, if we leave a pest,
[01:09:21.560]a spray solution set in that tank over time,
[01:09:24.280]those pesticides can pull into the plastic,
[01:09:26.720]making it more difficult to get those cleaned out.
[01:09:29.770]When we think about our hoses,
[01:09:31.450]that's another good place to think about
[01:09:33.290]when we're putting a new sprayer together.
[01:09:35.610]Generally speaking, you get what you pay for.
[01:09:38.590]A lot of times, what we see is the higher-end hoses
[01:09:41.500]tend to have less pitting in them
[01:09:43.600]and they're much easier to clean,
[01:09:45.740]those polyethylene jacketed the hoses and things like that,
[01:09:49.130]while they do cost more,
[01:09:50.690]will probably lead to less trouble
[01:09:52.720]in terms of tank contamination in the future.
[01:09:55.960]All right, so when we're cleaning our sprayer out,
[01:09:57.840]obviously, if we're triple rinsing this thing,
[01:10:00.230]we're gonna create that quite a bit of waste.
[01:10:03.758]The first thing one should think about
[01:10:06.090]is when and where to clean that sprayer.
[01:10:08.050]And we talked about the between every crop,
[01:10:10.994]or maybe even more often than that
[01:10:13.580]that's the label guides us is important.
[01:10:17.390]When we do triple rinse that sprayer,
[01:10:19.200]we've got it dispose of that rinsate somewhere.
[01:10:22.790]The best time to do it is while you're still in the field
[01:10:25.450]that you've just finished spraying,
[01:10:27.340]go ahead and get that triple rinse in
[01:10:29.570]and spray it back out over the field,
[01:10:31.550]where we're not at any risk of causing damage
[01:10:33.770]to an environmental area that we don't want to be in.
[01:10:38.570]If I can't do that,
[01:10:39.550]another option is to take that sprayer back to the shop.
[01:10:42.810]If I've got a loading pad that has a drain
[01:10:46.520]that is gonna collect that rinsate.
[01:10:48.200]So we can also look at doing it that way.
[01:10:51.490]Beyond that, the options are not really good,
[01:10:53.590]so those are probably the first two places
[01:10:55.800]that one should think about cleaning out a sprayer.
[01:10:59.356]All right, as we think about cleaning the sprayer out,
[01:11:02.650]there's a couple standard procedures
[01:11:04.910]that we want to make sure we do.
[01:11:07.607]The triple rinse we've talked about in detail.
[01:11:09.760]On top of that, one of the things
[01:11:11.640]that we would want to talk about is
[01:11:13.690]if we're flushing that boom, a lot of our new sprayers,
[01:11:16.730]have some sort of end cap or some tour cap on that end,
[01:11:21.920]that boom, so that we can pull that off,
[01:11:24.100]flush out anything that might have settled in there.
[01:11:27.200]This particular sprayer doesn't have that
[01:11:29.060]but a lot of our sprayers do.
[01:11:30.850]Another thing we want to do is go ahead
[01:11:32.090]and just go down the line, pull those nozzles off,
[01:11:35.160]put them in a five-gallon bucket of water,
[01:11:37.680]let them soak so that we get all the residues
[01:11:41.130]and stuff off that way.
[01:11:42.620]And, I know it's time-consuming and a lot of you
[01:11:46.320]probably aren't gonna take my advice on this,
[01:11:48.080]but with the toxicity and the low dose response
[01:11:52.860]of some of the pesticides we handle,
[01:11:54.790]just taking a quick few minutes to take a pressure washer,
[01:11:57.840]or some sort of sprayer
[01:11:59.320]and wash down the entire spray system
[01:12:01.950]could be really crucial in terms of mitigating
[01:12:05.020]unintended effects from tank contamination
[01:12:07.700]or sprayer contamination.
[01:12:10.130]As we go about this, it becomes really critical.
[01:12:14.950]Make sure you consult that label.
[01:12:17.310]Every label is gonna have a little bit different guidance
[01:12:19.770]on how to clean out that sprayer
[01:12:21.390]and we're seeing that most labels
[01:12:22.860]are becoming more and more specific
[01:12:24.860]in terms of the procedures that they want to see you follow
[01:12:27.630]to make that sprayer as clean as possible
[01:12:30.440]at the end of the day.
[01:12:31.990]All right, so now that we're kind of reaching
[01:12:34.300]the end of this segment,
[01:12:35.300]we want to kind of circle back around.
[01:12:37.790]As we talked about at the very beginning,
[01:12:39.960]I'm gonna beg you guys,
[01:12:41.500]make sure you use the appropriate PPE,
[01:12:44.600]make sure you've got the gloves, long-sleeved coat,
[01:12:47.370]long pants, closed-toe shoes,
[01:12:49.540]glasses or other eye protection.
[01:12:52.940]In some cases,
[01:12:54.210]certain labels may require even more than that,
[01:12:56.850]and so make sure you have that appropriate PPE
[01:12:59.040]for whatever products you might have been using.
[01:13:02.460]When you do that, it really helps protect you
[01:13:06.420]from potential exposure to those chemistries.
[01:13:09.250]Now, again, just to wrap things up here,
[01:13:14.100]cleaning out that tank is absolutely critical.
[01:13:17.010]In some cases there are certain crops
[01:13:20.230]that are so sensitive to some of the pesticides out there
[01:13:23.250]that you really can't spend too much time,
[01:13:25.670]and you can't get that sprayer to clean.
[01:13:27.400]So when you're cleaning out
[01:13:29.000]that sprayer at the end of the day,
[01:13:30.830]make sure you're keeping records of that
[01:13:34.030]so that you're in compliance
[01:13:35.520]with any potential label guidelines and restrictions there,
[01:13:39.890]as well as making sure we get that sprayer
[01:13:41.750]absolutely as clean as possible
[01:13:43.270]so that we don't cause any unintended effects.
[01:13:45.988](upbeat instrumental music)
[01:13:59.850]Hi, my name is Greg Puckett.
[01:14:02.180]We're gonna talk a little bit about pesticides
[01:14:04.680]moving in the environment
[01:14:05.890]and what we can do as applicators to help prevent this.
[01:14:10.420]So, as we all know, Nebraska's landscape is full of plants,
[01:14:14.670]animals and other resources
[01:14:16.530]that we would like to keep healthy and clean
[01:14:20.920]and pesticides have the ability
[01:14:23.980]to harm or contaminate these things,
[01:14:27.050]and so, as pesticide applicators,
[01:14:29.070]it's very important for us to follow label directions
[01:14:32.420]and to avoid harming our environment.
[01:14:35.590]So we're gonna hear from some other specialists
[01:14:39.340]about these things
[01:14:40.810]and then I'll be back to talk about water contamination.
[01:14:46.100]Hello, my name is Craig Romary,
[01:14:47.560]with the Nebraska Department of Agriculture
[01:14:49.630]and today I'll be talking about DriftWatch and BeeCheck.
[01:14:53.870]Both of these can be considered the same thing.
[01:14:57.250]They're an online registry and map
[01:14:59.210]for commercial specialty crops
[01:15:01.600]that usually are smaller in size
[01:15:03.830]and may not be as noticeable out there in the landscape.
[01:15:07.560]There are potentially more sensitive
[01:15:09.210]to pesticide injury and crop loss.
[01:15:13.320]The main purpose of this service,
[01:15:15.850]is to promote communication, two-way communication,
[01:15:18.550]between pesticide applicators
[01:15:20.700]and the people that have those specialty crops
[01:15:22.970]and apiary sites.
[01:15:25.870]This is an example of the DriftWatch map
[01:15:28.020]showing a variety of crops.
[01:15:30.870]And you can zoom into those locations
[01:15:33.140]to get a better idea of where they're at
[01:15:36.490]and you can click on any of those bubbles
[01:15:39.100]to get the contact information
[01:15:40.930]for the grower having that site,
[01:15:43.850]if they have made that contact information available.
[01:15:47.140]And if so, you can contact them
[01:15:48.840]and let them know what you plan to do in that area.
[01:15:53.670]So there are three ways you can use this service.
[01:15:56.790]The first way is to just simply go to the website
[01:15:59.910]and I'll provide that URL later.
[01:16:02.970]And this is free of charge.
[01:16:04.260]You'll be able to see all of the crop sites
[01:16:06.740]and most of the bee hives.
[01:16:08.510]Beekeepers have the option to only display their sites
[01:16:11.920]to registered applicators,
[01:16:14.110]applicators who are registered in DriftWatch,
[01:16:17.470]and so you may not see all of them at the public map.
[01:16:20.830]The second way is to register yourself on FieldWatch
[01:16:25.270]and DriftWatch as an applicator,
[01:16:27.130]and that's also free of charge.
[01:16:29.480]You'll be able to see all of the crop sites,
[01:16:31.720]all of the beehives and you'll get email notifications
[01:16:34.600]when new information is added to the map
[01:16:37.090]in the area that you select.
[01:16:39.330]And lastly, on this section,
[01:16:41.040]you'll be able to download the FieldCheck app
[01:16:43.460]and that's new this year available on your smartphones,
[01:16:46.680]so that you'll have that information readily at hand.
[01:16:50.670]And the last thing is a data membership
[01:16:54.210]for data subscription,
[01:16:56.210]and that is an annual fee from FieldWatch.
[01:16:59.510]And by having that,
[01:17:02.040]you'll be able to get this data to your mapping software
[01:17:06.000]and that is also free of charge
[01:17:07.770]for federal local state government agencies as well,
[01:17:10.940]so please you can take advantage of that service.
[01:17:14.670]So this is the website, fieldwatch.com.
[01:17:18.785]And this is where applicators need to go to register,
[01:17:21.630]clicking this image right here of the airplane,
[01:17:24.450]and it's also called FieldWatch.
[01:17:26.900]And if you don't want to register,
[01:17:29.100]if you just want to go to the DriftWatch map,
[01:17:31.980]you can go to the address down at the bottom of the screen.
[01:17:37.390]And that's all I have.
[01:17:38.780]If you have any questions, this is my contact information
[01:17:41.940]and I'll try to help you as best I can.
[01:17:45.071](upbeat instrumental music)
[01:18:01.680]Hi, I'm Judy Wu-Smart.
[01:18:03.330]I am an Assistant Professor
[01:18:05.290]and Extension Specialist for UNL.
[01:18:08.250]We're here at the Eastern Nebraska Research
[01:18:11.170]and Extension Center.
[01:18:12.990]We're here to talk about the importance of pollinators,
[01:18:15.320]particularly bees in agricultural settings.
[01:18:18.220]These are critical pollinators
[01:18:20.310]for not only our native landscapes but for numerous crops.
[01:18:23.710]Over 130 different fruits, vegetables and nuts
[01:18:27.250]depend on the services that these bees provide,
[01:18:29.920]and so we're here to talk a little bit more
[01:18:32.090]about the landscape and how bees are impacted
[01:18:35.040]by agricultural practices.
[01:18:37.380]In a state in Nebraska, we have a lot of changes
[01:18:39.980]and really landscapes are utilized
[01:18:42.430]for a lot of agricultural production,
[01:18:44.250]but as well as urbanization.
[01:18:46.540]And so these bees are impacted
[01:18:49.130]by the changes in these landscapes,
[01:18:50.930]particularly because it reduces the amount
[01:18:53.690]and the abundance and diversity of resources
[01:18:56.470]such as these flowers out here,
[01:18:58.770]which are critical for their nutrition
[01:19:02.250]and their health in general.
[01:19:03.800]There are over 3,600 different species of bees
[01:19:08.930]in the United States, 20,000 worldwide.
[01:19:13.390]Several of these species are used as manage pollinators
[01:19:17.480]for crop production, but there are thousands more
[01:19:21.020]that are just in the landscape
[01:19:22.900]and we have very little knowledge
[01:19:24.600]about how our practices are impacting their health.
[01:19:28.460]So some of these manage pollinators are the honey bees
[01:19:32.063]Also, some mason bees and blue orchard bees,
[01:19:34.860]they're critical for pollinating the orchards and the crops
[01:19:38.900]and not all plants require insect pollination.
[01:19:43.340]However, some do get a benefit in yield.
[01:19:48.610]Pollination also improves taste
[01:19:50.740]and uniformity in some of these plants and crops.
[01:19:53.980]And then all the wild pollinators are helping us
[01:19:58.020]shape the landscape for other wildlife.
[01:20:01.440]And so they're critical to sustaining Nebraska's resources
[01:20:04.720]and our landscapes in our natural habitats.
[01:20:07.590]So there's a lot of concern over the rural pesticides play
[01:20:10.590]in affecting bee health
[01:20:12.120]and there are a lot of different types of chemicals.
[01:20:14.530]So when we're discussing the impacts of pesticides,
[01:20:17.290]we really do have a lot of considerations to make.
[01:20:19.980]Not all compounds will outright kill a bee,
[01:20:22.880]some will cause behavioral or cognitive impairments,
[01:20:27.060]and these sub-lethal effects
[01:20:28.450]can affect their ability to forage for resources
[01:20:30.950]and rear, brood and successfully survive.
[01:20:33.720]Some of these can also weaken their immune system
[01:20:36.340]so that they become more susceptible
[01:20:38.510]to diseases and parasites.
[01:20:40.850]There are other chemicals that cause indirect effects,
[01:20:43.450]such as herbicides.
[01:20:44.780]When you spray down an entire landscape
[01:20:47.610]to remove all the flowering weeds,
[01:20:51.630]you're essentially eliminating
[01:20:53.040]the abundance and diversity of forage for those bees
[01:20:56.160]and that can alter their ability
[01:20:58.120]to amount immune responses to fight some of the diseases
[01:21:03.280]and parasites that they have to deal with.
[01:21:05.200]And so it can critically weaken a colony,
[01:21:08.410]or the bees themselves.
[01:21:09.460]And so what I like people to remember
[01:21:12.240]is to practice pesticide stewardship
[01:21:15.690]and integrated pesticide management
[01:21:18.860]is a critical piece in that.
[01:21:20.770]Just remember that the landscape
[01:21:23.300]you're trying to not only produce a crop
[01:21:26.110]but protect the resources of that landscape,
[01:21:28.260]and that includes the pollinators.
[01:21:30.480]So think about timing of applications.
[01:21:33.260]Think about the actual compounds of those applications
[01:21:36.390]and think about what you have around in your landscape.
[01:21:39.670]Try to mow down weeds before you spray.
[01:21:42.290]Try to make weeds and flowering plants available
[01:21:45.400]for those pollinators
[01:21:46.500]so that they do have somewhere to go away from the field
[01:21:49.970]where the target application is occurring.
[01:21:52.890]And so there are a lot of considerations to make,
[01:21:55.000]but there is a way to find a balance between crop production
[01:21:58.730]and pollinators through protection.
[01:22:01.385](upbeat instrumental music)
[01:22:27.000]Good afternoon, I'm Katie Kreuser,
[01:22:28.690]I'm the Hop Program Coordinator
[01:22:30.580]for the University of Nebraska Extension.
[01:22:33.100]We're out here at the UNL hop plots on East Campus
[01:22:37.380]to talk about hops and their sensitivity to drift.
[01:22:41.270]In recent years,
[01:22:42.170]hops have emerged as a high value specialty crop
[01:22:44.990]in many states, including Nebraska.
[01:22:48.030]Hops are the cones or the flowers of the annual vines
[01:22:51.210]that emerge each year and from a perennial crown
[01:22:54.640]and they grow clockwise up an 18-foot tall trellis system.
[01:22:59.300]The oil and the lupulin from these cones
[01:23:02.040]is primarily used as a bittering agent,
[01:23:04.560]or to provide some unique aromas in beer production.
[01:23:09.160]Annually, one acre of aroma hops
[01:23:11.240]produces between 800 and 1,900 pounds
[01:23:14.850]and alpha varieties produce an average
[01:23:16.820]of 3,000 pounds dried hops.
[01:23:19.420]In Nebraska, yields translate
[01:23:21.170]to an income of 15 to 22,000 per acre
[01:23:25.340]and cost about $15 per pound of pelletized hops.
[01:23:29.530]Today, the state has over 50 acres in hop production,
[01:23:32.930]which has steadily increased over the last four years.
[01:23:36.810]In beer production, depending on the style of beer,
[01:23:39.310]as little as one pound or as much as eight or more pounds
[01:23:42.580]of hops are used in making a single barrel of beer.
[01:23:46.520]In 2017, Nebraska Brewers produced 53,655 barrels of beer
[01:23:53.140]using about 160,965 pounds of hops,
[01:23:57.800]if each barrel had an average of three pounds of hops.
[01:24:01.860]Like other specialty crops, hops are sensitive to 2,4-D,
[01:24:05.280]glyphosate, dicamba and many other herbicides.
[01:24:08.870]Because hops are increasingly playing roles
[01:24:11.230]in farm diversification,
[01:24:13.140]they are often grown in close proximity to row crops,
[01:24:15.990]making them increasingly susceptible to drift.
[01:24:19.740]Additionally, their height of 18 feet at seasoned maturity
[01:24:23.250]places them at an even greater risk for drift damage.
[01:24:27.630]Drift has the potential to severely damage
[01:24:29.840]or even kill hop plants,
[01:24:31.300]especially in their first two years of growth,
[01:24:33.540]when the plants are still growing to full maturity.
[01:24:36.810]Total losses to drift per acre can reach up to $25,000
[01:24:41.560]when considering yield, loss and total plant loss
[01:24:45.440]and can deeply impact farmers.
[01:24:48.040]Educational programming platforms such as DriftWatch
[01:24:51.080]and an increased awareness of specialty crops,
[01:24:53.240]together can help reduce crop damages
[01:24:55.820]and losses due to drift.
(upbeat instrumental music)
[01:25:27.993]I'm Justin Everson with the Nebraska Forest Service
[01:25:30.490]and the Nebraska Statewide Arboretum,
[01:25:32.840]and we're here in Waverly today in Wayne Park,
[01:25:35.600]to talk about the growing issue
[01:25:37.300]of herbicide damage on trees.
[01:25:39.640]Before we do that, let's remind ourselves
[01:25:41.720]of how important trees are.
[01:25:43.720]Here in Nebraska, where it can be very hot in the summertime
[01:25:46.690]and winds blow incessantly,
[01:25:48.540]trees just make our lives more comfortable,
[01:25:50.620]we're physically more comfortable.
[01:25:52.640]And then the other benefits of trees
[01:25:54.250]such as energy conservation, wildlife habitat,
[01:25:58.070]stormwater capture and then finally,
[01:26:00.630]trees are just beautiful.
[01:26:02.290]People love them in their daily lives
[01:26:04.180]and they make our lives more enjoyable.
[01:26:06.620]And always remember this about trees in Nebraska,
[01:26:09.400]they didn't get here by accident.
[01:26:11.000]People planted them
[01:26:12.150]looking for those benefits that trees provide.
[01:26:15.550]In recent years, we've seen a dramatic increase
[01:26:18.380]in herbicide damage to trees across Nebraska
[01:26:21.330]from two primary sources.
[01:26:23.200]One is related to the spraying of lawns and lawn care,
[01:26:27.080]and the other is the spraying of farm fields in the spring
[01:26:30.360]to burn down winter annual weeds.
[01:26:32.960]And we've seen a dramatic increase in recent years to trees,
[01:26:36.570]the herbicide damage to trees.
[01:26:38.970]And its most noticeable,
[01:26:40.110]we don't often notice it in the background,
[01:26:42.070]as we're walking around trees, but if you look closely,
[01:26:45.100]you can see pretty significant evidence
[01:26:49.010]of how these trees are damaged.
[01:26:50.400]For example, here is a redbud leaf, which is a normal leaf
[01:26:54.680]that we would want to see on a redbud tree.
[01:26:57.300]When we look closer, herbicide-damaged leaves
[01:27:00.730]are much smaller and distorted, twisted, gnarled,
[01:27:05.770]they just don't look right.
[01:27:06.860]And we see this across several species.
[01:27:09.820]The redbud is a key indicator, but other common species
[01:27:13.000]we're seeing this on include various types of oaks,
[01:27:16.350]other legumes like honey locust
[01:27:18.840]and then other trees like green ash and tulip poplar,
[01:27:22.230]clearly show this damage of the herbicide drift.
[01:27:26.790]The damage that we're talking about to our trees
[01:27:29.730]happens in a couple of different ways.
[01:27:31.900]One of the most important issues we're running in now
[01:27:35.400]is the amount of herbicide drift coming from farm spray.
[01:27:39.288]In the past few years,
[01:27:40.240]farmers have shifted to no-till practices
[01:27:42.960]and herbicides are more important than ever
[01:27:46.170]to treat weeds in our farm fields.
[01:27:48.500]We're also applying quite a bit of herbicide
[01:27:50.980]in our communities, on the lawns that are around us.
[01:27:55.030]And in both of those efforts,
[01:27:56.780]these chemicals can get into the air and move off-site
[01:27:59.810]and damage trees far away from where they were applied.
[01:28:03.540]So it's critical
[01:28:04.373]to really practice best management practices
[01:28:07.750]in our herbicide spraying.
[01:28:09.530]Think about things like integrated pest management,
[01:28:13.380]the time of day we spray
[01:28:15.400]and, let's make sure we're not spraying
[01:28:16.920]on hot and windy days
[01:28:18.950]and then finally make sure you've adjusted those nozzles
[01:28:22.160]so they're not putting out a fine mist
[01:28:24.010]that is getting into the atmosphere and moving.
[01:28:27.030]Remember, the ultimate goal here
[01:28:28.670]is to keep our trees healthy and alive.
[01:28:32.750]they're in the background of our daily lives
[01:28:34.690]and they're important to a lot of people.
[01:28:36.760]They're important to our rural farmsteads.
[01:28:38.780]They're important in our communities.
[01:28:40.810]And they are even important in our nurseries
[01:28:43.470]and how we grow trees and distribute them across our state.
[01:28:48.349](upbeat instrumental music)
[01:28:57.130]I'm Bruce Hoffman with Common Scents Greenhouse Nursery
[01:29:00.380]in McCook Nebraska, that's in Southwest Nebraska
[01:29:04.120]and we're standing in the middle of our field trees
[01:29:09.050]and we're gonna discuss how herbicides can affect a business
[01:29:16.580]that grows trees for a living and how it affects us.
[01:29:20.620]Chemicals are a part of our culture here.
[01:29:22.920]No-till farming is a boon to producers in our area,
[01:29:29.443]that never would have been thought of years ago.
[01:29:31.440]The downside is the chemicals that they use,
[01:29:35.000]if they leave the property they can affect people like us
[01:29:38.540]that grow nursery stock for a living.
[01:29:43.390]And a year ago we took a big dicamba hit
[01:29:47.650]and had severe damage,
[01:29:50.550]and essentially couldn't sell any of our stock.
[01:29:54.590]That's the bottom line, that's how it affected us.
[01:29:57.670]Okay, and I would say it's fairly common
[01:29:59.760]for people to the notion that oh, they grow through them.
[01:30:03.790]I even have people in my trade
[01:30:06.640]that I rely on for technical support
[01:30:09.620]that kind of oh, it'll grow through it.
[01:30:13.230]The damage is subtle,
[01:30:14.900]it isn't necessarily always entire desiccation of a tree,
[01:30:21.960]three-inch trees, they're are three-inch now,
[01:30:24.200]American linden, real easy tree to grow straight,
[01:30:27.440]they're very soft and pliable.
[01:30:29.460]They made a 45-degree turn on a 43-inch trunk last summer.
[01:30:35.850]So those kinds of things are pretty obvious
[01:30:37.880]when you know something's going on.
[01:30:39.470]To put an exact number on how many nursery growers
[01:30:43.600]are in Nebraska,
[01:30:47.150]the nursery directory has several hundreds of us in there,
[01:30:51.730]all the specialty crops, they're not all growing trees
[01:30:54.770]and mostly all sensitive crops.
[01:30:58.470]This is not an anomaly.
[01:30:59.850]They've all been hit.
[01:31:02.170]People that are growing sensitive crops,
[01:31:05.310]I would encourage you to get registered with DriftWatch.
[01:31:09.960]There's no enforcement, it does help build a case
[01:31:13.970]and it helps protect you.
[01:31:16.680]That information is out there for all applicators.
[01:31:19.240]It's available to all applicators
[01:31:21.080]that you have a sensitive crop that needs protection.
[01:31:25.540]And for applicators, I would just say,
[01:31:29.550]not when the wind is blowing like today,
[01:31:32.740]the stuff does get up and move, read the label
[01:31:36.610]and just try to be respectful of other people's property.
[01:31:39.600]Not all crops are planted in April
[01:31:41.490]and harvested in September.
[01:31:48.260]that take a number of years to get to market.
[01:31:51.960]And it affects people's bottom line.
[01:31:55.010](upbeat instrumental music)
[01:32:07.320]Hello, my name is Craig Romary
[01:32:08.690]with the State Department of Agriculture,
[01:32:10.520]and I'm gonna be talking today
[01:32:11.720]about the Endangered Species Protection Program,
[01:32:14.820]as it relates to pesticides.
[01:32:17.250]And so, for a number of years,
[01:32:19.440]the Department of Ag and the University Extension
[01:32:22.200]have been talking about pesticide labels
[01:32:24.200]and the language found on pesticide labels,
[01:32:26.900]dealing with endangered species.
[01:32:29.180]And up until this point, we have seen quite a few labels
[01:32:32.350]that have language on the labels
[01:32:35.200]that direct you to a website,
[01:32:37.740]with the potential for having endangered species
[01:32:42.890]But up until now that there have been no restrictions
[01:32:45.990]directly related to that, but now there are in Nebraska
[01:32:50.210]and we will be going over the procedure
[01:32:53.010]to find out those restrictions today.
[01:32:57.380]I want to note that what I'm gonna show you
[01:33:00.080]is how to access those restrictions.
[01:33:03.710]And currently we do have some in place
[01:33:07.130]but the department is hoping
[01:33:08.290]to work with the Environmental Protection Agency
[01:33:11.120]and other partners
[01:33:12.480]and possibly modifying those to make them more clear
[01:33:15.490]and more useful for their intended purpose.
[01:33:19.240]And I won't go into specific instructions on,
[01:33:22.260]or specific restrictions,
[01:33:24.820]but we'll just let you know how to find this website
[01:33:29.660]and determine whether you need
[01:33:31.670]to follow those restrictions or not.
[01:33:34.750]So the website is listed there in blue, epa.gov/espp.
[01:33:41.030]And this takes you to an EPA website
[01:33:43.580]that's best viewed and those browsers listed there.
[01:33:47.040]Or, if you don't have Internet access,
[01:33:48.840]you can also call that toll-free number, I believe,
[01:33:52.560]with the EPA to determine
[01:33:57.674]with more information, they can tell you whether you need
[01:34:00.970]to follow specific restrictions or not.
[01:34:04.440]So going to that web address
[01:34:06.710]will take you to the page on the top left
[01:34:09.900]and then what you're wanting to look for is the text there
[01:34:12.680]that says endangered species protection bulletins.
[01:34:16.430]Clicking that link will then to the page on the lower right
[01:34:20.190]and what you're wanting to click next
[01:34:21.860]is the the link at the top bullet that says Bulletins Live!
[01:34:26.680]which is the webpage where the map
[01:34:28.980]and the data for the products are found.
[01:34:32.720]I also want to note there,
[01:34:33.940]the second link is a tutorial or a guide,
[01:34:38.150]which is also very helpful and probably will do a better job
[01:34:41.680]of explaining the process than I will today.
[01:34:47.270]So going to that web address will take you to this website,
[01:34:50.850]showing the United States and map.
[01:34:54.660]And then, on the right are some instructions.
[01:34:58.620]And I just want to highlight some areas here.
[01:35:02.570]The instructions, those are the steps
[01:35:04.330]that you need to follow to get to where you're wanting to go
[01:35:07.560]and they are pretty easy to follow.
[01:35:09.770]But you'll want to make sure you follow them in order.
[01:35:13.260]The first step it says there is to zoom into the area
[01:35:16.560]that you're interested in,
[01:35:17.580]where you're going to make pesticide applications.
[01:35:20.460]So you can do that several ways.
[01:35:23.290]You can click the plus and minus sign there,
[01:35:26.480]pan in, pan out on the map will get you closer
[01:35:32.430]and closer to the area you're interested in,
[01:35:35.190]or you can go to the search box there,
[01:35:39.340]where you can type in a city, state and/or a zip code
[01:35:43.790]and to get closer to the area you're interested in.
[01:35:47.780]Once you've zoomed in,
[01:35:48.880]you'll want to turn on the aerial imagery
[01:35:51.610]and that's found near the upper part
[01:35:53.340]of that red circle there, where it says base maps.
[01:35:56.550]You can turn the imagery on and you'll be able to see fields
[01:36:00.080]and roads and that type of thing.
[01:36:03.300]So once you get to that part, you want to make sure
[01:36:06.400]that you're zoomed in far enough
[01:36:07.810]so that you can see your application site
[01:36:10.550]and probably a 1/2 mile or so around that field
[01:36:14.890]in any direction.
[01:36:18.560]The next step, Step Two is to select the application month.
[01:36:23.390]And on this drop-down list, you have the current month
[01:36:27.630]and then you can select up to six months
[01:36:30.330]in the future from there.
[01:36:32.600]And that would be the month of your application.
[01:36:35.250]So for the example, here on I'll select May of 2019.
[01:36:43.180]And then the next step is Step Three,
[01:36:45.660]And it says optional.
[01:36:46.790]And I'll just read that.
[01:36:47.680]It says refine your search
[01:36:49.090]by entering a specific active ingredient or product
[01:36:52.740]and click the search button.
[01:36:54.740]And then it also has a product name
[01:36:57.550]or the product registration number.
[01:36:59.950]And because it's optional,
[01:37:01.900]and because we only have a handful of products
[01:37:04.280]with one active ingredient
[01:37:06.770]and they all have the same restrictions,
[01:37:09.330]I suggest just leaving all of that blank,
[01:37:11.480]or at the default stage for the time being.
[01:37:19.870]And so moving on to Step Four,
[01:37:21.500]assuming I'd zoomed into an area,
[01:37:23.730]assuming that's your area of interest,
[01:37:26.720]it also says click on the use area, the use limitation area,
[01:37:31.270]within your intended application zone
[01:37:35.180]and then click the results tab.
[01:37:37.960]So if you're in the area that's shaded to the left,
[01:37:41.660]that's a restriction zone, use restriction zone.
[01:37:46.030]And if that's where your application site is at,
[01:37:48.260]you would click that shaded area
[01:37:49.880]and then it would become highlighted with the yellow border.
[01:37:53.650]And so then clicking that would,
[01:37:57.680]I think, it'll pop up the use restrictions after that point,
[01:38:02.100]but if not, you can click search again.
[01:38:06.980]And then at that point, the products will pop up
[01:38:11.080]on the right side where under the results tab,
[01:38:14.680]and you should see the month
[01:38:16.240]and the year that you selected from the previous screen.
[01:38:20.690]And so if you're looking at the area
[01:38:23.100]to the right of the shaded area,
[01:38:24.530]if that's your application site in the previous step,
[01:38:28.860]I wouldn't select the use restriction area.
[01:38:33.430]You would just click search again
[01:38:35.850]and I think it'll pop up that there are no limitations.
[01:38:40.470]And so in each of these areas,
[01:38:42.690]this screen or if there were no limitations,
[01:38:45.080]you could print the bulletin
[01:38:47.350]that documents the fact that you were at this site
[01:38:49.740]and you were looking up that information.
[01:38:53.730]And you want to make sure that the month is there,
[01:38:57.600]month and the year is there,
[01:38:58.840]so that you're looking to the point in time
[01:39:01.570]where you're planning to make that application.
[01:39:05.760]And so that's a quick rundown of how to use the website
[01:39:09.200]for finding those restrictions.
[01:39:11.890]To close, I just like to encourage everybody
[01:39:14.260]to learn more about the endangered species
[01:39:17.580]that are potentially in your area.
[01:39:19.910]The restrictions on this website currently
[01:39:22.480]only cover a couple of them,
[01:39:25.160]and so there are others in all parts of the state
[01:39:28.730]that could use some attention
[01:39:31.400]and observation when we're applying pesticides.
[01:39:35.710]And if you go to that web address there,
[01:39:37.880]that's the Department of Agriculture Pesticide Program,
[01:39:41.240]there are links on that page too,
[01:39:44.070]with both the EPA site as well as University information.
[01:39:48.640]And if you have additional questions,
[01:39:50.010]you can call any one of those numbers.
[01:39:54.330]All right, so now let's talk about
[01:39:56.680]keeping our water resources safe
[01:39:58.290]from pesticides a little bit.
[01:39:59.580]So all pesticides have certain characteristics
[01:40:03.400]that we should pay attention to when we're selecting them.
[01:40:07.990]The first one we'll talk about a little bit is solubility.
[01:40:12.940]So when we're putting a pesticide into a dilution,
[01:40:19.270]usually the solvent that we use is water,
[01:40:21.600]and so solubility refers to the ability of the pesticide
[01:40:25.472]to dissolve in that solvent.
[01:40:28.360]And so when a pesticide is more soluble,
[01:40:33.590]that means it's going to dissolve in that water
[01:40:35.640]and it's going to be able to move with the water
[01:40:38.680]wherever it goes in the environment.
[01:40:41.550]And so when you have a highly soluble pesticide,
[01:40:44.780]you know you're going to have to be more aware
[01:40:47.310]of the risk of surface runoff,
[01:40:50.890]as well as leaching through the soil into the groundwater,
[01:40:54.620]which is a big problem if that happens.
[01:40:58.860]Moving on to what we call adsorption,
[01:41:01.970]and that is the ability of the chemical
[01:41:04.880]to bind and stick to soil particles.
[01:41:10.360]And so oil-soluble pesticides
[01:41:12.670]tend to have higher adsorption,
[01:41:15.190]which is something to keep in mind
[01:41:17.890]and as well as if the soil that you're applying to
[01:41:21.750]is high in clay or organic matter,
[01:41:24.390]that's going to increase the binding
[01:41:26.230]of the pesticide as well.
[01:41:29.070]And so when you have high adsorption,
[01:41:33.480]that means the pesticide
[01:41:34.730]is gonna be clinging to that soil more strongly,
[01:41:38.070]and so you're gonna have less of a potential
[01:41:39.790]for that pesticide to move through the soil
[01:41:42.950]to the groundwater, which is a good thing.
[01:41:46.630]And so you can see here this little cheesy example,
[01:41:50.720]the water here it runs by the soil,
[01:41:53.360]but those chemicals are sticking,
[01:41:57.100]they're clinging to that soil.
[01:41:58.290]And so you don't have that water contamination.
[01:42:01.970]But here's a different chemical
[01:42:05.200]and it's just washed right off with that water
[01:42:09.149]as it comes through there.
[01:42:11.230]And so that's something to keep in mind.
[01:42:14.180]Another characteristic that is extremely important
[01:42:17.600]to keep in mind is the persistence of the product
[01:42:20.080]that you're using.
[01:42:21.970]There's a wide range of different persistences
[01:42:25.560]for different products.
[01:42:27.030]How long does that pesticide,
[01:42:28.580]how long does it gonna stay active
[01:42:30.990]in the environment once it's applied?
[01:42:35.310]And it's not necessarily a bad thing either way,
[01:42:38.990]it just depends on what you're trying to do.
[01:42:40.930]So, if you're looking to provide some longer-term
[01:42:45.830]control of a pest, then you may want a product
[01:42:48.870]that has a longer persistence.
[01:42:53.010]On the other hand, if it's highly persistent,
[01:42:56.080]you run the risk of harming sensitive plants
[01:42:59.080]and animals out there in the environment.
[01:43:00.770]And so, striking a balance
[01:43:03.820]and really just knowing exactly what you're trying to do
[01:43:06.310]with your application is extremely important
[01:43:08.850]when looking at persistence.
[01:43:10.740]And another thing that you want to always keep in mind
[01:43:13.670]when you're using it especially in agricultural settings,
[01:43:18.790]is that if a product is extremely persistent,
[01:43:22.390]then you may end up with illegal residues on your crops,
[01:43:27.790]or especially in crop rotations.
[01:43:30.750]And so it really takes a lot of planning
[01:43:33.330]on the applicator's part
[01:43:35.240]when selecting products for control.
[01:43:41.640]So what are the different ways
[01:43:45.240]that we've defined a pesticide movement in water?
[01:43:48.770]So there's essentially two different ways
[01:43:52.160]that this can happen.
[01:43:53.000]There's point source pollution.
[01:43:55.500]And that's when you can really clearly see
[01:43:58.960]where it's coming from.
[01:43:59.860]If there's a large spill in a field or something like that,
[01:44:04.120]you can really identify pretty easily
[01:44:06.290]where that contamination came from.
[01:44:09.290]On the other hand, there's non point source contamination
[01:44:12.270]which can occur over a vast area
[01:44:15.830]and it just kind of contaminates,
[01:44:17.970]it can contaminate an entire aquifer or whatnot,
[01:44:20.780]and so that's non-point source.
[01:44:24.970]So going a little more into those point source pollution,
[01:44:30.460]if you're spilling or leaking,
[01:44:32.410]or even if you're illegally dumping pesticides into sewers
[01:44:36.140]or if you have a spill at your mixing and loading site,
[01:44:42.530]that can lead
[01:44:43.363]to some really concentrated point source pollution.
[01:44:47.170]And so it's really important when you're mixing
[01:44:49.320]and loading your load to prevent back siphoning
[01:44:53.460]into your hoses and just really making sure
[01:44:58.190]you're handling your products carefully
[01:45:01.070]when you're anywhere near water resources,
[01:45:03.280]or shallow water tables.
[01:45:06.807]On the other hand, non-point source pollution,
[01:45:10.780]it can run off an entire field into a stream.
[01:45:17.410]And so, especially in places like Nebraska here,
[01:45:21.470]where we've got a lot of for landscapes,
[01:45:27.220]this is the sort of pollution
[01:45:28.460]that we often see being blamed for contaminated groundwater
[01:45:32.300]and such, because it's just really impossible
[01:45:35.680]to identify a specific source for that pollution.
[01:45:42.840]Runoff is when a pesticide is carried by water over the soil
[01:45:49.650]and it runs into surface water, such as lakes or streams.
[01:45:56.840]And this surface water is in a lot of cases,
[01:46:01.040]being used for for drinking water,
[01:46:04.750]ranchers are using it for their livestock,
[01:46:08.730]they're irrigating their fields with it,
[01:46:10.190]and so keeping that clean and good to go
[01:46:14.660]for people in the state is extremely important.
[01:46:19.810]And some factors to keep in mind
[01:46:23.470]when you're concerned about runoff,
[01:46:25.380]is the slope of the area you're applying on,
[01:46:29.090]the texture of the soil and the particular area
[01:46:31.610]that you are in, the vegetation in the surrounding areas,
[01:46:36.900]how many roots are gonna be there
[01:46:39.310]to help prevent that runoff,
[01:46:42.126]the moisture in the soil itself, can play a big role.
[01:46:47.040]How much irrigation or rainfall has the area gotten
[01:46:49.560]in recent days or weeks?
[01:46:52.640]And then, of course, like we discussed,
[01:46:54.310]the characteristics of the pesticide itself
[01:46:56.641]can play a big role in how much runoff occurs.
[01:47:02.360]Leaching of pesticides, on the other hand,
[01:47:04.630]is when a pesticide is dissolved in the water
[01:47:10.040]and it's actually moving through the soil down into,
[01:47:15.410]it can potentially get into the water table
[01:47:17.860]and contaminate groundwater.
[01:47:22.470]And so, if you're concerned about leaching
[01:47:25.790]in a particular area,
[01:47:26.860]you know you need to watch for chemical characteristics
[01:47:29.220]such as the high solubility, low adsorption,
[01:47:33.620]so it's not clinging to that soil,
[01:47:35.530]you know it's gonna move places
[01:47:37.150]and then also the persistence of that product.
[01:47:40.190]If it's hanging around for a while, that can be a problem.
[01:47:45.560]And then on the site itself, what's the geology like?
[01:47:49.650]Is the soil in this area permeable?
[01:47:52.730]Is it sandy?
[01:47:55.030]In that case, it's going to probably have problems
[01:47:58.760]with leaching, the soil texture and the structure.
[01:48:02.790]Like I said, sandy soils tend to allow
[01:48:05.760]for things to move the room a lot quicker,
[01:48:08.830]it's sort of like coffee grounds in a coffee maker,
[01:48:12.640]it's just gonna flow right through there.
[01:48:15.010]On the other hand, clay soils and organic matter,
[01:48:18.290]they can slow down that process
[01:48:21.020]and help with adsorption as well.
[01:48:24.440]And then it's also important to just be familiar
[01:48:27.880]with the water table in the area
[01:48:29.750]that you're gonna be applying in.
[01:48:31.260]Is the water table shallow?
[01:48:33.340]Is it pretty close to the ground, or is it pretty deep?
[01:48:38.010]That can make a huge difference
[01:48:40.650]in what you need to be concerned about.
[01:48:45.390]And so we just really need to protect our ground water,
[01:48:49.910]because so many people in Nebraska
[01:48:52.400]rely on the groundwater here
[01:48:56.030]as their source of drinking water to live.
[01:49:01.620]So we can see surface water here,
[01:49:05.100]that's things like lakes, rivers and oceans,
[01:49:07.780]like we talked about.
[01:49:10.950]We get recharge from precipitation and irrigation,
[01:49:16.990]melting snow, that's gonna be seeping through the soil
[01:49:22.780]and that recharges the groundwater table.
[01:49:27.340]The water table is basically the top of the groundwater,
[01:49:33.631]and so we absolutely do not want pesticides
[01:49:37.780]to be reaching that level of the soil.
[01:49:40.950]And then the aquifer itself is the zone underground
[01:49:46.700]where all that water
[01:49:50.070]sort of saturates and waits to be used by us.
[01:49:56.760]So we want to select our product
[01:50:00.070]that we're going to use for pest control
[01:50:02.620]only after we assess the application site
[01:50:06.210]that we're going to be applying on.
[01:50:09.150]And so we can see here on the right, these different factors
[01:50:13.930]that can affect what we want to look for
[01:50:18.990]in our product.
[01:50:20.410]If we see that this site is gonna be vulnerable
[01:50:23.656]to the leaching of products,
[01:50:27.390]we want to try and pick a product that maybe adsorbs well
[01:50:32.570]and is less prone to leaching,
[01:50:34.590]or maybe it doesn't persist as long in the environment.
[01:50:37.590]And so it won't be a problem there.
[01:50:40.420]If a particular site
[01:50:43.400]appears to have little or no concern for leaching,
[01:50:46.010]then maybe those considerations aren't as much of a concern
[01:50:52.220]when we're picking the product
[01:50:53.310]that we're going to actually use.
[01:51:00.270]we really can't stress it enough
[01:51:02.150]using integrated pest management,
[01:51:04.120]is such an important thing for us to be doing.
[01:51:10.470]We want to think about the geology of the area.
[01:51:14.200]How deep is the water table?
[01:51:16.340]Are there sinkholes or wells nearby?
[01:51:20.820]What are the soil characteristics?
[01:51:23.500]And, of course, following label directions
[01:51:28.750]as closely as we possibly can.
[01:51:35.720]Now, dilutions of pesticides,
[01:51:39.550]they're obviously still a problem
[01:51:41.250]but when we're handling the concentrates,
[01:51:45.540]while we're mixing or loading tank loads,
[01:51:50.470]those can be even more hazardous to the environment,
[01:51:53.330]because well, they're more concentrated.
[01:51:58.560]Rinsates, when we're rinsing out containers, or
[01:52:02.570]spray equipment, we need to be sure
[01:52:04.980]that we're not over applying those to the site.
[01:52:10.740]We don't want to exceed labeled rates or any of that stuff.
[01:52:16.840]And so calibration becomes extremely important for this,
[01:52:21.890]because if you don't calibrate accurately,
[01:52:26.580]then how are we going to know that you're not over-applying
[01:52:30.784]and causing too much risk for the environment
[01:52:35.760]with a lot of these persistent pesticides?
[01:52:41.350]When you're selecting a mixed location,
[01:52:44.870]you don't want to be near drains or surface water.
[01:52:50.260]If you can invest in a mixing and loading pad,
[01:52:55.440]that's a great investment.
[01:52:58.880]It can really reduce the risk to the environment
[01:53:01.400]when you're handling those concentrates.
[01:53:05.880]And if you don't have a mixing and loading pad,
[01:53:09.000]then we really encourage you not to mix your loads
[01:53:12.440]at the same place every time
[01:53:15.740]just because of the risk of spilling,
[01:53:18.470]or leaking at one concentrated place.
[01:53:21.550]That can really do a number on that one little area.
[01:53:26.060]And when you're diluting the pesticide,
[01:53:30.290]you always want to keep that air gap between the hose
[01:53:35.450]and the mix and the tank.
[01:53:38.820]You can see in this picture what they're talking about
[01:53:42.330]and also having a back siphoning valve
[01:53:48.170]can help prevent even further
[01:53:50.740]getting product siphoned back into your hose
[01:53:54.200]and potentially contaminating at the next mix,
[01:53:57.650]which you just want to avoid at all costs.
[01:54:04.892]Of course, you have to keep an eye on the weather forecast.
[01:54:08.080]If there's heavy rain, expected to be in the area,
[01:54:13.420]you just cannot be out there applying the pesticides
[01:54:16.950]at that time.
[01:54:21.570]Avoid spills at all costs, of course, but
[01:54:25.790]you're good applicators,
[01:54:26.850]you're gonna be ready for those situations
[01:54:29.800]when they do come up
[01:54:31.030]and you're gonna be ready to clean those up.
[01:54:35.030]Disposing of waste properly is extremely important.
[01:54:39.580]You can see that Neb Guide on the right,
[01:54:41.320]rinsing pesticide containers
[01:54:43.250]and so just following those directions carefully
[01:54:46.700]can really help safely get rid of those rinsates.
[01:54:50.810]And then, as Frank discussed earlier,
[01:54:53.900]it's storing the pesticide safely,
[01:54:56.630]making sure they're out of the floodplain
[01:54:58.880]and making sure unauthorized persons
[01:55:03.050]aren't able to get to them.
[01:55:04.610]That can be a tremendous help.
[01:55:09.030]To talk about a one specific product that comes to mind
[01:55:12.220]when we talk about groundwater is atrazine.
[01:55:16.190]Atrazine tends to be extremely persistent
[01:55:18.850]in the environment.
[01:55:20.100]It doesn't break down very quickly.
[01:55:22.790]It's actually monitored by a number of different agencies
[01:55:28.840]for surface water
[01:55:29.920]and community drinking water systems as well,
[01:55:34.260]because it's that big of a deal.
[01:55:36.780]So when you're using an atrazine product,
[01:55:39.790]you just need to pay special attention
[01:55:42.410]to setback distances on that label.
[01:55:47.000]If there's a well in the area,
[01:55:48.190]whether or not the well is still in use
[01:55:50.260]or if it's an abandoned well,
[01:55:52.590]if there's a creek nearby or whatever it is,
[01:55:56.140]you really need to observe those setback distances
[01:56:01.010]to keep everybody safe.
[01:56:03.360]And it really comes down to applicators
[01:56:07.930]using these atrazine products responsibly.
[01:56:10.930]And that responsible use
[01:56:13.090]is what will ultimately keep those products
[01:56:16.100]registered for use in Nebraska.
[01:56:19.900]And so you can see on this map
[01:56:21.970]from the US Geological Survey,
[01:56:24.120]the estimated use of atrazine in 2016.
[01:56:29.970]That's quite a bit of atrazine, and especially the Eastern
[01:56:35.220]and Southern parts of Nebraska.
[01:56:37.040]So it's an important weed control tool
[01:56:40.910]that we don't want to lose.
[01:56:42.990]And then just a few words on nitrates,
[01:56:47.320]obviously this is fertilizers, not pesticides,
[01:56:49.750]but I think it's still important to discuss.
[01:56:54.690]Nitrates are extremely soluble in water
[01:56:57.360]and so that makes them really prone to leaching
[01:57:00.550]and running off with water.
[01:57:04.370]And over the decades,
[01:57:06.240]we've seen widespread use of fertilizers
[01:57:10.770]and that's contributed to contamination
[01:57:14.080]of a lot of Nebraska's groundwater with these nitrates
[01:57:17.900]and that's a prime example of non-point source pollution.
[01:57:23.450]And so what can we do to sort of amend this problem?
[01:57:27.160]Well, it's going to take a lot of time and effort,
[01:57:30.780]but nutrient management, it sort of goes hand-in-hand
[01:57:35.590]with integrated pest management.
[01:57:38.430]Just using other means of managing those nutrients
[01:57:41.230]and our soils,
[01:57:42.710]and so that we can avoid using synthetic fertilizers
[01:57:48.270]as much as possible.
[01:57:50.260]Using cover crops, low till and no-till techniques,
[01:57:56.300]getting your soil tested to know what you need
[01:58:00.180]and what you already have plenty of in your soil
[01:58:03.340]can really inform your decisions a lot
[01:58:06.360]when you're deciding how much fertilizer, if any,
[01:58:10.030]you need to apply.
[01:58:12.140]And so just really only apply what you need.
[01:58:17.240]And that's all I have, so thank you.
[01:58:19.412](upbeat instrumental music)
[01:58:25.132]Hi, I want to spend the next several minutes
[01:58:27.800]talking about pesticide risk and your health.
[01:58:31.510]Probably the best way to start off this conversation
[01:58:33.930]is to think about the different types of exposures.
[01:58:37.130]We generally think about either acute or chronic exposure.
[01:58:41.030]Acute exposures are those that will usually appear
[01:58:44.710]by some type of sign or symptom
[01:58:47.210]within the first 24 to 48 hours.
[01:58:50.080]Those are usually toxic kind of reactions.
[01:58:52.760]That would be all the way from filling ill
[01:58:55.530]to extreme respiratory reactions,
[01:58:58.670]to even potentially death in real extreme cases.
[01:59:02.871]I'm gonna spend a little bit more time
[01:59:04.090]talking about the chronic type of exposures
[01:59:06.720]that you can get.
[01:59:07.553]Those are smaller exposures
[01:59:09.110]that you receive day in and day out,
[01:59:13.500]just as you're doing your applications
[01:59:15.270]and those can sometimes tend to accumulate
[01:59:18.210]and health effects can appear over time.
[01:59:21.710]Another thing to kind of keep in the back of your mind
[01:59:23.570]as you're thinking about health effects,
[01:59:25.850]is the way that these exposures can happen.
[01:59:29.660]And, as it's being shown here,
[01:59:31.230]you've got your skin and eyes, as a type of exposure.
[01:59:35.700]Inhalation or breathing it into your lungs
[01:59:38.250]and then ingestion by accidentally swallowing residues.
[01:59:42.480]The one that we pay the most attention to
[01:59:44.850]that we can prevent the easiest is through skin protection,
[01:59:48.440]and that is where you get the majority of your exposures.
[01:59:51.730]However, depending on the particular type of pesticide
[01:59:54.840]that we're talking about, by swallowing it or breathing it,
[01:59:58.960]can actually have a more severe impact on your health.
[02:00:04.380]Another thing to help frame your thoughts
[02:00:06.850]on considering about health and pesticides
[02:00:10.580]is the signal words that you find on pesticide labels.
[02:00:13.890]As we start lower for the more caution,
[02:00:16.710]then warning, then danger labels
[02:00:19.880]that'll help you gauge the toxicity.
[02:00:22.140]The caution is the lower toxicity
[02:00:25.000]and, as you progress up to warning,
[02:00:26.830]the danger those become more and more toxic.
[02:00:30.460]You can also look at the symbols
[02:00:32.200]that are on the newer labels
[02:00:34.200]and the more sides to the symbol, the greater the toxicity.
[02:00:39.870]Then there's other potential things that you can look for,
[02:00:43.040]poison, the skull and cross bone,
[02:00:45.450]flammable, corrosive, explosive.
[02:00:48.110]Those symbols can actually be combined
[02:00:49.920]with the toxicity symbols to give you an easy way
[02:00:53.280]to look at the pesticide that you plan to use
[02:00:55.980]and what the potential hazards might be.
[02:00:59.460]So what we've been talking about here really are risk
[02:01:03.450]that you can have in being exposed to a pesticide.
[02:01:07.360]And so we consider the toxicity
[02:01:08.980]and we consider the exposure.
[02:01:11.660]The toxicity is often determined.
[02:01:13.970]And there isn't a lot that you can do to help change that,
[02:01:17.370]but you can manage your exposure by using primarily PPE
[02:01:22.860]and through your best practices.
[02:01:24.650]So keeping all those things in mind,
[02:01:26.710]you can help reduce your overall risk
[02:01:29.230]from exposure to pesticides.
[02:01:32.140]This is just a case study I wanted to mention
[02:01:34.140]to help you see
[02:01:35.890]how just having PPE isn't always the right solution.
[02:01:40.630]This is an example where the Nebraska Department of Ag
[02:01:43.780]received a complaint from an applicator
[02:01:46.650]who said he had been exposed to a fungicide.
[02:01:50.170]So the NDA came out, they did a test
[02:01:52.950]and they found exposures there that particular pesticide
[02:01:57.940]that is shown there is what they were looking for,
[02:02:00.470]but notice also that there was 2,4-D in large amounts.
[02:02:04.180]There was glyphosate, there was dicamba and clopyralid.
[02:02:08.220]All of those chemicals at way higher levels
[02:02:11.190]than you would expect to find,
[02:02:13.080]just by simply being exposed to a spray drift
[02:02:16.290]from an overhead aircraft or by a spray rig,
[02:02:21.100]turns out what the farmer
[02:02:22.170]told the people from Nebraska Department of Ag,
[02:02:25.000]is he kept this shirt on his tractor at all times
[02:02:27.760]so that whenever he was going to do a pesticide application,
[02:02:30.450]he could put that on.
[02:02:31.880]So in the process of keeping his PPE handy,
[02:02:35.850]he was repeatedly exposing himself
[02:02:37.800]to all these different pesticides that were mentioned there
[02:02:40.670]every time he put that shirt on.
[02:02:42.140]So you need to be sure that your PPE is clean
[02:02:45.670]and that it's doing the job that it's intended to
[02:02:48.070]to help protect you.
[02:02:50.200]I want to talk about the Ag Health Study.
[02:02:52.600]Now I know many of you are not working in agriculture
[02:02:55.610]and I don't want you to just tune out
[02:02:57.670]as soon as I mention the word Ag Health Study.
[02:03:00.160]This is a study that's been ongoing since the early '90s
[02:03:03.930]when they enrolled up to 90,000 pesticide applicators.
[02:03:08.280]And this one is an important study
[02:03:09.820]because it collected a large amount of data
[02:03:12.800]and to this time, they're continuing to go over that data
[02:03:17.790]and reach new conclusions.
[02:03:20.120]Basically, how it works is that these 90,000 participants
[02:03:23.940]over time, just as any natural population of people would,
[02:03:28.660]they develop health effects
[02:03:31.480]that would just naturally occur in your life.
[02:03:34.900]But then based on their behaviors and their activities
[02:03:38.690]and which particular pesticides
[02:03:40.200]that they might have used during their lifetime,
[02:03:43.050]they were actually able to make inferences based on that
[02:03:46.280]and draw some conclusions.
[02:03:47.750]So that's what I want to share with you today.
[02:03:50.320]Don't pay attention to the fact that it's an Ag Health Study
[02:03:53.360]pay attention to some of the findings
[02:03:55.415]that they found.
[02:03:58.040]Some of the interesting things just overall,
[02:04:00.790]they found that participants actually had lower rates
[02:04:03.760]of cancer compared to the general population.
[02:04:06.850]However, there were some cancers that are listed there,
[02:04:09.410]that were more common, lip cancer, thyroid, prostate
[02:04:13.010]and multiple myeloma.
[02:04:15.020]However, death rates for most cancers were lower
[02:04:17.700]in the Health Study participants,
[02:04:21.130]which was kind of interesting.
[02:04:23.300]They also found that participants who mixed pesticides
[02:04:26.110]did repair of pesticide application equipment,
[02:04:29.500]or did frequent applications of insecticides
[02:04:33.040]were more likely to seek medical attention,
[02:04:35.020]which is a really good thing.
[02:04:36.160]That means they were aware of those potential hazards
[02:04:39.370]that they had by being around pesticides.
[02:04:41.720]So they often sought out protection,
[02:04:45.110]or help and when they felt they might have been exposed.
[02:04:48.900]Participants that could also this study found
[02:04:53.210]that they were also could be exposed to pesticides
[02:04:57.390]just by living near them or by laundering pesticides
[02:05:00.410]that had been worn during pesticide application.
[02:05:02.880]So there's a number of different outcomes
[02:05:05.360]from this Health Study
[02:05:06.610]that have been helpful in us in education
[02:05:10.940]and for applicators to better understand the situation.
[02:05:15.200]Wheeze was a big one that came out early on.
[02:05:18.050]One in five farmers reported to have wheeze.
[02:05:21.530]Wheezes associated with raising animals,
[02:05:24.300]diesel tractors or certain pesticides.
[02:05:28.710]So just daily use of diesel tractors alone
[02:05:31.680]was associated with increased lung cancer rates,
[02:05:35.303]So those of you that operate a diesel equipment
[02:05:38.530]as part of your jobs, you should pay attention to that.
[02:05:42.560]Some good news, though, what we found
[02:05:44.390]is that Parkinson's disease, many of you've heard,
[02:05:48.900]was more common in applicators
[02:05:50.500]who had a whole lifetime of exposure to different pesticides
[02:05:54.760]or who had a particular high exposure event
[02:05:57.920]sometime during their life.
[02:05:59.490]But the good news side of that
[02:06:00.670]is that the Parkinson's was not common in applicators
[02:06:05.660]who wore their protective gear
[02:06:08.460]and who practiced good workplace hygiene
[02:06:11.220]at the end of each day.
[02:06:12.550]So cleaning up and protecting yourself
[02:06:14.610]really does have an impact
[02:06:16.180]in helping to prevent these disease.
[02:06:18.110]To further support that idea, a couple of other outcomes.
[02:06:21.860]Farmers who wore chemical-resistant gloves
[02:06:26.032]had 70% less herbicide found in their urine
[02:06:29.400]when they measured that.
[02:06:31.710]Orchard farmers that wore gloves had 80% less fungicide
[02:06:35.700]on their hands.
[02:06:36.533]So, just merely by putting protective gloves on
[02:06:39.920]reduce potential exposure by 78%
[02:06:43.590]by folks in this particular study.
[02:06:47.480]We've learned that diabetes is associated with pesticides.
[02:06:51.550]It's more common
[02:06:52.383]with greater use of organochlorine and insecticides.
[02:06:55.410]Now those are an older class of insecticides,
[02:06:59.150]but for those of us that were around when those were in use
[02:07:02.555]that does increase the risk of diabetes.
[02:07:05.980]Also pregnant women that were exposed to pesticides
[02:07:11.320]during the early part of their pregnancy,
[02:07:13.440]had an increased risk for developing diabetes later.
[02:07:18.190]Then, there's a number of different chemicals listed there
[02:07:22.450]that were associated with different cancers,
[02:07:26.940]for instance malathion and terbufos, which is counter,
[02:07:31.600]we're more likely to develop
[02:07:32.740]an aggressive form of prostate cancer.
[02:07:35.610]Permethrin, diazinon, and terbufos
[02:07:38.700]are associated with certain forms of non-Hodgkin lymphomas.
[02:07:43.740]And then alachlor is associated
[02:07:45.270]with higher rates of laryngeal cancer.
[02:07:48.710]Now I want you to understand that associations
[02:07:51.450]are not cause and effect.
[02:07:53.320]Association means something related to that application,
[02:07:57.280]or that exposure to those chemicals,
[02:07:59.500]increase the risk for some of those people
[02:08:02.290]that were engaged in that with these particular cancers.
[02:08:05.870]In every one of these cases, of association,
[02:08:08.640]they also indicated that additional studies
[02:08:11.230]were needed to draw that conclusion tighter.
[02:08:15.620]The last thing I think I want to share with you here
[02:08:17.430]related to the egg health study is that early in the study,
[02:08:20.380]they went into the homes of these participants
[02:08:23.350]and they sampled surfaces, carpets, things like that,
[02:08:28.150]and looked for pesticides inside those homes.
[02:08:31.210]And what they found was, in almost every case,
[02:08:34.160]glyphosate, atrazine and 2,4-D found in homes.
[02:08:37.580]So the message there, take home, as you might say,
[02:08:40.690]well I don't use those particular chemicals
[02:08:42.730]I don't need to worry about it,
[02:08:44.220]but what this really tells is
[02:08:45.830]that somehow those applicators were bringing those chemicals
[02:08:49.250]into their homes at the end of the day.
[02:08:51.520]So when I learned about this outcome,
[02:08:53.600]I started advising people some really simple things,
[02:08:57.190]changing clothes before you go into your living space,
[02:09:00.260]leaving your boots or shoes at the door,
[02:09:04.120]washing up at the end of the day
[02:09:05.960]before you go into the family living quarters
[02:09:08.260]and the kitchens and places like that.
[02:09:10.600]Before you have a chance
[02:09:11.480]to bring those pesticide residues into the home,
[02:09:14.630]you leave them outside or leave them in the laundry area
[02:09:17.390]so that you've reduced
[02:09:18.720]that potential risk for exposure later on inside the home.
[02:09:23.380]There's a link for additional information
[02:09:25.250]about this Ag Health Study.
[02:09:27.090]You can also just do a Google search
[02:09:28.770]for Agricultural Health Study
[02:09:30.720]and there's a couple of good websites that will turn up
[02:09:33.340]that give you a lot of good additional information.
[02:09:37.700]The last thing I want to update on
[02:09:39.070]related to health and pesticides,
[02:09:41.190]is related to some of what you've heard in the news
[02:09:44.980]and it was a little bit confusing actually.
[02:09:47.780]The International Agency for Research on Cancer, the IARC,
[02:09:53.830]classified glyphosate as a probably carcinogenic to humans.
[02:09:59.970]So I wanted to go into this a little bit in detail,
[02:10:02.330]so you understand what that finding actually represents.
[02:10:06.270]And what they did when they looked at this potential risk
[02:10:09.390]or hazard, was they simply looked
[02:10:11.460]at the hazard of the chemical only.
[02:10:14.190]They didn't consider the exposure level
[02:10:16.630]and they simply asked the question,
[02:10:18.550]can it cause cancer ever?
[02:10:21.000]And the answer to that, in this case, they believed was yes,
[02:10:24.210]so they classified it as a probable carcinogenic chemical.
[02:10:28.740]Now, if you look at other things
[02:10:30.390]that IARC have concluded
[02:10:35.324]that do cause cancer
[02:10:36.720]include cigarette smoke, arsenic, salami, bacon
[02:10:40.660]and hot dogs.
[02:10:41.830]So you do have to kind of keep that in mind.
[02:10:44.810]There's a chart that lists the the Group 1 there
[02:10:48.430]that causes cancer.
[02:10:51.200]Group 2A probable,
[02:10:52.840]that includes glyphosate also includes pork,
[02:10:56.320]beef and lamb meat.
[02:10:59.303]And then 2,4-D, there is a possible causing cancer.
[02:11:04.010]I think, if you put this in the context of
[02:11:06.840]what if it causes accidents as Group 1,
[02:11:09.700]and probably doesn't cause an accidents as Group 4,
[02:11:12.810]if you think about it that way,
[02:11:14.560]then you would have to put banana peels
[02:11:17.050]and automobiles in that causes accidents category.
[02:11:21.920]I don't mean to say that to make it sound silly,
[02:11:24.660]but you can all immediately start to say well,
[02:11:27.820]I can drive a car and still be safe
[02:11:29.610]and that's absolutely true.
[02:11:31.040]I can see a banana peel on the ground and not step on it
[02:11:33.800]and I'm not gonna have an accident.
[02:11:35.730]So, even though the hazard potential is there,
[02:11:39.030]it doesn't necessarily mean that accident is gonna happen.
[02:11:42.420]In a similar way, that's how their conclusion was drawn.
[02:11:46.670]Now, contrast that
[02:11:47.720]with the Environmental Protection Agency's
[02:11:49.990]Risk Assessment for Glyphosate.
[02:11:52.020]They concluded that glyphosate
[02:11:53.580]is not likely to be carcinogenic to humans.
[02:11:57.220]So how could that be?
[02:11:58.053]How could two different groups
[02:11:59.450]come up with totally different conclusions?
[02:12:01.430]Well, the answer is listed there.
[02:12:03.660]That EPA asked the question, can it cause cancer, first,
[02:12:08.610]and what level of exposure is expected
[02:12:11.960]to answer the ultimate question
[02:12:13.800]is that exposure likely to result in cancer?
[02:12:17.030]And their conclusion was
[02:12:18.430]that it would not or wasn't likely to.
[02:12:22.700]this information will be helpful for you in the future,
[02:12:26.270]to both know that that there are risks out there.
[02:12:29.440]We have known risks.
[02:12:31.850]We can help perhaps to interpret these kinds of reports
[02:12:35.570]that come out a little bit easier, but the important message
[02:12:40.590]that I think for you to take home
[02:12:41.800]is that in the end there are things
[02:12:43.550]that you can do to help reduce that potential risk
[02:12:48.640]to being exposed to pesticides.
(upbeat instrumental music)
[02:12:56.730]Hi, I'm Jane Hyngstrom
[02:12:58.100]with the Pesticide Safety Education Program
[02:13:00.340]at the Nebraska Extension.
[02:13:04.130]Today, I'm gonna be talking
[02:13:05.320]about Personal Protective Equipment, PPE,
[02:13:08.390]and we'll cover how to select PPE,
[02:13:10.680]how to know what type to wear
[02:13:12.450]and also a little bit about care and storage.
[02:13:18.250]Always follow the label requirements
[02:13:21.190]in terms of what PPE to use.
[02:13:23.530]That's the minimum amount of PPE you should use.
[02:13:25.870]You can always wear more.
[02:13:28.240]And the label has the PPE requirements
[02:13:31.590]based on the toxicity of the pesticide you're using.
[02:13:34.660]Something that has a signal word of caution
[02:13:37.280]would not require as much PPE
[02:13:39.160]as something that has a signal word of danger.
[02:13:41.940]Also, the label requirements are based on the formulation.
[02:13:46.040]Dust formulation, for example,
[02:13:47.780]might require respiratory protection,
[02:13:50.120]while a liquid might require something
[02:13:52.490]that gives you eye protection.
[02:13:54.860]Another factor that the PPE requirements are based on
[02:13:58.390]is what you're doing when you're using the pesticide.
[02:14:01.780]If you're measuring, or mixing, or loading,
[02:14:03.970]you'll be working with a concentrate
[02:14:06.270]which has more risk to it
[02:14:07.620]than if you're working with a diluted formulation.
[02:14:10.380]If you're applying or cleaning equipment,
[02:14:12.360]you're going to be using or being exposed
[02:14:15.030]to the dilute formulation or to residues.
[02:14:17.730]So there would be less risk.
[02:14:20.990]What I thought we'd do today is just go through
[02:14:23.550]and read an actual label and see if we can decipher
[02:14:26.920]what sort of PPE is needed and why.
[02:14:29.800]So in the label,
[02:14:31.490]look under the area called precautionary statements.
[02:14:35.570]And here it says hazards to humans and domestic animals.
[02:14:39.190]And you see the signal word is caution,
[02:14:41.270]so that's the has the least risk of the three signal words,
[02:14:45.150]caution, warning and danger.
[02:14:47.250]And underneath that it says harmful if swallowed.
[02:14:50.150]So we know there that there's a potential risk
[02:14:53.360]if there's ingestion occurring.
[02:14:55.750]Also it says, do not breathe dust or spray mist.
[02:14:59.560]So we know there's a problem
[02:15:01.660]if there's an inhalation exposure.
[02:15:03.890]And finally, it says avoid contact with eyes,
[02:15:06.160]skin or clothing.
[02:15:07.550]So there's a problem with dermal exposure.
[02:15:11.030]Underneath that then it says it will cover the PPE required,
[02:15:14.490]the Personal Protective Equipment.
[02:15:17.210]And the first thing it says here
[02:15:18.670]is that some materials are chemical-resistant.
[02:15:22.010]So what do we mean by chemical-resistant?
[02:15:25.270]It means that the material provides a barrier
[02:15:28.330]between your skin and any chemicals.
[02:15:30.590]It prevents the chemicals from reaching your skin.
[02:15:33.160]Some examples are PVC plastic, or rubber, or nitrile,
[02:15:37.490]or barrier laminate, or even some nonwoven coated fabrics.
[02:15:42.620]And something I wanted to stress
[02:15:44.090]is waterproof does not mean chemical-resistant.
[02:15:47.240]Waterproof means that water won't pass through it.
[02:15:51.060]It doesn't protect you against chemicals.
[02:15:53.140]So make sure you are using chemical-resistant materials
[02:15:56.450]if it's required, okay?
[02:15:59.160]And when you do have chemical-resistant materials
[02:16:01.410]such as gloves or aprons, check it frequently
[02:16:04.720]for signs of wearing or if it's degrading.
[02:16:07.510]And some indicators are, if there's a color change,
[02:16:10.420]or if it's brittle or spongy or if it's cracked or swollen.
[02:16:14.040]If you see any of those signs
[02:16:15.360]go ahead and get a replacement.
[02:16:19.680]Something to avoid when using even granules or dusts,
[02:16:25.460]because they can absorb the pesticides as well,
[02:16:28.690]avoid leather or denim or cotton or lined gloves.
[02:16:32.530]I do have an asterisk by cotton,
[02:16:34.640]because there are some pesticides
[02:16:36.080]that do require you to use cotton.
[02:16:38.850]An example would be some fumigants.
[02:16:41.360]If you would have the pesticide trapped
[02:16:43.730]in between a chemical-resistant glove and your hand,
[02:16:47.540]the vapors could cause some burns to your skin.
[02:16:50.410]So that's a situation where they want you
[02:16:52.650]to wear cotton gloves.
[02:16:54.060]So make sure you always read the label
[02:16:55.770]and see what will work best.
[02:16:58.380]All right, let's continue with this label.
[02:17:00.750]Here it says mixers, loaders and cleaners of spills
[02:17:04.190]and other handlers exposed to the concentrates.
[02:17:06.890]Remember, the concentrate has more risk associated with it.
[02:17:12.020]So if you have the potential
[02:17:13.310]for being exposed to concentrate,
[02:17:15.110]you must wear coverall over long-sleeved shirt and pants.
[02:17:19.350]So what do we mean by coverall?
[02:17:21.640]The EPA has given us a good definition.
[02:17:24.600]A coverall is a loose-fitting one or two-piece garment
[02:17:27.680]that covers the entire body,
[02:17:29.700]except it doesn't need to cover your head,
[02:17:31.490]neck, hands or feet.
[02:17:33.260]And this means for a garment, it can be cloth.
[02:17:36.340]It does not have to be Tyvek or chemical-resistant material.
[02:17:40.520]But remember you can always go that extra step.
[02:17:43.600]The label is the minimum requirement.
[02:17:45.330]So if it says coverall,
[02:17:46.690]you can indeed wear a chemical-resistant coverall.
[02:17:51.440]The label also may specify
[02:17:53.260]that coveralls be worn over clothing
[02:17:55.530]and this label had said, wear over long-sleeved shirt
[02:18:00.180]and long pants.
[02:18:02.300]Okay, the next thing it says is
[02:18:05.190]that people who might be exposed to the concentrate
[02:18:08.100]have to wear chemical-resistant gloves, okay?
[02:18:10.790]And then it gives you an example or the gloves,
[02:18:14.040]such as barrier laminate.
[02:18:15.770]And here it can be any weight of barrier laminate.
[02:18:18.970]And then it says a number of other materials,
[02:18:22.930]butyl rubber, nitrile rubber, neoprene rubber,
[02:18:26.480]natural rubber, polyethylene, PVC and Viton.
[02:18:30.940]But they have to be at least 14 mils
[02:18:34.310]to provide more protection.
[02:18:35.980]Anything less than 14 mils
[02:18:37.500]is usually considered disposable in terms of a glove.
[02:18:41.520]So I do have some examples of gloves here for you to see,
[02:18:44.680]so we can talk about them a little bit.
[02:18:46.710]The first one here, the green, is a reusable nitrile.
[02:18:49.440]It's 15 mil, so you can see
[02:18:51.420]that would be appropriate to wear.
[02:18:53.480]And I did some pricing to give you an idea,
[02:18:55.670]so about 2 1/2 a pair.
[02:18:58.340]And underneath that, you see the blue,
[02:19:00.370]those are disposable nitriles.
[02:19:02.020]Those are commonly used,
[02:19:03.760]but in this case they wouldn't be acceptable.
[02:19:05.700]There are only 3.7 mils.
[02:19:07.830]Those are disposable.
[02:19:08.850]They're about 10 cents apiece.
[02:19:10.260]You can buy a box of 100 of them
[02:19:12.450]and just pull them out with the appropriate pesticide
[02:19:15.540]use them, and then you can just throw them away.
[02:19:18.190]Above that is neoprene.
[02:19:19.630]This is a pretty heavy one.
[02:19:20.780]It's a 30 mil, so definitely this would work.
[02:19:23.400]Offers very good protection, almost $16 a pair.
[02:19:27.520]So they will last quite a while.
[02:19:29.600]Next to it is butyl rubber, and this one is $28.5.
[02:19:33.660]So more expensive.
[02:19:35.080]And remember, I said the barrier laminate,
[02:19:37.010]you could weight of that.
[02:19:39.070]This one is only 2.7 mils.
[02:19:41.230]So very lightweight,
[02:19:42.560]but still it provides excellent protection.
[02:19:45.370]And that's about $6.5 for a pair of those.
[02:19:48.330]So that just gives you an idea
[02:19:49.960]of what some of these gloves are
[02:19:51.620]and the cost and what they look like.
[02:19:54.630]Okay, next we'll look at
[02:19:57.650]if you might be exposed to the concentrate,
[02:19:59.750]you must wear protective eyewear, shielded safety glasses,
[02:20:03.900]face shields, goggles or a full-face respirator, okay?
[02:20:08.980]And here we have some pictures of them.
[02:20:11.753]I didn't say prescription eyeglasses or sunglasses.
[02:20:16.160]They allow pesticides or vapors to get in
[02:20:18.640]on the sides or underneath so those wouldn't be appropriate.
[02:20:24.500]All right, moving on,
[02:20:25.720]if you might be exposed to the concentrate,
[02:20:28.000]you must wear chemical-resistant footwear plus socks.
[02:20:31.460]So chemical-resistant footwear
[02:20:33.110]includes chemical-resistant shoes,
[02:20:35.310]chemical-resistant boots, or there are chemical-resistant,
[02:20:38.450]let's call them booties
[02:20:39.380]that you can pull over your regular shoes.
[02:20:42.070]And don't ever try and wear sandals, or cloth, or leather.
[02:20:45.840]They just will not provide the protection you need
[02:20:48.170]in this case.
[02:20:50.630]So moving on.
[02:20:52.900]Also, if you might be exposed to the concentrate,
[02:20:56.160]you must wear a chemical-resistant apron.
[02:20:58.520]Remember in previous trainings you've heard
[02:21:01.360]that the groin area is an area
[02:21:03.280]that is especially susceptible to absorption by pesticides.
[02:21:07.100]That's why the chemical-resistant apron
[02:21:09.070]is so important for mixers and loaders.
[02:21:13.590]And next, if you might be exposed to the concentrate
[02:21:16.920]for this particular pesticide,
[02:21:18.930]you must wear a NIOSH-approved
[02:21:20.750]dust/mist filtering respirator with any N, R, P or HE filter
[02:21:27.030]or a NIOSH-approved dust/mist filtering respirator
[02:21:30.410]with approval number prefix, TC-21C.
[02:21:34.240]So what in the world does that mean?
[02:21:36.340]We're gonna decipher that, okay?
[02:21:38.690]But first I wanted to talk a little bit
[02:21:40.980]about the types of respirators.
[02:21:42.550]There's two main types, an air-purifying
[02:21:45.510]and an air-supplying.
[02:21:46.990]And first let's talk about the air-purifying.
[02:21:49.430]These are ones where you're just breathing the ambient air
[02:21:53.100]and the air is going in through some filters
[02:21:55.630]that's doing the purifying, okay?
[02:21:57.660]Some examples of those are in the bottom corner.
[02:22:00.040]You see those filtering face masks,
[02:22:03.390]or we sometimes call them a dust mask.
[02:22:06.410]Next to it is a half mask respirator
[02:22:09.510]and it has some filters on the side.
[02:22:11.590]The next picture are some different cartridges
[02:22:14.070]that offer protection.
[02:22:15.890]Next, we have the full-face mask respirator.
[02:22:19.870]And then next to it is another.
[02:22:21.430]These are all air-purifying respirators.
[02:22:23.480]Now, they take the ambient air when you inhale
[02:22:27.050]and filter out before it reaches you.
[02:22:29.550]The next one is a little different one.
[02:22:31.150]It's called a Powered Air-Purifying Respirator, or a PAPR.
[02:22:36.140]And you can see there's a little battery
[02:22:37.880]that he's wearing around his waist.
[02:22:40.500]The battery powers a fan that draws in air
[02:22:44.800]that goes through the tube into the mask.
[02:22:47.850]So air is constantly flowing.
[02:22:49.710]In this case, he's wearing a helmet.
[02:22:51.970]The air is constantly flowing through and underneath
[02:22:55.320]and going out down underneath the mask.
[02:22:57.850]So something I wanted to mention was the previous masks
[02:23:01.140]that I talked about, the half mask
[02:23:03.620]and the full-face mask.
[02:23:05.940]They have a tight seal around.
[02:23:07.610]We don't want any air to enter underneath.
[02:23:10.200]But it's a little different with some of the PAPRs,
[02:23:12.700]the Powered Air-Purifying Respirators,
[02:23:15.280]the helmets and hoods do have air flowing in through
[02:23:18.910]underneath and escaping.
[02:23:21.980]And so in those cases, it is not considered a tight-fitting.
[02:23:25.730]Instead, that's a loose-fitting respirator.
[02:23:27.950]And we'll talk about that a little bit more
[02:23:29.500]and you'll understand the difference.
[02:23:32.410]Finally, we have the other type,
[02:23:34.250]the air-supplying respirator.
[02:23:36.210]This you carry the air either in a tank on your back,
[02:23:39.410]or there might be a compressor that has an air line to it.
[02:23:42.880]So you're absolutely,
[02:23:44.240]or you're actually inhaling purified air.
[02:23:47.990]So that's the difference between the air-purifying
[02:23:50.110]and the air-supplying.
[02:23:51.350]Air supplying is something you'd probably be using more
[02:23:53.820]in a fumigation situation.
[02:23:56.080]They're more expensive, more training is required
[02:24:00.330]and in that situation, fumigation,
[02:24:02.530]that's why the Nebraska Department of Agriculture
[02:24:05.870]really recommends you hire a professional
[02:24:07.900]for those type of applications.
[02:24:11.570]Okay, so then we have a couple different kinds of filters,
[02:24:16.690]one is the particulate filter,
[02:24:18.410]and here we have an example of one.
[02:24:20.470]The particulate filters filter out small dust particles,
[02:24:25.650]or they can actually filter out small mist particles.
[02:24:29.200]They don't do anything for gases.
[02:24:32.070]And what we're really concerned about
[02:24:33.650]with particulate filters, is how they react
[02:24:35.960]or how they handle oil.
[02:24:37.850]And what do I mean by oil?
[02:24:39.370]Well, we have a definition.
[02:24:40.740]Mineral, vegetable and synthetic substances
[02:24:43.790]and animal, and vegetable fats
[02:24:45.430]that are generally slippery, combustible, viscous,
[02:24:48.640]liquid at room temperatures
[02:24:50.130]and soluble in various organic solvents, but not in water.
[02:24:54.050]Okay, and why are we concerned about that?
[02:24:56.140]Some pesticides do have oils in them,
[02:24:58.990]or there might be a formulation that contains oils.
[02:25:02.170]So the particulate filters
[02:25:03.930]may have to be able to handle that.
[02:25:06.240]So we have three ratings in terms of particulate filters.
[02:25:09.500]It might have an N, meaning it's not resistant to oil,
[02:25:13.380]that it won't keep oil out,
[02:25:15.520]it's an R which is somewhat resistant,
[02:25:18.040]it could last for up to eight hours, or P is oil proof.
[02:25:21.570]That means it can protect you against oils.
[02:25:25.070]Okay, so you see, here is an example.
[02:25:27.450]It has a P.
[02:25:28.283]So that means it's oil proof.
[02:25:30.670]And next, besides those letters,
[02:25:32.540]there are some numbers associated with the filters.
[02:25:35.390]For example, 95 means it removes 95% of particulates,
[02:25:40.560]0.3 microns or larger.
[02:25:42.800]So what in the world is a micron?
[02:25:45.300]I found a really nice EPA graphic here.
[02:25:48.130]You can see at the bottom there's some fine beach sand.
[02:25:51.140]And think about it, you can hold sand in your hand
[02:25:53.860]and see the granules with your naked eye.
[02:25:57.100]And those are about 90 microns in diameter.
[02:26:00.110]Above that there's a human hair
[02:26:02.210]and a human hair is about 50 to 70 microns in diameter.
[02:26:06.010]A horse hair, for example,
[02:26:07.190]might be a little bigger than that.
[02:26:10.880]Next, going down the hair, you see PM10,
[02:26:15.110]that's less than 10 microns,
[02:26:19.010]dust or pollen or mold would be in that size.
[02:26:22.920]And then up at the top, there are combustion particles,
[02:26:26.310]organic compounds and metals that are less than 2.5 microns.
[02:26:32.180]So you can't see those without any assistance
[02:26:36.470]by microscopes or something.
[02:26:38.410]But remember we were talking about things,
[02:26:40.530]0.3 microns or less, so even smaller than that,
[02:26:44.200]these filters will work.
[02:26:45.740]So, let's go back to that.
[02:26:46.850]95 removes 95% of the particulates 0.3 microns or larger.
[02:26:52.570]99 removes 99% of the particulates.
[02:26:56.210]And 100, if it has a rating of 100,
[02:26:58.750]it removes 99.7% of those sized particulates
[02:27:03.020]which is basically all.
[02:27:05.590]Then there is one more rating you might see, it's HE.
[02:27:08.840]That means High Efficiency.
[02:27:10.490]And that's basically removing 99.7% of those particulates,
[02:27:16.160]three microns or larger, all right?
[02:27:19.430]So now, you remember I mentioned NIOSH.
[02:27:23.413]the National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health,
[02:27:27.680]and they do the testing on all respirators.
[02:27:30.630]And whenever you are using a respirator,
[02:27:33.110]it has to be NIOSH-approved
[02:27:34.610]and you'll actually see NIOSH on the respirator itself.
[02:27:38.330]And I wanted to go through some examples here.
[02:27:41.050]So there are the particulate filters.
[02:27:42.660]Remember those filter out mists or dusts.
[02:27:46.380]And you'll see it's N, R, or P, 95, 99 or 100.
[02:27:51.460]And you can see here's an example.
[02:27:53.060]There's a P100, and both of them are,
[02:27:56.220]just different shapes of different particulate filters.
[02:28:00.380]So these are examples of particulate filters.
[02:28:03.510]The first two are those filtering facepiece respirators.
[02:28:08.280]And something I wanted to point out
[02:28:09.990]is notice both of them have two straps.
[02:28:13.440]You might see these in your hardware store.
[02:28:16.090]These are not, they're never going to be NIOSH-approved.
[02:28:19.570]They only have one strap.
[02:28:21.170]You just can't get a good seal.
[02:28:23.060]Remember I said these have to be tight-fitting.
[02:28:26.040]They need a tight-fitting seal.
[02:28:28.410]You just won't get that with this.
[02:28:30.760]So if you see something with one strap just forget about it,
[02:28:34.550]go right away to a two-strap.
[02:28:37.550]The first one you can buy for a $1.50 and that one,
[02:28:43.480]yeah and you can see it says TC-84A,
[02:28:46.450]that means it's a particulate filter respirator.
[02:28:50.830]Next to it is a little higher price but more effective.
[02:28:55.510]The two straps are adjustable.
[02:28:57.770]And also you see that yellow in the middle,
[02:29:00.490]that's an exhalation valve.
[02:29:02.200]So when you are inhaling and exhaling,
[02:29:06.040]it's an area where moisture can escape.
[02:29:08.740]Those range from three to $9 apiece.
[02:29:11.980]The more protections such as Leica, the P100,
[02:29:15.180]probably would be more in the nine-dollar range.
[02:29:19.100]And then finally, we have the full-face mask respirator.
[02:29:23.580]And this one has two particulate filters on the bottom.
[02:29:27.010]You can see those pink or magenta filters.
[02:29:30.450]One thing really nice, and it's $125,
[02:29:33.290]so quite a bit more expensive.
[02:29:36.020]But one thing really nice about these
[02:29:37.960]is when you find one that fits, when you get one that fits,
[02:29:41.920]you can interchange different cartridges
[02:29:45.101]for those particulate filters
[02:29:48.240]and use it for a number of different purposes
[02:29:51.070]and a number of different pesticides.
[02:29:54.830]Okay, so we covered the particulate filters.
[02:29:57.370]Next we have the chemical cartridges, are TC,
[02:30:00.730]and, I should say TC means Tested and Certified by NIOSH,
[02:30:06.080]And here you can see
[02:30:06.913]first we have the black half face respirator, the half mask.
[02:30:12.440]And this one you can see it has a black cartridge.
[02:30:15.150]Those black cartridges mean
[02:30:17.480]that they will provide protection against organic vapors.
[02:30:21.270]And these cartridges are color-coded.
[02:30:23.550]Next to it is a full-face mask respirator,
[02:30:26.490]and it too has black cartridges.
[02:30:28.170]You can see the black along the edge.
[02:30:30.140]One thing I wanted to point out is
[02:30:32.010]look especially you can see the tight-fitting seal
[02:30:34.870]around that full face mask around his face.
[02:30:38.110]It does not allow air to enter underneath it.
[02:30:41.150]And up at the top there's a black cartridge
[02:30:43.480]and there's an example
[02:30:44.370]of another organic chemical cartridge,
[02:30:48.280]it's kind of an olive green.
[02:30:49.760]It also provides some protection against other gases.
[02:30:54.990]Okay, then, something that's really helpful
[02:30:58.620]is you can get combination filters.
[02:31:00.530]They will protect you against particulates
[02:31:03.100]as well as chemicals.
[02:31:05.280]And you get these cartridges to fit your respirator.
[02:31:11.040]Okay, next remember we talked about the PAPRs,
[02:31:13.480]the Power Air-Purifying Respirator.
[02:31:15.790]If it has a particulate filter, it's a TC-21C.
[02:31:19.570]And again, it has the battery pack.
[02:31:21.540]And down below,
[02:31:22.373]I have an example of the loose-fitting hood in helmet.
[02:31:27.030]And over on the side,
[02:31:28.220]it's the tight-fitting full-face mask.
[02:31:31.990]Okay, so keep those in mind.
[02:31:35.290]All right, so now we've gone through,
[02:31:37.290]now we should be able to understand it.
[02:31:38.830]A NIOSH-approved dust/mist filtering respirators,
[02:31:42.760]so we know NIOSH
[02:31:43.640]is the National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health
[02:31:47.060]with any N, R, P or HE filter.
[02:31:50.770]So that means that
[02:31:54.200]with this particular pesticide,
[02:31:55.970]there apparently aren't any oils involved
[02:31:58.030]because you can even use an N filter.
[02:32:00.230]What they're concerned about is the particulates, okay?
[02:32:03.920]Or you can use the NIOSH-approved dust/mist
[02:32:06.310]filtering respirator with the approval number prefix TC-21C.
[02:32:10.880]So that was the PAPR with the particulate filters.
[02:32:16.290]So that gives you an example
[02:32:19.520]of what a respirator information might be like on a label.
[02:32:24.340]Okay, then another type of respirator
[02:32:27.150]that you might consider is a gas mask with a canister.
[02:32:30.980]That's a TC-14G.
[02:32:33.230]Here you can see it just has one canister
[02:32:35.270]down at the bottom.
[02:32:36.570]These are more expensive.
[02:32:37.710]The canisters themselves are more expensive,
[02:32:40.161]they might last longer.
[02:32:43.650]Then finally, there's the Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus
[02:32:47.540]the SCBA, and here he's got it on his back.
[02:32:50.880]That's a TC-13F.
[02:32:55.593]So now some important things to think about respirators is
[02:32:59.150]when the label says you need to wear respirator,
[02:33:02.050]you do need to wear a respirator.
[02:33:04.490]But first you have to have a medical evaluation.
[02:33:07.810]Wearing a respirator puts stress on your respiratory system
[02:33:11.530]and on your heart.
[02:33:12.910]So you have to have a medical evaluation
[02:33:15.590]to make sure you can handle it.
[02:33:17.410]If you have heart problems, if you have asthma,
[02:33:20.420]you might have to adjust
[02:33:21.990]or wear a different type of respirator.
[02:33:25.610]So after you have the medical evaluation
[02:33:27.730]and are cleared to be able to wear a respirator,
[02:33:30.250]you have to have a fit test.
[02:33:32.090]And what this fit test is,
[02:33:33.430]it's for those tight-fitting respirators, remember,
[02:33:37.570]we talked about.
[02:33:38.650]The fit test
[02:33:39.650]is for you have to have one for every respirator
[02:33:43.610]that you will be using
[02:33:44.760]and it's specific to not only the style and the model
[02:33:47.750]but the size.
[02:33:49.110]So you get fitted for each one and approved.
[02:33:52.540]And again, those loose-fitting,
[02:33:54.810]you don't need that tight seal.
[02:33:56.230]So you don't have to have the fit test.
[02:33:59.875]An example of that is the PAPR with a helmet in the hood.
[02:34:04.570]And here's what it looks like.
[02:34:06.760]The fit test, what it is basically, it's done once a year.
[02:34:10.540]And with all the respirators that you would be using.
[02:34:14.300]And the test would be if you're wearing it,
[02:34:18.240]you should not be able to smell
[02:34:19.830]or taste a chemical substance that is being waved around.
[02:34:25.050]And that might be a bitter taste or a saccharin taste.
[02:34:27.470]So that's what the fit test is.
[02:34:30.080]And finally, after you've gone through those
[02:34:32.160]you have to have annual training.
[02:34:34.230]And the training is to make sure you understand
[02:34:37.020]why you're wearing the respirator, how to put it on,
[02:34:40.530]how to take it off, how to maintain it and how to clean it
[02:34:45.590]and also how to know if it's not working.
[02:34:48.170]If you can taste or smell chemicals,
[02:34:51.740]or if you start feeling sick to your stomach or nauseous,
[02:34:55.790]immediately get out into fresh air
[02:34:58.551]and take off the respirator and check it.
[02:35:01.470]So that's what the training is.
[02:35:02.800]Then again the training is annual.
[02:35:06.563]So now something I wanted to talk about is,
[02:35:10.470]I will do a seal check demonstration in a minute.
[02:35:13.300]Whenever you wear a respirator, you have to do a seal check.
[02:35:16.860]This helps you determine if that respirator
[02:35:20.430]now, you've already been fit tested.
[02:35:21.870]So we know that that size
[02:35:23.550]and that style fits your particular face shape.
[02:35:26.960]Whenever you put it on, you do a seal check
[02:35:29.460]to make sure that you've got it positioned properly
[02:35:32.190]on your face.
[02:35:33.700]And when you do a seal check,
[02:35:36.680]you should be wearing whatever PPE you need.
[02:35:39.390]If you're supposed to wear safety goggles,
[02:35:41.559]or something other eye protection, you should put that on.
[02:35:45.552]And if you do need to wear eye protection,
[02:35:47.350]wear the eye protection
[02:35:48.620]when you're doing the seal check as well.
[02:35:51.730]You do have to be clean-shaven,
[02:35:53.720]so the seal is not compromised.
[02:35:56.050]A beard, beard stubble, mustache, stray hairs,
[02:35:59.260]or even a low hair could prevent that mask
[02:36:01.970]from forming a tight seal against your face.
[02:36:04.980]And that would allow unfiltered air to be inhaled.
[02:36:08.010]And another example, piercings might interfere with that.
[02:36:11.950]Okay, now I'm gonna ask Frank Bright is here,
[02:36:14.630]from the P-set Program.
[02:36:16.090]Frank is gonna demonstrate a seal check
[02:36:18.080]with a half mask respirator.
[02:36:21.210]And first, what he's gonna do
[02:36:22.780]is he's gonna check the respirator for breaks,
[02:36:25.720]or cracks or tears.
[02:36:28.060]And if everything looks good, look okay?
[02:36:31.350]All right, so he's gonna put the respirator on his face,
[02:36:34.120]he's gonna hold it up and pull the top.
[02:36:37.780]Like this one, it's a halo shape.
[02:36:40.050]He's gonna pull that plastic strap over the top of his head
[02:36:42.920]and adjust it, okay?
[02:36:44.840]Next he's gonna connect the straps that go behind his neck
[02:36:48.370]and pull the loose ends of the straps,
[02:36:50.080]so they fit and they're comfortable.
[02:36:51.820]Don't make it too tight, okay?
[02:36:53.630]It has to be comfortable because you might be wearing
[02:36:55.750]that respirator for a couple of hours.
[02:36:58.380]Now, when Frank thinks he has a tight seal,
[02:37:01.480]you think you do?
[02:37:02.350]He's gonna perform a seal check.
[02:37:04.320]And one thing I wanted to say is if the manufacturer
[02:37:06.780]of the respirator has instructions,
[02:37:08.530]follow those instructions for both the seal check
[02:37:11.490]and for putting it on.
[02:37:13.660]But these are basically some general instructions.
[02:37:16.280]So first he's gonna do a positive seal check.
[02:37:19.200]He's gonna cover the exhalation valve
[02:37:21.160]in front of the respirator with his palm
[02:37:23.150]and he's going to gently exhale.
[02:37:26.470]If he can do do this without feeling,
[02:37:29.470]or hearing a rush of air around the faceplate,
[02:37:32.370]he has a good seal.
[02:37:33.370]Does that feel okay?
[02:37:34.480]All right, good.
[02:37:36.190]Then he's gonna do a negative seal check.
[02:37:38.600]He's gonna cover the intake portion
[02:37:40.460]of each of the two cartridges with the palm of his hands
[02:37:42.830]and inhale gently.
[02:37:45.070]And if the seal is good,
[02:37:46.640]he should not be able to pull in any air
[02:37:49.020]through the faceplate and he can't,
[02:37:51.280]okay, and he can't hear it either, great!
[02:37:53.450]So that one fits him well, okay good.
[02:37:57.350]All right, so if either the positive or negative seal check
[02:38:01.680]shows that the seal is not good,
[02:38:03.830]check carefully around the faceplate
[02:38:05.470]for damages or obstructions.
[02:38:07.430]Now, if you have hair in between,
[02:38:08.880]even hair at the top of your face, if that's underneath,
[02:38:12.540]that would also compromise the seal.
[02:38:15.180]So if you do think that it does not have a good seal,
[02:38:18.980]take the face mask off, completely check it over
[02:38:21.650]and put it on again
[02:38:23.720]and keep any hair or anything out of the way
[02:38:26.210]and do the seal check again.
[02:38:28.330]In some cases,
[02:38:30.270]maybe something has changed in terms of your face.
[02:38:33.230]Maybe you've lost weight or gained weight.
[02:38:35.260]You'd have to get another fit test,
[02:38:38.220]if you're going to use a different respirator.
[02:38:41.230]Okay, if you're going to use a different size or style,
[02:38:43.720]I should say.
[02:38:46.170]Okay, and now you have to do a seal check
[02:38:49.030]for those disposable particulate filter masks as well.
[02:38:52.590]So, first check the manufacturer's instructions
[02:38:55.160]for the correct way to put it on, if it has it.
[02:38:57.730]And they might have directions for their preferred method
[02:39:01.230]of doing a seal check.
[02:39:03.200]So Frank's gonna demonstrate.
[02:39:04.920]Using one hand, he'll put the respirator on his face
[02:39:07.600]with the nose piece at his fingertips
[02:39:10.080]and let the straps hang freely, okay.
[02:39:12.660]Then the nose piece
[02:39:13.630]it should cover the bridge of his nose and the respirator is
[02:39:16.780]yep, it's cupping his chin.
[02:39:18.450]Now, pull the top strap over his head
[02:39:21.250]and he's gonna rest that top strap high in the crown.
[02:39:24.943]All right, then pull the bottom strap over his head
[02:39:27.710]and position it around his neck and below his ears, okay?
[02:39:32.070]And he's made sure
[02:39:33.002]he does not have the straps criss-crossed, okay?
[02:39:38.030]Now, make sure that your nose
[02:39:39.990]and mouth are covered by the respirator
[02:39:42.040]and there shouldn't be any hair between your face
[02:39:44.650]and the edges of the respirator.
[02:39:46.880]Now this particular one and others
[02:39:48.530]do have a metal piece along the nose of the bridge.
[02:39:51.780]Yeah, yeah, your nose bridge, your bridge of the nose.
[02:39:54.820]So with both hands,
[02:39:55.722]Frank's going to press his fingertips on the metal band
[02:40:00.140]and he's gonna press down while moving his fingers outward.
[02:40:04.080]And this helps mold that mask for a tighter fit.
[02:40:08.250]Okay, so now you think you've got a pretty good seal?
[02:40:12.290]What he's gonna do is he's gonna put both hands
[02:40:14.430]over the respirator completely
[02:40:17.390]and he's gonna do a positive pressure seal check
[02:40:20.520]by gently exhaling.
[02:40:22.520]And he'll see if the face piece bulges slightly.
[02:40:25.510]And it should,
[02:40:26.560]because we want the air to be trapped in there, okay?
[02:40:31.941]Now, he'll do a negative pressure seal check.
[02:40:34.230]He's gonna take a quick deep breath
[02:40:36.310]to see if the facepiece collapses slightly.
[02:40:39.987]And he should feel the mass tighten against his face.
[02:40:42.170]You do, all right, great.
[02:40:43.970]And so during either test, if air leaks between your face
[02:40:47.340]or the edge of the respirator, if you can see it or feel it,
[02:40:50.860]you don't have a good seal.
[02:40:52.560]Try adjusting everything.
[02:40:54.870]All right, thanks a lot Frank.
[02:40:59.000]Okay, so that is doing a seal check
[02:41:02.870]and we've done that with both the half mask
[02:41:05.910]and the filtering facepiece or the dust masks.
[02:41:09.670]And remember, beards and mustaches
[02:41:11.770]will compromise the seal.
[02:41:14.220]You keep hair away from the seal.
[02:41:18.790]So and again, those are only
[02:41:20.600]for the tight-fitting respirators,
[02:41:22.480]not for the loose-fitting respirators.
[02:41:24.610]So that might be a solution
[02:41:26.300]if you don't want to get rid of your beard,
[02:41:28.180]or if you can't get a good tight fit
[02:41:32.340]that loose-fitting respirators might be a way to go.
[02:41:36.990]All right, let's continue.
[02:41:38.610]Now, we've covered if you're dealing
[02:41:40.690]with concentrates on the pesticide label.
[02:41:44.250]So, let's move on to if you're using spray equipment
[02:41:48.070]mounted on your back.
[02:41:49.160]So the backpack sprayer.
[02:41:51.600]Here it says you must wear coveralls
[02:41:54.130]over a long-sleeved shirt and long pants.
[02:41:57.430]And we've talked about that already.
[02:41:59.440]Remember, it does not have to be chemical-resistant,
[02:42:02.740]but it might actually be a good idea for a backpack sprayer.
[02:42:07.500]Then next you have to wear chemical-resistant gloves.
[02:42:10.210]And now, notice this is the same
[02:42:11.930]as if you were using the concentrate,
[02:42:14.060]any weight of barrier laminate
[02:42:16.090]and 14 mils or more for the other materials.
[02:42:20.440]And this again is for the backpack sprayer.
[02:42:23.740]Then you must wear chemical-resistant footwear plus socks.
[02:42:27.460]That makes sense because often
[02:42:29.090]when you're using a backpack sprayer,
[02:42:30.680]you might be walking through
[02:42:32.070]or near something you've just sprayed.
[02:42:36.010]Okay, then all other applicators exposed to dilute pesticide
[02:42:43.520]of this particular product,
[02:42:45.530]so that would be the applicator, any other handlers,
[02:42:49.090]have to wear long-sleeved shirt and pants
[02:42:51.380]and shoes plus socks.
[02:42:52.800]We consider that standard attire.
[02:42:55.050]If the pesticide label says nothing about PPE,
[02:42:58.590]we strongly recommend wearing long-sleeved shirt and pants
[02:43:01.610]and shoes and socks.
[02:43:03.080]Okay, that's considered standard attire.
[02:43:06.030]Then next you have to wear those chemical-resistant gloves.
[02:43:09.310]The same thing goes, the barrier laminate of any weight,
[02:43:13.250]or 14 mils or heavier of the other materials.
[02:43:18.170]Okay, let's move on now.
[02:43:19.760]We've pretty much covered all this label has to say
[02:43:23.440]Let's see what they have to say
[02:43:24.380]about cleaning and maintaining your equipment.
[02:43:28.170]Here it says, follow manufacturer's instructions
[02:43:30.850]for cleaning and maintaining, and that's always the case
[02:43:34.490]for the particular piece of equipment you're using.
[02:43:37.450]If there are no directions,
[02:43:39.670]for washables use detergent and hot water,
[02:43:42.670]and always when you're doing this type of laundry,
[02:43:45.680]wash your personal protective equipment
[02:43:47.590]separate from your family laundry,
[02:43:49.210]you don't want to cross contaminate.
[02:43:51.700]Here it says discard clothing and other absorbent materials
[02:43:54.630]that have been drenched or heavily contaminated
[02:43:57.170]with this product's concentrate.
[02:43:59.510]Don't try to reuse them, don't try and wash them.
[02:44:02.040]It just takes so many launderings
[02:44:04.720]and you still might get that concentrate out.
[02:44:07.110]It's best for safety purposes just to get rid of it,
[02:44:10.310]just dispose of it.
[02:44:12.810]Okay, now for cleaning respirators.
[02:44:14.420]We'll talk about this a little bit.
[02:44:16.340]The first thing you do to clean a respirator
[02:44:18.560]is take off the filters or cartridges.
[02:44:20.690]They might screw out, or they might just snap out
[02:44:24.240]and set those separately.
[02:44:25.360]You might put those just in their own sealed container.
[02:44:30.140]Then take that mask and wash and rinse it
[02:44:33.500]and try and use a detergent.
[02:44:37.000]And if the detergent isn't a sanitizer,
[02:44:40.160]remember when you're inhaling and exhaling,
[02:44:42.860]there's a potential for fungal spores or bacteria
[02:44:46.160]to build up eventually.
[02:44:48.170]So we want to sanitize it.
[02:44:49.900]You could use two tablespoons of bleach
[02:44:52.460]in a gallon of water.
[02:44:54.180]Then after you're through washing and sanitizing,
[02:44:56.850]make sure you rinse it thoroughly.
[02:44:58.610]You don't want any residues of the detergent
[02:45:01.330]or the bleach water because it might degrade the material
[02:45:06.330]that the respirator is made of,
[02:45:08.800]also your your skin might react to it too.
[02:45:11.890]So rinse it thoroughly.
[02:45:13.560]And then it's important to air dry.
[02:45:16.380]And you can check for cracks or breaks at this time as well.
[02:45:21.190]And air dry, it has to be perfectly dry.
[02:45:23.890]Then you can put it in an airtight bag or container.
[02:45:27.960]You don't want to put it in moist,
[02:45:29.280]because there again you have potential
[02:45:30.800]for bacteria or mold to develop.
[02:45:34.260]So when you're storing it,
[02:45:35.900]it's really important to track the usage of these filters
[02:45:39.570]And so how do you know when to replace them?
[02:45:42.260]First off look at what the manufacturer says.
[02:45:44.730]If the manufacturer says replace after four hours,
[02:45:48.380]If, after 8 hours or 10 hours, follow that.
[02:45:51.290]If the manufacturer doesn't give any time limits
[02:45:54.330]or restrictions, we go by the general rule of 8 hours.
[02:45:58.320]So if you wear it for two hours on Tuesday
[02:46:00.930]and four hours on Thursday, that's six hours,
[02:46:04.040]there's two more hours
[02:46:05.020]you could use that particular set of filters or cartridges
[02:46:08.640]before you'd have to replace.
[02:46:10.760]However, if whenever you're using the filters or cartridges,
[02:46:15.870]if you have difficulty breathing,
[02:46:17.910]or if you can taste or smell chemicals,
[02:46:20.470]that's the time to replace it, okay?
[02:46:22.700]That beats everything.
[02:46:25.800]All right, so finally, for storage,
[02:46:28.420]you might think it's a good idea to store your PPE
[02:46:30.910]right next to the pesticides.
[02:46:32.520]in case there's a problem,
[02:46:33.590]you can grab it and you're right there,
[02:46:35.460]but keep it away from it.
[02:46:36.780]You wouldn't want any vapors or any dust
[02:46:39.280]to contaminate your PPE.
[02:46:41.530]So store them separately from the pesticides
[02:46:44.370]and also keep your PPE out of direct sunlight
[02:46:47.450]and out of extreme temperatures, extreme hot or cold.
[02:46:51.290]Because again, you don't want the PPE to wear down.
[02:46:54.890]And so that's all I have to talk about for PPE.
[02:46:57.720]Thanks a lot.
(upbeat instrumental music)
[02:47:03.790]Now, that you've heard from a variety of experts
[02:47:06.630]and on a variety of topics,
[02:47:08.350]we'll go over some last-minute paperwork details
[02:47:10.900]for this training session.
[02:47:13.230]The $90 state licensing fee
[02:47:16.150]covers you as a commercial applicator for three years.
[02:47:19.560]It's paid on a per person basis, not a per category basis.
[02:47:23.860]And you need to already have a pesticide license
[02:47:26.810]to be able to recertify.
[02:47:29.850]There's no fee if you're a non-commercial applicator.
[02:47:34.410]If you would like to become a commercial applicator
[02:47:36.830]are a non-commercial applicator,
[02:47:38.850]all you need to do is pay the 90-dollar fee
[02:47:41.350]and you'll be switched to a commercial applicator.
[02:47:45.560]So once you have completed the bubble form application
[02:47:49.270]that gets mailed into NDA
[02:47:51.180]and it will provide a billing invoice to you.
[02:47:55.200]And then once that's been paid, the applicator,
[02:47:58.820]that gets mailed into the NDA.
[02:48:02.620]Once they receive payment of your license fee,
[02:48:06.330]the NDA will mail you your license card.
[02:48:09.140]If you have any more questions dealing with the NDA
[02:48:12.770]and the licensing processing,
[02:48:14.630]you can call 402-471-2394
[02:48:27.595]So covering just
[02:48:29.890]a lot of different responsible techniques today,
[02:48:32.230]we'll just kind of touch on a few
[02:48:34.220]as just a last-minute reminder.
[02:48:36.130]Using IPM, Integrated Pest Management,
[02:48:38.430]is a great idea across the board.
[02:48:40.930]You want to always make sure to do that.
[02:48:43.140]Read and follow the label directions.
[02:48:44.850]We can't express enough how important the label is.
[02:48:49.290]It is the law.
[02:48:51.640]Know what you're applying, be aware of your surroundings.
[02:48:54.600]Knowledge is a very powerful tool
[02:48:56.940]in applying pesticides in a safe manner.
[02:49:00.710]Make sure you use your proper PPE
[02:49:02.590]according to the label when applying
[02:49:04.750]and handling pesticides.
[02:49:06.670]Remember that not only can you be affected
[02:49:09.350]by mishandling the pesticides,
[02:49:10.840]but you can affect the hell of your family,
[02:49:14.060]friends and neighbors as well.
[02:49:16.920]If you have any more questions about pesticide safety,
[02:49:19.760]you can contact the UNL Pesticide Safety Education Program
[02:49:31.080]or visit us at pested.unl.edu
(upbeat instrumental music)
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